ISLAMIC ORIGINS and ABRAHAMIC FAITHS: Analysed

· Abrahamic Faiths, Christianity, Islam
Authors

Abrahamic Faith Myths Analysed

(9337 words)

Summary:
(1) ABRAHAM died 324 years before Moses saw the Burning Bush and therefore could only be aware of the gods of the Pharaohs. Thus Abraham was a pagan, not a Judaist, Christian or Muslim forefather.
(2) Ishmael tribe had long become extinct, 1100 years before, when the Quuraish tribe were still isolated in Yemen and could not have been descendant of Ishmael. So Mohammed’s claims were incorrect.
(3) In 610 CE when Mohammad began proselytising his beliefs, his tribe, the tribe of his parents, worshipped the similar gods of the Pharaohs i.e. polytheism, and with the Quarish tribe, their Chief god was Allah, the Moon god. The symbol, Crescent Moon and star stands over most mosques today.
(4a) Judaism was born when Moses saw his visions on Mount Sinai in 1214 BCE. Not before.
(4b) Christianity was born when Jesus rejected the “Fences” to the Torah, and was excluded from Judaism.
(4c) Islam was born in 610 CE when Mohammad began proselytising 1924 years after Moses’ visions.

Contents

Link



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THE BLACK STONE OF KA’ABA

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The Ka’aba, Mecca

ABRAHAM (c. 1996 BC-1821BC): FATHER OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY & ISLAM? (3 billion descendants)

Islam’s claims to antiquity through their genetic origins through their Ishmaelite connections and to Abraham does raise many concerns of the religious significance of this claim. So we will have to try to begin with historical evidence. What are the origins of Ishmaelites? [1a]

Abraham and his wife Sarah were not able to produce any children for a long time. But Abraham went with Hagar, his wife’s Egyptian maid/slave, and produced a son, Ishmael. It was an accepted practice for Arabs to have extra-marital sex with their slaves. Ishmael was born when Abraham was 86 years of age. However, as foretold in the Old Testament, Sarah who was also Abraham’s wife and half sister [1] , eventually produces a son, Isaac, when Abraham was 100 years of age and Sarah was 90 years old. [2]  (To modern day science this defies the probability of the menopause in Sarah and so there are probably some inaccuracies with dates in the narratives. Or these are old wives tales.)

Although Jew and Arabs were descendants of Abraham, Abraham himself was neither a Jew nor an Arab.[2]  Abraham was a Semite and a Hebrew, but not an Israelite or a Jew because these identities did not exist in his time. The first Jews began with Judah who was the Great Grandson of Abraham. [2]

Abraham, a Semite, born in Ur, from where he and his family set out on their nomadic travels and was the beginning of the history of the Hebrews and the Jews. As Abraham travels from Ur through Mesopotamia in Canaan the land promised by God to Abraham’s descendants. This covenant is one of the most important in the story of the Hebrews. [3]

Ishmael and the 12 Tribes

When Sarah noticed that Ishmael was envious of Isaac by insulting and mocking his 1/2 brother, Isaac at his weaning ceremony, (Genesis21:8-9), Sarah intuitively knew it was time to banish Ishmael and Hagar before real trouble ensued. Sarah told Abraham, “Cast out this slave woman with her son; for the son of this slave woman shall not be heir with my son Isaac.” (Genesis 21:10 RSV)

In spite of Ishmael’s rebellious personality, Abraham opposed Sarah’s demands. Then god intervened and said to Abraham,

“Be not displeased because of the lad (Ishmael) and because of your “slave” woman; whatever Sarah says to you do as she tells you, for through Isaac shall your descendants be named. And I will make a nation of the son of the slave woman also, because he is your offspring.” (Genesis 21:12-13 RSV)

And so Hagar and Ishmael were sent away. They lived in the wilderness of Paran, and his mother took a wife for him from the land of Egypt.” (Genesis 21:20-21 RSV).  Hagar was originally a slave from Egypt. [2] So, as Hagar was Egyptian, and Hagar had chosen an Egyptian wife for Ishmael, his progeny would be 3/4 Egyptian at that point in time. Did this connection influence the perception of the descendants of Ishmael? The period that we are relating to (1600 BCE) is during the rule of the Pharaohs, and the culture of Egypt at that time. What race were predominant in Egypt at that time? What was Hagar’s racial type? What was Ishmael’s wife racial type and what was her religious cultural background?

Egyptians consider themselves Arabs, Yet, Hagar and Ishmael, her son, were Egyptians. But were they Arabs or were they Semites? Ishmael is of course 1/2 Semitic as his father was Abraham. So, an Arab is genetically descended from Shem (Semitic). Noah was the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. According to beliefs, Semitic people descended from Shem, Black people from Ham, and white people from Japheth that included the Persians who are not Semitic. Surely the last sentence must have been allegorical rather than literal.

Abraham was 9 generations after Shem (Genesis 11), and had two sons, Isaac and Ishmael. Both Arabs and Jews believe that Arabs descended for Ishmael and the Jews descended fro Isaac. Although Both had a Semitic father, Abraham, Ishmael’s mother was Egyptian, and later Ishmael’s wife was Egyptian, and that could explain the direction of the genealogies.

Isaac had two sons, Jacob and Esau. And Jacob had 12 sons, one of who was Judah. Judah’s tribe were responsible for the name “Jew” and Judaism. Esau formed the Edomite clan.

Arab is actually an Assyrian word meaning nomads or camel herders, and referred to anyone living in the Arabian Peninsular during the periods of 9 to 1 BCE. However, today it means anyone whose language is Arabic and considers themselves of Arabic descent. Yet Arabs are a divers people connected by history, language, tradition, religion, geography or culture.

The predominant population of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen are all Arabs. And Today’s Arabs are mainly Muslims. [11]

Abraham, Hagar, Ishmael Era

In order to get a proper perspective of the minds of Abraham, Hagar and Ishmael and his descendants we have to examine the era in which they lived and their environment.

(1) Abraham  born  c.1813 BCE and died 1638 BCE (175 years)

(2) Ishmael born c. 1727 BCE and died 1590 BCE (137 years)

This period spans (1) The Middle Kingdom 2040 BCE- 1640 BCE (11-14 dynasties) with the prominence of King Mentuhotep in the 11th dynasty, through to the (2) Second Intermediary Dynasties 1640 BCE-1532 BCE  with the Hyksos Rulers in the 15-16 dynasties and the Theban Kings in the 17th dynasty. [12]

In order to understand the evolution of the 12 tribes of Ishmael we have to views their environment. They all lived in a organised community ruled By Pharaohs.

The Egyptian community had  more than 2000 gods but there were some gods like Ra, the sun god, who was worshipped by all Egyptians throughout the country. Ra was the main god, but here is a list of others.

Ra – The Sun God, the one who was there at the beginning.

Amun – the Father of life who later combined with Ra to become Amun-Ra the all important State God.

Osisris, Isis, Seth & Nephthys came from the Creation of the Universe.

Ptah created Heaven and Earth.

Sekhmet was the Wife of Ptah.

Seth murdered his Brother Osiris by trapping him in a coffin and then threw him in the Nile.

Nephthys as Sister and Wife to Seth.

Isis was Osiris’ Sister and Wife and sometime after his death was able to revive him long enough to conceive Horus.

Osiris was chosen to judge dead mortals who wanted to follow him to Heaven. He sat in judgement as their heart was put in the balance against a feather of the Goddess

Maat, who stood for truth.

Horus a Falcon, avenged his Father Osiris.

Thoth was given the Moon and appointed assistant to the Sun God, Ra.

Isis together with Horus, Anubis and Thoth were able to reassemble the previously dismembered parts of the body of Osiris, and add a phallus (the original having bveen eaten by fish,) wrapped it in bandages and thereby created the first Mummy.

Hathor, the Goddess of Love, Joy and Music first suckled Horus then later became his wife. [13]

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Ra,The Sun God

Abraham, and Ishmael and all those who came before Moses (1393 BCE-1272 BCE) lived in a polytheist world and must  be regarded as pagan. However, Moses saw a revelation(1314 BCE):

Exodus 3:1-6; Exodus 3:14 (King James Version)

King James Version (KJV)

Exodus 3:1-6

Exodus 3
1Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.
2And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.
3And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.
4And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.
5And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.
6Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

Exodus 3:14
14And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

Then Moses brings down the tablets from Mount Sinai:

“The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that, according to Judeo-Christian tradition, were authored by God and given to Moses on the mountain referred to as “Mount Sinal” (Exodus 19:23)  or “Horeb” (Deuteronomy 5:2) in the form of two stone tablets.” in the form of two stone tablets. ” [14]

There is no logical explanation how Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were up to this point in time, obviously like everyone around them in Egypt, pagan polytheist worshippers under the rule of also polytheist Pharaohs,  be suddenly transformed to worship the God who appeared to Moses on Mount Sinai. This revelation to Moses marks the introduction of the monotheist God of Judaism at the burning Bush, 1314 BCE.

However, it is believed that Ishmael, whose mother Hagar was Egyptian, and who married an Egyptian to beget 12 sons, lived an Egyptian cultural and religious way of life, i.e. polytheistic. There was no reason for Ishmael and his descendants to live differently to the people of the region. However, both Jew and Muslims believe that Ishmael was the father of the Arabs of Egypt.

” Biblical Usage Of The Word “Pharaoh”

Some examples of the usage of the word Pharaoh are presented below, and are taken from the stories of Abraham, Joseph and Moses.

PHARAOH DURING THE TIME OF ABRAHAM

According to the book of Genesis, the king who was a contemporary of Abraham was called Pharaoh, and this title is used six times in Genesis 12:10-20.[1] Three examples are illustrated below:

But the Lord inflicted serious diseases on Pharaoh and his house hold because of Abram’s wife Sarai. [Gen 12:17]

So Pharaoh summoned Abram. “What have you done to me?” he said/ “Why didn’t you tell me she was your wife?” [Gen 12:18]

Then Pharaoh gave orders about Abram to his men, and they sent him on his way, with his wife and everything he had. [Gen 12:20]

PHARAOH DURING THE TIME OF JOSEPH

According to the book of Genesis, the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph’s time was also referred as the Pharaoh. The King is addressed as the pharaoh ninety times. [2] The following examples are taken from Genesis 41:

So Pharaoh sent for Joseph, and he was quickly brought from the dungeon. When he had shaved and changed his clothes, he came before Pharaoh. [Gen41:14]

Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are on and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do.” [Gen41:25]

Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from Phaaraoh’s presence and travelled throughout Egypt. [Gen41:46]

PHARAOH DURING THE TIME OF MOSES

According to the book of Exodus, the king who ruled Egypt in Moses’ time was also referred to as Pharaoh. He is addressed as Pharaoh 128 times.[3] Three examples are illustrated below:

When Pharaoh heard of this, he tried to kill Moses, but Moses fled from Pharaoh and went to live in Midian….[Exodus 2:15]

Then the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet.” [Exodus7:1]

When Pharaoh’s horses, and chariots and horsemen went into the sea, the Lord brought the waters of the sea back over them, but the Israelites walked through the sea on dry land. [Exodus15:19]

Thus, for all kings, the contemporaries of Abraham, Joseph and Moses, the Bible uses the term “Pharaoh” to address the kings of Egypt.” [15]  The above has been submitted to confirm Biblical references of Abraham and the Pharaohs and the religious customs of the people at them point in time.

It is abundantly clear that in Genesis and Exodus the domination of the Pharaohs was apparent and it was a pagan culture. Even in the time of Moses (1393-1272 BCE)  the Pharaoh ordered the genocide of all male Jewish babies to control their increase in numbers, and then they attempted to kill Moses when he had survived this order. [Exodus 2:15] The above does not necessarily convey a Lord of Moses, but the Lord of the pagan faith, i.e. Ra.

Hagar

There are several conflicting stories of Hagar but I will refer to the predominant Islamic version of Hagar that hold logical credibility. According to Qisas Al-Anbiya, and Islamic collection of fold lore,  Hagar was the daughter of King Maghreb, a descendant of the prophet Salih. However her father was killed in a battle with Pharaoh Dhu I-‘arsh and she was captured as a slave. She was then appointed as mistress of the Pharaoh’s slaves and allowed privileges. But when the Pharaoh was converted by Abraham to his faith, the Pharaoh presented Hagar as a maid/slave to Sarah as a recompense or reward. Hajar is Arabic and comes from Ha ajruka meaning, “here is your recompense.”

However, Hagar gave birth to Ishmael fathered by Abraham and this caused strife between Hagar and Sarah. Sarah wanted Hagar and Ishmael expelled from the household. Abraham, under god’s directions, took Hagar and son to Paran in the wilderness of the desert outside of Mecca, and left her  under a tree with food and water.

Soon, Hagar ran out of water and in her search climbed two mountains seven times, before the angel Gabriel came to her and caused a spring to appear. This spring is today known as the Zamzam well which is near Mecca.

Today, Hagar’s search for water has developed into an Islamic rite during the Hajj and is known as “sa’i. During the two Muslim pilgrimages (the Hajj and Umra), pilgrims are required to walk between the two hills, Safa and Marwa, seven times in a ritual to remember Hagar’s desperate search for water for her son Ishmael.  The rite symbolises the celebration of motherhood in Islam as well as the determination of women.

Muslims drink from the well of ZamZam as part of their ritual and will take some of this sacred water back with them. [10]

This tradition during the Hajj is a tradition that began some 2500 years years before Mohammad introduced Islam and is a pagan ritual.

The 12 Tribes of Ishmael were [4] :

(1) Nabajoth                                      (2) Mibsam                                (3) Massa

(4) Jetur                                          (5) Kedar                                   (6) Mishma                                 (7) Hadad                                       (8) Naphish                                (9) Adbeel

(10) Dumah                                  (11) Tema                                 (12) Kedemah

Descendants of Abraham follow 2 lines of heritage and race and are known as “Banu Ismail” and “Banu Israel.”  “Banu Ismail” is centered at Mekka, and “Banu Israel” is centered at Bait-ul-Maqdis. The Al-Quraish tribe of which Muhammad and his parents belonged to were descended from the “Banu Ismail’s heritage. Mohammad was born of the Quraish tribe in April, 570 AD. [5]

In Islamic tradition Ishmaelites are known as Banu Ismail.

The other heritage and race was “Banu Israel” is attributed to Abraham’s legitimate son Isaac.

Ishmael is considered as the ancestor of the Arab people by both Jews and Muslims. This implies the genetic ancestry Arabs had with Ishmael but unconnected with any religious affiliations.

TIME SCALE:

Abraham born c.1813 BCE and died 1638 BCE (I75 Years)

Sarah born c. 1803

Ishmael was born 1727 BCE- died 1590 BCE (137 years)

    Ishmael was born when Abraham was 86 years of age,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishmael

Isaac was born 1713 BCE and died 1533 BCE

    Isaac was born when Abraham was 100 years old (Gen 21:5) and Sarah was 90 years of age (Gen 17:17)

Moses born 1393 BCE and died 1272 BCE (180 years)

Moses sees burning Bush 1314 BCE

Mohammad born 570 CE died 630 CE(60 years). Began his preaching Islam in 610 CE (when 40 years old)

The fundamental doctrines of Judaism was transmitted to Moses from the visions he received with the burning bush in 1314 BC, marking the beginnings of Judaism and its doctrines. It must be concluded that prior to 1314 BC  the tribal people of this region were pagans practising either paganism, polytheism, or atheism. Judaism did not exist. Neither was Christianity nor Islam, or monotheism was heard of. However, there was evidence that early pagan worship existed and the existence of the Ka’aba in Mecca was proof that Pagan worship was present and well supported.

Islamic traditions believe that Abraham and Ishmael built the foundations of the Kaaba. (They were raising the foundations of the House,” Qur’an 2:l27) Islamic traditions believe that the Ka’aba was first built by Adam, and that Abraham and Ishmael rebuilt the new Ka’aba on the old foundations. [6]

Accepting the above, this means that Abraham and Ishmael were building the polytheist pagan alter of worship upon which sat all the 120 gods or more that were venerated by those worshipers. This would have related to an earlier form of the Quarish worship of “Hubal,” known as “Al-ilah, and worshipped alongside Al-illah would be his three daughters, al-Lat, al-Uzza, and al-Manat.

In order to appease and to try to win over the Quraish elders to Islam, Mohammad paid obeisance to all those 4 gods (Koran 53:19), but later retracted when Allah showed him the error of his ways. He abrogated those verses and declared that Satan had deceived him into submission. the abrogated verses included Sura’s 13:39, 16:101, Vol 2:106. While 41:37 disapproves of the sun and moon worship. [7]

By this act of appeasement to the Quraish elders, Mohammad had compromised his faith and Allah, for it is said in the Koran that there is but only one Allah:

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

[112.1] Say: He, Allah, is One.

[112.2] Allah is He on Whom all depend.

[112.3] He begets not, nor is He begotten.

            {Implying he had no son (Jesus), nor is he a son(Jesus) of Allah}

[112.4] And none is like Him.

           {He is the ONLY Allah (supreme)}

Picture of the Kaaba taken in 1880. Islamic traditions hold that the Kaaba was rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael.

The Al-Quraish Tribe Religious Beliefs

The Prophet Mohammad’s parents and family were of the Quraish tribe. The Quraish tribe worshipped Al-ilah. Al-ilah was accepted as the chief god of all the tribal 360 pagan gods of Arabia on the site of the Ka’aba in Mecca. Acompanying Al-ilah were also the three daughters of Al-ilah, namely, al-Lat, al-Uzza, and al-Manat. Mohammad was brought up to accept these Quraish gods, the gods of his parents and his tribe. Other Arabic tribes worshipped different gods, hence 360 gods perched on top of the Ka’aba.

Astral Religions

“In Arabia, the sun god was viewed as a female goddess and the moon as the male god. As has been pointed out by many scholars such as Alfred Guilluame, the moon god was called by various names, one of which was Allah!

The name Allah was used as the personal name of the moon god, in addition to other titles that could be given to him.

Allah, the moon god, was married to the sun goddess. Together they produced three goddesses who were called “the daughters of Allah.” These three goddesses were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.

The daughters of Allah, along with Allah and the sun goddess were viewed as “high” gods. That is, they were viewed as being at the top of the pantheon of Arabian deities.

“Along with Allah, however, they worshipped a host of lesser gods and “daughters of Al-lah” (Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:61)”.

The Crescent Moon symbol

The symbol of the worship of the moon god in Arabian culture and elsewhere throughout the Middle East was the crescent moon.

Archaeologists have dug up numerous statues and hieroglyphic inscriptions in which a crescent moon was seated on top of the head of the deity to symbolize the worship of the moon god. In the same fashion as the sun is pictured above the Egyptian deity.

While the moon was generally worshiped as a female deity in the Ancient Near East, the Arabs viewed it as a male deity.

The Gods of the Quraysh

The Quraysh tribe into which Muhammad was born was particularly devoted to Allah, the moon god, and especially to Allah’s three daughters who were viewed as intercessors between the people and Allah.

The worship of the three goddesses, Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat, played a significant role in the worship at the Kabah in Mecca. The first two daughters of Allah had names which were feminine forms of Allah.

The literal Arabic name of Muhammad’s father was Abd-Allah. His uncle’s name was Obied-Allah. These names reveal the personal devotion that Muhammad’s pagan family had to the worship of Allah, the moon god.

Praying Toward Mecca

An Allah idol was set up at the Kebah along with all the other idols. The pagans prayed toward Mecca and the Kabah because that is where their gods were stationed.

It only made sense to them to face in the direction of their god and then pray. Since the idol of their moon god, Allah, was at Mecca, they prayed toward Mecca.

The worship of the moon god extended far beyond the Allah-worship in Arabia. The entire fertile crescent was involved in the worship of the moon.

This, in part, explains the early success of Islam among Arab groups that traditionally had worshiped the moon god.

The use of the crescent moon as the symbol for Islam which is placed on the flags of Islamic nations and on the top of mosques and minarets is a throwback to the days when Allah was worshiped as the moon god in Mecca.

While this may come as a surprise to many Christians who have wrongly assumed that Allah was simply another name for the God of the Bible, educated Muslims generally understand this point.”  [8a]

Arab Racism

According to the literal Arabic translation of Sura 3:106, 107, on Judgment Day, only people with white faces will be saved. People with black faces will be damned.

A Carnal Heaven

The Quran promises a heaven full of wine and free sex (Suras 2:25; 4:57; 11:23; 47:15).

If drunkenness and gross immorality is sinful on earth, how is it right in Paradise?

The Quran’s picture of paradise is exactly what a seventh-century pagan Arab would have thought wonderful.

The carnal concept of a harem of beautiful women and all the wine you can drink is in direct conflict with the spirituality and holiness of the Biblical concept of heaven (Revelation 22:12-17).

Conclusions

While the devout Muslim believes with all of his heart that the rituals and doctrines of Islam are entirely heavenly in origin and thus cannot have any earthly sources, Middle East scholars have demonstrated beyond all doubt that every ritual and belief in Islam can be traced back to pre-Islamic Arabian culture.

In other words Muhammad did not preach anything new. Everything he taught had been believed and practiced in Arabia long before he was ever born. Even the idea of “only one God” was borrowed from the Jews and the Christians.  [8b]

Long before the birth of Muhammad, the Ka’aba in Mecca was known as “Beit Allah (House of God) and pagan Arabs worshipped Al-ilah, centuries before the coming of Islam. Mohammad, however, impressed with the sophistication of Judaism and Christianity with their practice of monotheism and their apparent success, was determined to adopt their principles of worship, believing he would be equally successful. He had made an effort to learn as much as he could about Judaism and Christianity and adopt it to suit his new Arabic cult. But he did not learn too well all the intricacies of Judaism and Christianity and only picked up on some aspects of these religions, of which the main doctrine was monotheism, so different to what the Arabs had always practised.

So when Muhammad gained enough following and was more confident of his position, he asserted his authority and preached his Islamic creed, “La-ilaha illa-Llahu” which meant “there is no god but Al-ilah.” He thus transformed a polytheistic religion to that of a monotheistic religion. Muhammad eventually prohibited the worship of any or the other 359 tribal gods of the Arabs. With this act he eventually convinced the Muslims that Al-illah (Allah), was the “one and only Allah (god) of the Universe.”

But according to the Quraish tribe, Al-ilah was their chief god of the Ka’aba. But their chief god addressed as Al-ilah was also known as “Hubal” who is also the “Moon god,” and the father of al-Lat, al-Uzza, and al-Manat. Hubal has never been challenged by Muhammad in any of his scriptures (Koran) or discourse (Hadiths). He grew up accepting Hubal as Al-illah. [8] Thus Mohammad transposed Hubal(The Quraish Moon God, Allahu) into the Allah of Islam. Allah became synonymous with the Ka’aba, the Black stone in Mecca. Muslims kiss this black stone, the Ka’aba.

Paradoxically, Muslims today deny the correlation of the concept of Allah with that of Hubal, the Moon God of the Quraish tribe, even though Islamologists through research and archeological findings confirm such a correlation conclusive. This is because Islamists want to distance Islam from their origins of a polytheist beginnings. [8]

ALLAH vis-a-vis HUBAL-the Moon God of Pagans

Following the discussions above let us categorise some questions and answers regarding Islamic beliefs.

1.  Did Pagan Arabs, pre-Islam, worship 360 gods on the ka’aba? YES.

2.  Did Pagan Arabs, worship the sun, moon and star gods? YES.

3.  Did the Pagan Arabs build temples to the Moon god? YES.

4.  Did different Arab tribes give different names to their Moon god? YES.

5.  What are some of the names given to the moon god? Hubul, Sin, Ilumquh, Al-ilah.

6.  Was the Moon god addressed as al-ilah? YES.

7.  Was the word Allah a derivation from al-ilah? YES.

8.  Was al-ilah considered the supreme god of all? YES.

9.  Was al-ilah worshiped at the Ka’aba? YES.

10. Was al-ilah only one of the 360 gods on the Ka’aba in Mecca? YES.

11. Was the idol of Hubul place on top of the ka’aba? YES.

12. Pre-Islam, was Hubul, i.e. al-ilah, worshipped as the Moon god? YES.

13. Was the Ka’aba considered the alter (House) of Hubul, al-ilah? YES.

14. Was Allah eventually substituted for al-ilah, or Hubul? YES.

15. Do Muslims consider the Ka’aba the House of Allah? YES.

16. Did pagan Arabs accept that al-Lat, al-Uzza, and al Manat were goddesses and the daughters of Hubul, the Moon god to be worshiped at the Ka’aba? YES.

17. Did the Quran, Surah 53:19-20, instruct Muslims to worship al-Lat, al-Uzza,and Manat? YES.

18. Were those verses abrogated by Mohammad? YES. This is referred to as “The Satanic Verses.” [9]

Some similarities between Pagan and Islamic rites

(1)  Pagan Arabs practised pilgrimage to the Ka’aba, Mecca, annually.

(2)  Pagan Arabs observed The Fast of Ramadan.

(3) The Pagan Arabs paid homage by circling the Ka’aba 7 times.

(4)  The Pagan Arabs paid homage by kissing the Black Stone of Ka’aba.

(5)  The Pagan Arabs shaved their heads as atonement.

(6) The Pagan Arabs made animal sacrifices to their gods.

(7)  The Pagan Arabs ran up and down two hills 7 times at Mecca.

(8)  The Pagan Arabs threw pebbles at the pillars representing Satan at Mecca.

(9)  The Pagan Arabs snorted water in and out of their noses as a cleansing act.

(10) The Pagan Arabs prayed several time a day facing Mecca.

(11) The Pagan Arabs practised the act of giving alms as a duty.

(12) The Pagan Arabs observed Friday as their day of worship.

All the above rituals were rituals of pagan Arabs long before the appearance of Islam but were adopted and incorporated into Islam. Whether these rituals were accepted and taken for granted by Mohammad who was brought up in thei culture of the Quraish tribe, or whether Muhammad incorporated these customs to appease his tribe is a moot point.  It is clear that these pagan rituals and observances have little or no connection to Judiasm or Christianity but is rooted in Arabic tribal paganism and is today part and parcel of Islam. [9]

Quranic Myths Analysed: Mohammad’s Ishmaeli Roots

Judaism, Biblical and Koranic religious texts and ideologies base it on ancient scriptures and the interpretations and translations of religious scholars. Most of these scriptures were also written many hundreds of years after the event, depending upon the verbal transmissions of information from one generation to another. So much depended upon that accuracy of such memories, and also upon the interpretations of the story tellers as well as upon the scribe’s ability to interpret such information that would conform to the laws of god, to the laws of natural science, as well as to the whims and fancies of the patrons of the scriptures.  Therefore, there is a high probability for inaccuracies to creep into religious text due partly to the language skills of the scribes and also to the scientific knowledge of that era, but especially the reliability of oral transmissions.

Genealogies

While the Old Testament and the New Testament are records of the early Semitic  Judaism and Christian peoples the Quran does not have any genealogies; The Arabs relied on their genealogies and their history and their knowledge of the Quran on memory [6] implying that memory is less infallible to the written word used by Jews and Christians. This is possibly because most of the early Muslims were desert Bedouins who were largely illiterate.

Hence dependence on memory, and word of mouth to transmit genealogy and Koranic ideology is a precarious means of maintaining accuracy and reliability. Most people would probably manage to 3 to 4 generations of their ancestry, let alone keeping track of 95 generations Between Abraham and Mohammad.

It is essentially because of the illiteracy of the nomadic tribes of the desert that the Koran could only be taught by rote in its original language of Arabic. Whether much of the subtlety of the meanings of the verses were understood or not is a matter of conjecture hence the importance of the interpretation of the Imams was of great importance. However, the level of education of an Imam was very limited, even today, as the requirements to become an Imam only required an educational level equivalent to our modern secondary school, conducted in a Madrassa. It was probably a very much lower standard during the time of Mohammad.  [17] 

Because most of the dissemination of Islamic knowledge is oral and that it is accepted by all Muslims that the Koran is the irrefutable and immutable word of Allah, that Islam has to stay within the confines of the 7th Century ideologies. Muslims also believe:

1. All Arabs are the descendants of Abraham through Ishmael. [18a]

2. Ishmael and his descendants were included in the covenant God

made with Abraham.

3. Since the Abrahamic covenant included the land of Israel, the

Arabs have a legitimate claim to it. [18]

This may appear to be a moot point but it is critical in the appreciation of genealogies of the Abrahamic faiths. It is essential here to play close attention of Biblical texts, Koranic texts, and the relevant dates of these claims. The Old Testament and the New Testament are basically the history and testimony of the Judea and the early Christian peoples while the Koran spell out the commands of Allah in determining how a Muslim should conduct his life as a Muslim. Genealogy is not and essential part of the Koran, although the Koran makes many references and uses the Old Testament to validate their claims of antiquity.

Claims to be Descendants of Abraham

Moses receives God’s Commandments for the Jewish people

At great lengths above,  the environment and religions practised at the time Abraham and Isaac lived Egypt was the time of the time of King Mentuhotep in the 11th dynasty of the Pharaohs, through to the Hyksos Rulers and through to the Theban Kings. People of that period were polytheists. Monotheism was an unknown word or concept. The people were pagan until Moses saw the “Burning Bush” and saw the vision of God on Mount Sinai. (Exodus 3:1-6). Here, revealed with any fanfare was Exodus 3:6,

“Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.”

and in Exodus 3:13-16

“And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?

And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, the LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.

Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt.”

With one pronouncement from God to Moses, on Mount Sinai, and Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob was suddenly transformed into the world of monotheism and to accept the word of the God of Moses. Moses who was the first Semite to have received the messages from God, and was in fact the originator of Judaism from that point in time, i.e. 1314 BCE. as he introduced the basic laws of Judaism with the tablets. To back-date the claim that Abraham worshipped this same god of Moses is to backdate and wipe out some 500 years of paganism among those early Semites. But not to highlight this ingenious pronouncement which provided the antiquity, the respectability, and and 500 years of lineage would be to ignore this profound declaration.

Moses and the Ten Commandments

The revelation of the ten commandments reflected upon the dire need, at that time, for a new philosophy of life from that observed by the Pharaohs and their pagan polytheism. It was apparent that the pagan rituals were cruel, repressive, and brutal and Moses was that philosopher who with the guidance to his visions on Mount Sinai expressed the crying need for reformation. Every one of those 10 commandments cries out to what was wrong with that Egyptian society at that time that needed reform. If you will study each commandment you will appreciate the purpose of that reform. [The evolution of such philosophies also occurred when Confucius also preached his philosophies when I observed the mismanagement and cruelty of the Emperors and the break down of society in his time. But they were said as words of wisdom of a sage and not as a religious doctrine.] Let us examine a version different to the usual Exodus 20:2-17,  or Deuteronomy 3: 6-21 some of which we are quite familiar with, but look as another way of stating the same commandments as in Exodus 34:11-27

11 Observe what I command you today. See, I will drive out before you the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

12 Take care not to make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land to which you are going, or it will become a snare among you.

13 You shall tear down their altars, break their pillars, and cut down their sacred poles

14 (for you shall worship no other god, because the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God).

15 You shall not make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, for when they prostitute themselves to their gods and sacrifice to their gods, someone among them will invite you, and you will eat of the sacrifice.

16 And you will take wives from among their daughters for your sons, and their daughters who prostitute themselves to their gods will make your sons also prostitute themselves to their gods.

17 You shall not make cast idols.

18 You shall keep the festival of unleavened bread. For seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month of Abib; for in the month of Abib you came out from Egypt.

19 All that first opens the womb is mine, all your male livestock, the firstborn of cow and sheep.

20 The firstborn of a donkey you shall redeem with a lamb, or if you will not redeem it you shall break its neck. All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem.

No one shall appear before me empty-handed.

21 For six days you shall work, but on the seventh day you shall rest; even in ploughing time and in harvest time you shall rest.

22 You shall observe the festival of weeks, the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the festival of ingathering at the turn of the year.

23 Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord God, the God of Israel.

24 For I will cast out nations before you, and enlarge your borders; no one shall covet your land when you go up to appear before the Lord your God three times in the year.

25 You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven, and the sacrifice of the festival of the passover shall not be left until the morning.

26 The best of the first fruits of your ground you shall bring to the house of the Lord your God.

You shall not boil a kid in its mother’s milk.

27 The Lord said to Moses: Write these words; in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel. [27]

Mohammad’s claim to the same Abrahamic roots

All Muslims believe:

1. All Arabs are the descendants of Abraham through Ishmael. [18a]

2. Ishmael and his descendants were included in the covenant God

made with Abraham.

3. Since the Abrahamic covenant included the land of Israel, the

Arabs have a legitimate claim to it. [18]

The most accepted view that Ishmael, the son of Abraham, was the father of Islam is stated here:

“The Prophet Ishmael (Ismail) was a Messenger and a Prophet (of Allah); he was the son of Abraham and Hagar (Hagar was a slave of Sarah, Abraham’s wife.) When Abraham was young he received a dream from God (Allah) in which he was slaughtering (sacrificing) Ishmael. Although this was extremely difficult for Abraham to do, he proceeded anyway in to the desert to sacrifice Ishmael. When Abraham told his son what God(Allah) planned, Ishmael offered himself willingly saying, Father, do what thou art commanded; thou wilt find me, if Allah please(s) steadfast. But God (Allah) made Abraham’s knife dull like wax and Abraham was unable to shed Ishmael’s blood. God (Allah) saw both Abraham’s tears and his devotion and, therefore, God (Allah) caused a ram to appear for Abraham to sacrifice instead of Ishmael. (Koran 37: 99-113)

When Ishmael grew older god(Allah) called on Abraham and his son to go to Mecca and rebuild the mosque (Kaba) there.  (Koran 2:127) The original shrine, built by Adam, was displaced during the flood. Upon its completion, Ishmael settled…..in [the] barren valley near The Sacred House of Mecca with his mother; there he married. Ishmael’s progeny became known as the Quraysh, the direct ancestors of Muhammad. Ishmael was the first Prophet to write and preach of the one true God (Allah) to perform Prayer with due observance in Arabic; he is the father of all the Arabs.  [16]

That is the Islamic version of Abraham’s (Ibrahim) faith in Allah in his willingness to sacrifice his most beloved son, Ishmael, for Allah but for the last minute intervention of Allah. Thus Allah saved Ishmael as the father of the Arab tribes and that includes the Quraish tribe.

The significance is that Muslims have determined that it was Ishmael who was to have been the sacrificed child of Abraham, but according to the chronicles of the Jews, it was Isaac who was to have been the son to have been sacrificed on the alter.

But the main point I want to highlight is that these chronicles speak of “human sacrifices” as though it was a normal custom of the time of the Pharaohs, the time of Abraham, and Isaac and Moses (a period from 1813 BCE to 1314 BCE, 499 years.) We must be referring to the age of pagan rituals, long before Judaism, Christianity, or Islam, and yet all three faiths cling on to the antiquity of their origins despite the conflict of their ideologies and insist that their roots stem from Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Moses who all worshiped the gods they claimed their own.

The Old Testament account of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice Isaac to a (heathen) god is given in full in Genesis 22: 1-20 but I will post the frist 3 paragraphs to confirm that it was Isaac in the Old Testament version. It is uncanny that an Islamic version of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son on the alter of his god is narrated by Mohammad (or his scribes) some 2287 years later and the version is so different. (Time: Isaac prepared as human sacrifice-1677 BCE to Mohammad begins preaching Islam, 610 CE=2287 years.)

Isaac prepared for the sacrifice by Abraham the full story is in Genesis 22: 1-20:

Genesis 22:

  1. And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am.

  2. And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.

  3. And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him.

This clearly illustrates that Islam altered parts of the Old Testament to suit their claim to antiquity, and authenticity. But the glaring differences stand out like a sore thumb in this illustration. With the Islamic alternate contradicting version appearing 2287 years after the original version. It does not leave any room for speculation of authenticity.

So it is apparent that there is difference of opinion regarding Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son to the (pagan) god of the Egyptians and the narrative is separated by a gap of of 2287 years. An account of a discussion between a Christian and Islamic view is  discusses in, “Was Isaac or Ishmael to be Sacrificed?”  [19]

Ishmaelites were not the fathers of Arabs and thus not the father of the Quraish Tribe nor the ancestor of the Prophet Mohammad

According to Robert Morey, [20]   the Ishmael tribe, the descendants of Ishmael intermarried into other Egyptian families and with time they were absorbed by the Midianites and other local pagan tribes. Evidence of this appears in the Old Testament when Ishmaelites are referred to as Midianites (Gen.37:25-28; 39:1) and later Midianites are referred to as Ishmaelites (Judges 8:22-24 cf. 7:1f.) The early Ishmaelites were spread throughout Northern Arabia from the wilderness of Shur to the ancient city of Havilah. But the Ishmaelites were eventually absorbed into the larger Midianite tribe. There is not historical or archaeological evidence that Ishmaelis ever migrated south to Mecca where the Quraish tribe was located. So the probability of the Ishmaelis being the ancestors of the Quarish tribe is uncorroborated. Most modern Arabs today believe that Qahtan was the father of Arabs not Ishmael. [21]

Long before the existence of Abraham and Ishmael, Arabia was already populated by the descendants of Cush and Shem (Gen.10:7) who were the original Arabs of the region. They lived in the land of the Pharaohs, the land of many gods, and the existence of the Many gods and polytheist culture was available for ancient documents and archeology. The primary god of that era, prior to the appearance of the monotheist God of Moses (1314 BCE), and of Allah of Islam (610 CE), was the Sun God, Ra who existed in pagan Arabia probably at the time of Adam the first generation in 3760 BCE. [20]

Parentage of Ishmael and Isaac?

An analysis by Walter Reinhold Warttig Mattfeld y de la Torre, M.A.Ed., [22]  raises legitimate questions of the parentage of Ishmael (and Isaac) considering the age at which Abraham fathered Ishmael (Abraham was 86 and Hagar, their slave was much younger) and Isaac (Abraham was 100 and Sarah 90).

Although it is normally unlikely for older men to father children because his fertility is much diminished, there have been records of men fathering children at 90 years of age even if it has not been medically verified  [23] . Hence, I have dismissed this conclusion. But unlike Mattfeld, I have been unable to rationalise Sarah having been able to conceive Isaac at the age of 90 years. This defies natural science assuming that medical intervention was unheard of in 1712 BCE. The oldest natural mother ever recorded was to a British mother of 59 years of age and this must have been some freak of nature  [24] . Sarah was clearly way outside of this range. So either there was an error in historical records, or there is something that is inexplicable and highly questionable. Mattfeld’s hypothesis with regard to “circumcision” is simply a nebulous and weak hypothesis regarding cultural rites of Arabs probably adopted from Jewish customs.

Was Prophet Mohammad Descended from Ishmael?

Dr Rafat Amari, asks, “Is Mohammed A Descendent of Ishmael?” [25] This raises some very revealing facts that needs serious consideration. Most Muslims have accepted the genealogy produced by Ibn Ishak written around 770-775 BE but it was not based on facts. It was more likely to have been a political treatise.

Mohammad’s tribe lived in Saba-Yemen. The chief of Mohammad’s family, the Sabaean Yemeni family, Qusayy bin Kilab, an 8th ancestor of Mohammad, made an alliance with several neighbouring Yemeni families to form a much stronger and stable tribe of the Quraish in the 5th Century CE. Soon after that they migrated to Mecca, a city that was already built by the Khuzzaa’h tribe a century before. The Quraish remained in the Yemen until the 5th century CE and thus could not have had any contact with the Ishmaelites, specifically the tribe of Nebaioth, at any time of their history as the Ishmaelites who lived as nomads in the deserts of Sinai in the Fertile Crescent, became extinct and no longer remained as a tribe 1,100 years before. The Quraish tribe could not have had any contact with the Ishmaeli tribe before their demise. Thus the claim of the Quraish tribe’s ancestry to Ishmael is doubtful especially in the light of the lack of documentary or archeological evidence. All evidence points against a connection. It was also common for prophets in the early centuries to claim antiquity and credence by claims of being descendant to well known Biblical figures whose stories and legends preceded by several centuries.

“Amru bin al-As wrote:

“Mohammed genealogized himself regarding his ancestor until he reached al-Natyher bin Kenaneh, then he said, “anyone who claimed otherwise of added further ancestors, has lied”

By this, Mohammed confessed that neither he, nor anyone else, knew about his ancestors beyong al-Nather bin Kinaneh. Nather bin Kinaneh is the 17th ancestor of the genealogy which Mohammed recognized prior to Maad, who some suggested, was the 4th ancestor prior to al-Nather bin Kinaneh. When we look at the ancestors of Mohammed, it’s reasonable to estimate 30 years for each ggeneration of the 17 ancestors of Mohammed.” [25]

In fact, archeologists and historians have estimated that a generation during the period of Abraham through to Mohammad is more like 20 years which even compounds the confusion. While the Old and New Testaments traces the history and contain the records of the Jewish and Christian people, providing valuable genealogical records, in documented form, such records are not available for Muslims. Most of the early records and history and ideologies, including the hadiths of Islam are handed down verbally and not recorded till hundreds of years after Mohammed’s death from verbal testimonies. This is a reflection of the general illiteracy of the desert tribal people who had to learn the Koran  and the Hadiths through repetitative recitation, in order to understand and practice their religion.

Pre-Islam Pagan Rituals of most Arabs including the Quraish Tribe

As already stated earlier, Arabs were religious people long before Moses, or Jesus or Mohammed. In order to visualise the culture of the Arabs who were polytheists, having the chief god, Ra, the sun god as the supremo, we have to read an extract of the book by Abdul Hameed Siddiqui , “The Life of Mohammed” that depicts the gods of the Quraish tribe.

“The Quraysh also had several idols in and around the Ka’bah. The greatest of these was Hubal (The Moon God). It was carved out of red agate, in the form of a man with the right hand broken off. It stood inside the Ka’bah.

The idol of Hubal was widely venerated by the Arabs, especially by the people of Mecca. It was the same idol which Abu Sufyan ibn Harb addressed when he emerged victorious after the battle of Uhud saying: “Hubal! be though exalted (i.e. may thy religion triumph).” At this the Prophet replied: “Allah is more Exalted, and more Majestic.” [26]

Speaking of gods

We often glibly speak of a monotheistic god in most of the Abrahamic faiths, but are we actually speaking of a one and only god common to all? Many people are of the belief that all the Abrahamic faiths have the one, same, and only god. As I have studied all the striptures I have serious doubts that this is so.

Firstly, ancient Arabs were monotheistic and worshipped many gods but their chief god was “Ra- the Sun god.”

Next we have Moses who receives a message from Mount Sinai, who eventually was the basis of the God of Judaism.

Then we have Jesus who accepts the Torah but reject the Fences of the Rabbis, (marking the first protestant of Judaism.) His deciples call their faith Christianity. But within Christianity we have the Roman god, Catholicism in the Vatican, followed by all the protestant denomninations who deviate in one form or other from Catholic doctrines. Protestants owe no allegiance to the Vatican.

And then we have Mohammedism or Islam who roots definitely do not stem from the ideologies of Moses, but that of Quraish paganism.

The last three, generally identified by being of Abrahamic faiths, is actually a misconception because Abraham was actually a pagan polytheist poached by all three faiths as the ancestors of their faith. Nothing could be further from the truth as outlined above.

In actual fact we refer to 3 different ideologies and religious doctrines that are so different that claiming the same origins is one of the biggest misconception to have been perpetuated and fostered.

SUMMARY:

(1) ABRAHAM (born  c.1813 BCE and died 1638 BCE) (175 years). Abraham died 324 years before Moses saw the Burning Bush and therefore was only aware of the gods of the Pharaohs, and not the god of Moses. Abraham was a pagan Semite worshipping the sun god, Ra.

(2) Ishmael born c. 1727 BCE and died 1590 BCE (137 years). The Ishmael tribe had long become extinct, 1100 years before, when the Quuraish tribe were still isolated in Yemen and had not contact with the Ismaeli tribe whatsoever. Ishmael also lived in the time of the Pharaohs and was therefore, a pagan polytheist worshipper. Mohammad proselytised Mohammadism in 610 CE and 2200 years after the death of Ishmael. With no evidence, documentary or archeologically, whatsoever of any genealogical links to Ishmael.

(3) Even in 610 CE when Mohammad began proselytising his beliefs, his tribe, the tribe of his parents and relatives, worshipped the similar gods of the Pharaohs i.e. polytheism, and with the Quarish tribe, their god was Allah, the Moon god. The Crescent Moon and Star is still present over most Mosques today.

(4) The term, “Abrahamic Faiths” is a misnomer carried down through time since all three faiths have claimed to have Abraham as their ancestor. But to be precise,

    (a) The concept of Judaism was born of the visions of Moses on Mount Sinai. The year 1314 BCE.

    (b) The concept of Christianity was born by Jesus who was a Jew who accepted the Torah but rejected the fences of the Rabbis and was thus rejected by the rabbis,   was the beginnings of Christianity. He was also the first “protestant.” Year 0 CE?

    (c) The concept of Islam (Mohammadism), was born with Mohammad’s proselytising in 610 CE, 1924 years after Moses had his visions on Mount Sinai. The year

         610 CE.

The purpose of this article is to provide a correct time perspective and the actual conditions of the religious environment at that point in time, because we may have fore-shortened the time span, overlooking the influence of Egyptian Pharaoh’s paganism on the early faiths which includes myths within Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

REFERENCES:

[1a] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-Islamic_Arabia Polytheist Arabs

[1] http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/case_studies/hebrews/patriarchs.html Abraham’s wife Sarah is his 1/2 sister.

[2] http://www.keyway.ca/htm2002/20020120.htm  Abraham,Sarah, Ishmael,& Isaacs

[3] http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa42 The Influence of the Semites.

[4] http://nabataea.net/12tribes.html  The 12 Tribes of Ishmael

[5] http://www.darulhuda.org/codes/history_prophet.htm The Banu Ismail are of the Ishmaeli heritage.

[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishmael Abraham and Ishmael building the Ka’aba.

[7] http://209.85.229.132/search?q=cache:sOuPkvlAMiYJ:www.menorah.org/Origens%2520of%2520Islam.pdf+Quraysh+Worship&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&client=safari  Abraham and Ishmael rebuilding the Ka’aba and the Satanic verses.

[8a] http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/islam.htm The Quraish cult of the Moon God.

[8b] http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/islam.htm#Conclusion Islam is based on a pre-Islamic Arabian pagan culture.

[8] http://my.att.net/s/community.dll?ep=4&globalmsgboard=1&discussionID=251742911&catID=182&ck=

     Mohammad and the Quraish tribe doctrines.

[9] http://www.faithfreedom.org/Articles/skm30804.htm  An article by Syed Kamran Mirza on the Moon God.

[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagar_(Bible) The folk lore of Hagar.

[11] http://theautonomist.com/autonomist/articles/arabs.html What is an Arab?

[12] http://www.kenseamedia.com/may/timeline.htm The Ruling Pharoahs of 2040-1532 BCE period.

[13] http://www.thenileandegypt.com/deities.html Ancient Egyptian gods.

[14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments  The Tablets from Mt Sanai.

[15] http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Contrad/External/josephdetail.html References to Abraham, Joseph, and Moses to the period of the Pharaohs.

[16] http://web.uvic.ca/~rpn/files/ishmael.html  Ishmael ancestor of Mohammad and father of all Arabs.

[17] http://knol.google.com/k/mbp-lee/understanding-islam-a-brief-study/1l23x9udotn1a/4# Madarassa curriculae

[18a] http://www.muhammad.net/biographies-mainmenu-38/23-short-biographies-and-commentaries/55-family-tree.html  Muslims claim to be descendants of Ishmael Quranic text.

[18] http://www.journeytojesus.com/ArabClaimToPalestine.pdf Muslim Claim to be descendants of Ishmael and hence heirs to Palestine.

[19] http://www.islamicweb.com/beliefs/comparative/sacrifice.htm Was it Isaac or Ishmael to be Sacrificed.

[20] http://www.journeytojesus.com/ArabClaimToPalestine.pdf  The Ishmaeli tribe was no longer, having been absorbed by the Midianite Tribe.

[21] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/485396/Qahtan Forebears of the “pure” Arabs.

[22] http://www.bibleorigins.net/Ishmael.html Questioning the parentage of Ishmael and thus his lineage.

[23] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-476980/Worlds-oldest-father-21st-child-90.html A 90 year old father.

[24] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1560739/UK-woman-59-worlds-oldest-natural-mother.html  World’s oldest natural born mother.

[25]*  http://religionresearchinstitute.org/Mohammad/ishmael.htm The Genealogy of Mohammad and the genealogy of the Ishmael tribe.

[26]  http://www.soundvision.com/info/seerah/hameed5.asp Arabic religions pre-Islam.

[27] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments

       Moses and the Ten commandments

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