Adam: From Clay and Sperm Drop: Quran 22:5

· Abrahamic Faiths, Islam
Authors

Adam: from Clay and Sperm Drop: Q22:5(Yusufali)

Myths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

This essay may be uncomfortable reading for many from all 3 faiths, but I will present my views based on the scriptures and science and to analyse the scriptures dispassionately. The advent of modern science has transformed many of the ancient allegories into modern myths. I do not deny the existence of God, except that the baseline and landmarks have altered. Copious quotations are necessary to provide evidence of the fundamental beliefs preached by the prophets as works of god throughout their scriptures. (It also provides the base for research.)


Muslims place their complete faith in the Qur’an as the literal and immutable word of Allah and accept that the Prophet Muhammad  was Allah’s last messenger. So it is essential that we attempt to visualise the environment of that region (Arabian Peninsular) at that time (7th Century) to understand the birth and development of Islam. Jews and Christians believe in Moses and Jesus and the Bible. What are the similarities and differences in their fundamental religious beliefs? We will examine it in detail.

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Well how far do we want to go? Pre-historic times

  • Ubaid period (5300 BC)-could have originated in eastern Arabia-.
  • Umm an-Nar Culture (2600-2000 BC)
  • Sabr Culture (2000 BC)

Many tribes and Kingdoms existed pre-Islamic Arabia that can be read about elsewhere but I shall refer to those pertinent to this article. It is no surprise that the early lineages of the Bedouin Arabs were derived from the historical records from biblical genealogy, a source of authentic historical records kept by the Jews. In fact it will be shown that much of early scientific thought too was derived from the Old Testament. The history of the Jewish people dates back to pre-Moses’ vision of the

“Burning Bush” 1314 BC (14th Century BC)

when Moses received the visions and message from Yahweh (God). That marked the birth of Judaism, before this date the people were polytheist pagans. The 14th century Arab consensus is that there are three kinds of Arabs:

1. “Perishing Arabs”: These are the ancients of whose history little is known. They include ʿĀd, Thamud, Tasm, Jadis, Imlaq and others. Jadis and Tasm perished because of genocide. ʿĀd and Thamud perished because of their decadence. Some people in the past doubted their existence, but Imlaq is the singular form of ‘Amaleeq and is probably synonymous to the biblical Amalek.
2. “Pure Arabs”: They allegedly originated from the progeny of Ya‘rub bin Yashjub bin Qahtan so were also called Qahtanite Arabs. (My view that the Qahtans were the likely antecedents of the Quraish tribe, Muhammad’s family tribe.)
3. “Arabized Arabs”: They allegedly (have been mistakenly claimed by Islamists as having) originated from the progeny of Ishmael (Ismā’īl), son of the biblical patriarch and Islamic prophet, Abraham (Ibrahim), and were also called Adnan. (sic) (This claim will be discredited later and can only be consigned to that of a hopeful Muhammadan Myth.)

The several different Bedouin tribes throughout Arabian history are traditionally regarded as having emerged from two main branches: the Rabi’ah, from which amongst others the Banu Hanifa emerged, and the Mudhar,
from which amongst others the Banu Kinanah (and later Muhammad’s own tribe, the Quraysh) emerged.(?)

ANCIENT SEMITIC RELIGIONS


Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East and North Africa. Its origins are intertwined with Mesopotamian mythology.

These traditions, and their pantheons, fall into regional categories: Canaanite religions of the Levant, Assyro-Babylonian religion strongly influence by Sumerian tradition and Pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism.

Canaanite religion was the group of belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.

Canaanite religion was strongly influenced by their more powerful and populous neighbours, and shows clear influence of Mesopotamian and Egyptian religious practices. Like other people of the Ancient Near East Canaanoite religious beliefs were polytheistic,  with families typically focusing worship on ancestral household gods and goddesses while acknowledging the existence of other also played an important religious role and in certain ceremonies, such as the sacred marriage of the New Year Festival may have been revered as gods.

Many of the tribes in Arabia had practised Judaism. Christianity is known to have been active in the region before the rise of Islam, especially unorthodox, possibly gnostic forms of it.

Fall of the Empires

Before the Bysantine-Sassanid War of 602-628, the Plague of Justinian  erupted, spreading through Persia and into Bysantium territory. Procopius; Constantinople’s local historian that lived to witness the plague, documented that citizens were dying at a rate of 10,000 per day. The exact number; however, is often disputed by contemporary historians. Both empires were permanently weakened by the pandemic as their citizens struggled to deal with death as well as heavy taxation, which increased as both empires campaigned for more territory.

Despite almost succumbing to the plague, emperor of Byzantine, Justinian I; attempted to resurrect the might of the Roman Empire by expanding into Arabia. The Arabian Peninsula had a long coastline for merchant ships and an area of lush vegetation known as the Fertile Crescent which could help fund his expansion into Europe and North Africa. The drive into Persian territory would also put an end to tribute payments to the Sasanians, which resulted in an agreement to give 11,000 lb (5,000 kg) of tribute to the Persians annually in exchange for a ceasefire.

However, Justinian could not afford further losses in Arabia. The Byzantines and the Sasanians sponsored powerful nomadic mercenaries from the desert with enough power to trump the possibility of aggression in Arabia. Justinian viewed his mercenaries as so valued for preventing conflict that he awarded their chief with the titles of patrician, phylarch, and king – the highest honours that he could bestow on anyone. By the late 6th century, an uneasy peace remained until disagreements erupted between the mercenaries and their client empires.

The Byzantines’ ally was a Christian Arabic tribe from the frontiers of the desert known as the Ghassanids. The Sasanians’ ally; the Lakhmids, were also Christian Arabs, but from the life giving rivers of modern day Iraq. However, denominational disagreements about God forced a schism in the alliances. The Byzantines’ official religion was Orthodox Christian,  which believed that Jesus Christ and God were two natures within one entity. The Ghassanids were Monophysite Christians from Iraq, who believed that God and Jesus Christ were only one nature. This disagreement was unforgivable and resulted in a permanent break in the alliance.

Meanwhile, the Sassanid Empire broke their alliance with the Lakhmids due to false accusations that the Lakhmid’s leader committed treason and the Lakhmid kingdom was destroyed. The fertile lands and important trade routes of Iraq were now open ground for upheaval.

Rise of Islam

When the stalemate was finally broken and it seemed like Byzantine had finally gained the upper hand in battle, nomadic Arabs invaded from the desert frontiers bringing with them a new social order that emphasized religious devotion over tribal membership (Islam.)

By the time the last Byzantine-Sassanid war came to an end in 628, Islam was already united under the power of the religious-politico Caliphate (or leader). The Muslims were able to launch attacks against both empires which resulted in destruction of the Sassanid Empire and the overthrowing of Byzantine’s territories in the Levant, the Caucasus, Egypt, Suyria and North Africa. Over the following centuries, most of the Byzantine Empire and the entirety of the Sassanid Empire came under Muslim rule.

“Within the lifetime of some of the children who met Muhammad and sat on the Prophet’s knees, Arab armies controlled the land mass that extended from the Pyrenees Mountains in Europe to the Indus River valley in South Asia. In less than a century, Arabs had come to rule over an area that spanned five thousand miles. [1]

MOSES AND HIS VISION OF THE BURNING BUSH – THE ORIGINS OF THE ABRAHAMIC FAITHS

Exodus 3:1-6, 14

Summary: God called Moses to service at the “burning bush.”  Jesus is the great “I AM.” Jesus is who appeared to Moses as “the angel of the Lord.”

Have you heard about Moses and the burning bush?  That is a story in the Bible from the Book of Exodus.  Moses had grown up in Egypt in the palace of the Pharaoh.  When he was about 40 years old, he ran away from Egypt because he killed an Egyptian that was beating up a Hebrew.  Moses spent another 40 years in the backside of the desert with the Midianites.  It was here that God worked on Moses and taught him what he would need to know to be a leader, a leader to free the Israelites from slavery in Egypt.

One day Moses saw something very unusual.  He saw a bush that appeared to be on fire, but it wasn’t burning down.  It was the angel of the Lord.  This was a name for God.  It was actually Jesus (before he ever came to earth, he has been alive forever) who called to Moses.  Moses answered, Here am I

Exodus 3:5-6

Moses was afraid because he realized it was God speaking to him.  God was calling him to service.  He wanted Moses to be the leader of the Israelites and take them away from being slaves in Egypt to serve God in the Promised Land.  Moses made excuses but finally he realized he could not turn down God’s call to serve him. As one last effort to make an excuse, he asked God what his name was so he could tell the children of Israel who it was that called him.  God answered with a word we now call Jehovah (from YAHWEH), which means I AM THAT I AM.  This name means that God has lived forever; he is God because he is God and that’s it.  Jesus is the great I AM that spoke to Moses at the burning bush.   

As Christians we are called to serve God also.  We can make excuses and disappoint God, or we can do all we can to serve Him.  Some Christians are called into special areas of work for God and become pastors or missionaries.  But what I’m speaking about right now is not that. I’m speaking about EVERY Christian. Every Christian is called by God to serve him at school, work, or play.  We can serve God no matter where he places us. [2]

God gave Moses the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai to serve as principles of moral behaviour for the human race. The Ten Commandments of God are the foundations of the moral code and legal system of justice for Western Christian civilisation.

The Decalogue is recorded both in the Books of Exodus (20:1-17) and Deuteronomy (5: 6-21), two of the five Books of Moses (aslo know as the Torah, Law, or Pentateuch.) The Ten Commandments were given to Moses on two tables of stone on Mount Sinai. (Appendix 1)

The 10 Commandments brought down by Moses, reflects the the philosophies that evolved reflecting the endemic problems affecting Moses’ community at that time, i.e., a disorganised and disrespect for the polytheism practised at that time, the disrespect and disorder of the family hierarchy, and lawlessness of the community with rampant acts of theft,and acceptance of the murder of one’s opponents, and sexual promiscuity of married men and unmarried men, and the taking of the wealth and possessions of another. In other words, there was no form of civil law and order and had to be introduced and established to establish a more congenial society. Moses’ 10 commandments was intended to restore  that law and order and respect for others in 1314 BC with the fear of God. So such a philosophy was a result of the problems besetting the people of that time. (It is noteworthy to observe that many ancient wise-sayings of ancient sages also stem from social problems of their era and have developed into great religions or faith followings like, Lao Tzu, and Confucius, or Mencius, or Hinduism, or Buddhism, and not all turn out to be true religions or monotheistic adoration nor even involving a god.) So it is my contention that men developed different philosophies to moderate the excesses of their community when the need arose especially after long periods of suffering or distress in the early days of civilised humanity.

It was also most likely observed that polytheism fragmented communities, especially in the early Arab era. In order to unite and strength a tribe or a community, it was best done by uniting the community under one faith, where it was possible to control and harness all her energies. Thus for the diverse polytheistic communities, to be united under one god (flag) made sense. To add to this the practice of “exclusivity” built a fence around the religion and gave it protection and also powers to the clergy similar to that of Kings or Emperors and it must have been the aim of the Pharisees to unite and strengthen their community, Judaism. Moses was the original founder of the concept of “monotheism” and the father of “Judaism.”This same philosophy was extended into orthodox Christianity through breakaway Jesus, and later (610 years later) many aspects (even if garbled or corrupted) of Judaism and Christianity were borrowed and incorporated into Islam by the Prophet Muhammad.

THE OLD TESTAMENT

The original foundations of the Abrahamic faiths were based on or derived from the Old Testament. The Old Testament is a collection of writings and compositions by scholars and scribes of the Jewish-Hebrew community who subscribed to the pronouncement and teachings of Moses and were complied and inscribed some time between the 12th Century BC (Moses’ vision 1314 BC) and the beginning of the Christian era (a collection of Jewish records and legends of  1300 years before the arrival of Jesus.)

So it was about 100 years after Moses vision that the Jewish people began to record their Jewish History over many centuries. The compilation consisted of a record of Jewish history, Jewish genealogy dating back to the origins of the Jews with beginnings of the creation of man, Adam and Eve, and included the  Ten commandments and revelations, didactic philosophical perceptions, and Jewish allegories and parables. Most of these legendary tales and allegories were accepted in good faith have now been consigned to myths with advent of modern scientific knowledge unavailable 3300 years ago about recent archaeological finds and discoveries in the science of cosmology But all three Abrahamic faiths had based their ideologies on the knowledge available at that time, a clear indication of the fallibility of ancient prophets and the angels and deities who provided the visions or information. But the Old Testament was one of the most intellectual, and philosophically profound documents of the day and was emulated by all who had access to it. Many accepted the Bible as the Divine word of God, yet others have spent their lives rationalising and seeking evidence to defending it, especially before the days of modern science, when few had any cause to challenge it.

GENESIS: (Creation By God – The Old Testament)

Chapter 1

  1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
  2. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
  3. And God said, Let there be light; and there was light.
  4. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
  5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
  6. And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
  7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
  8. And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.
  9. And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.
  10. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
  11. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.
  12. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
  13. And the evening and the morning were the third day.
  14. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
  15. And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
  16. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
  17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
  18. And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.
  19. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
  20. And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
  21. And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
  22. And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.
  23. And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.
  24. And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.
  25. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
  26. And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
  27. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he man; male and female created he them.
  28. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
  29. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.
  30. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.
  31. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

Chapter 2

  1. Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
  2. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
  3. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work.
  4. These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,
  5. And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.
  6. But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.
  7. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
  8. And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.
  9. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
  10. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.
  11. The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;
  12. And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.
  13. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.
  14. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.
  15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
  16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:
  17. But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
  18. And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.
  19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.
  20. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.
  21. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh instead thereof;
  22. And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
  23. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.
  24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
  25. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.

Chapter 3

  1. Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
  2. And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:
  3. But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.
  4. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:
  5. For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.
  6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.
  7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.
  8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.
  9. And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?
  10. And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.
  11. And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?
  12. And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.
  13. And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.
  14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:
  15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
  16. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.
  17. And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;
  18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;
  19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.
  20. And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.
  21. Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.
  22. And the Lord God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now. lest he put his hand, and taken also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:
  23. Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.
  24. So he drove out the man; and he place at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.

Chapter 5

  1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;
  2. Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.
  3. And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, and after his image; and called his name Seth:
  4. And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters:
  5. And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.
  6. And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos:
  7. And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters:
  8. And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died.
  9. And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan:
  10. And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters:
  11. And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died.
  12. And Cainan lived seventy years and begat Mahalaleel:
  13. And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters:
  14. And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.
  15. And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared:
  16. And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters:
  17. And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died.
  18. And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch:
  19. And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:
  20. And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died.
  21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah:
  22. And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:
  23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years:
  24. And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.
  25. And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech.
  26. And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters:
  27. And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died.
  28. And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son:
  29. And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed.
  30. And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters:
  31. And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died.
  32. And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

The Jew attempted to trace their genealogy and record it for posterity. The Jews traced their beginnings to the creation of man, from Adam to Abraham, and his sons Isaac and Ishmael, and Moses. (See Appendix 2.)


THE WORLD IS FLAT – THE BIBLE: Genesis


The world is Flat was the belief in  the Bible until science prove it was erroneous.
Genesis: Chapter11

  1. And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.
  2. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there.
  3. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar.
  4. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.
  5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded.
  6. And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.
  7. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.
  8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city.
  9. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

The World is Flat – the Bible

Job 38:13 That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, that the wicked might be shaken out of it?

Isaiah 11:12
And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.

Jeremiah 16:19 O Lord, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit.

Daniel 4:11 The tree grew, and was strong, and the height thereof reached unto heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of all the earth:T

Revelations 7:1 And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.

The World Sits on Pillars-The Bible

Job 9:6 Which shaketh the earth out of here place, and “the pillars thereof” tremble.

ISLAMIC quotes on CREATIVITY


(Reminder:Muhammad started preaching in 610 AD and Moses received his first vision in 1314 BC, some 1924 years later. The Quran is not arranged in  chronological order so it is difficult locating and extracting the relevant verses for making comparisons. The purpose here is to show that Islam adopted many of the concepts  from Judaism and Christianity with some modifications or corruptions. I leave the reader to see and compare the similarities or the differences and appreciate its likely source.)

Creation of the Universe according to the Quran


Allah created the world in 6 days like the OldTestament
007.054
YUSUFALI: Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority: He draweth the night as a veil o’er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and sustainer of the worlds!
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YUSUFALI: Verily your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority), regulating and governing all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His leave (hath been obtained). This is Allah your Lord; Him therefore serve ye: will ye not receive admonition?
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YUSUFALI: He it is Who created the heavens and earth in six Days – and His Throne was over the waters – that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct. But if thou wert to say to them, “Ye shall indeed be raised up after death”, the Unbelievers would be sure to say, “This is nothing but obvious sorcery!”
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YUSUFALI: He Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between, in six days, and is firmly established on the Throne (of Authority:) Allah Most Gracious: ask thou, then, about Him of any acquainted (with such things).
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YUSUFALI: We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in Six Days, not did any sense of weariness touch Us.
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YUSUFALI: He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and is moreover firmly established on the Throne (of Authority.) He knows what enters within the earth and what comes forth out of it, what comes down from heaven and what mount up to it. And He is with you wheresoever ye may be. And Allah sees well all that ye do.
YUSUFALI: To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: and all affairs are referred back to Allah.
YUSUFALI: He merges Night into Day, and He merges Day into Night; and He has full knowledge of the secrets of  (all) hearts.

Allah Created the world in 2 Days
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YUSUFALI: Say: Is it  that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds.

Allah’s 2 days Plus the additional 4 days to complete his creation of earth

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YUSUFALI: (Then) He set on the (earth,) mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed blessing on the earth, and measure therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (Sustenance.) 
YUSUFALI: Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: “Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly.” They said: “We do come (together), in willing obedience.”
YUSUFALI: So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.
YUSUFALI: But if they turn away, say thou: “I have warned you of a stunning Punishment (as of thunder and lightning) like that which (overtook the tribes) the “Ad and the Thamud!”

Allah, Raising the Ceiling and Spreading out the Earth
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YUSUFALI: And at the Sky, how it is raised high?   (Like a ceiling.)
YUSUFALI: And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm?-
YUSUFALI: And at the Earth, how it is spread out? (The earth is spread flat.)

The Sun, Moon and Stars in the Quran
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YUSUFALI: It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory and “the moon to be a light (of beauty,) and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time). Nowise did Allah create this but in truth and righteousness. (Thus) doth He explain His Signs in detail, for those who understand.  (The Moon is an independent light.)
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YUSUFALI: He has made subject to you the Night and the Day; the sun and the moon; and the stars are in subjection by His Command: verily in this are Signs for men who are wise.
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YUSUFALI: It is He Who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course.
 
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YUSUFALI: Blessed is He Who made constellations in the skies, and place therein a “Lamp and a Moon giving light;
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YUSUFALI: And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious) Lamp?

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YUSUFALI: And we have, (from of old,) adorned the lowest heaven with LAMPS, AND WE HAVE MADE SUCH (Lamps) (as) missiles to drive away the Evil Ones, and have prepared for them the Penalty of the Blazing Fire.
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YUSUFALI: So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard.Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.
PICKTHAL: Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable.. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower.
SHAKIR: So He ordained them seven heavens in two periods, and revealed in every heaven its affair; and We adorned the lower heaven with brilliant stars and (made it) to guard; that is the decree of the Mighty, the Knowing.

Allah Creating Man (mankind) in the Quran

Allah created man from Clay

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YUSUFALI: 26  We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape;
YUSUFALI: 27 And the “Jinn race,” We had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind.
YUSUFALI: 28 Behold! they Lord said to the angels: “I am about to create man, from sounding clay from mud moulded into shape;
YUSUFALI: 29 When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him.
YUSUFALI:  30So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together:
YUSUFALI: 31 Not so Iblis: he refused to be among those who prostrated themselves.

Allah created Man from Clay, Sperm Drop, Congealed Blood
**(Allah’s confusion about fertilisation (with no reference to ovum) and the development of the foetus. This proves the fallibility of Muhammad (man/prophet) and the absence of the  wisdom(infallibility) of Allah (god.))

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YUSUFALI: 12: Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay);

 13: Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; 
14: Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create! 
15: After that, at length ye will die.

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YUSUFALI: 71:Behold, they Lord said to the angels: “I am about to create man from clay:
 72: “When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him” 
73: So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together:

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YUSUFALI: (Iblis) said: “I am better than he: thou createdst me from fire, and him thou createdst from clay.”
YUSUFALI: (Allah) said: “Then get thee out from here: for thou art rejected, accursed.
YUSUFALI: “And My curse shall be on thee till the Day of Judgment.”

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YUSUFALI: He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery.

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YUSUFALI: The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: “Be” and he “was.”
PICKTHAL: LO! THE LIKENESS OF JESUS WITH ALLAH IS AS THE LIKENESS OF ADAM. HE CREATED HIM OF DUST, THEN HE SAID UNTO HIM: “BE!” AND HE “IS.”
SHAKIR: Surely the likeness of Isa (Jesus) is with Allah as the likeness of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him, “Be” and he “was.”

**(Note: All three translations in the Quran compares Jesus with Allah (not with Muhammad))

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YUSUFALI: The Truth (comes) from Allah alone; so be not of those who doubt.

Additional verses on creation from dust, sperm, clot.

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YUSUFALI: His companion said to him, in the course of the argument with him: “Dost thou deny Him Who created thee out of dust, then out of a sperm-drop, then fashioned thee into a man?
PICKTHAL: His comrade, when he (thus) spake with him, exclaimed: Disbelievest thou in Him Who created thee of dust, then of a drop (of seed), and then fashioned thee a man?
SHAKIR: His companion said to him while disputing with him: Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you from dust, then from a small seed, then He made you a perfect man?

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YUSUFALI: O mankind! if ye have doubt about the Resurrection, (consider) that We created you out of dust then out of sperm, then out of a a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed, in order that We may manifest (our power) to you; and We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term, then do We bring you out as babes, then (foster you) that ye may reach your age of full strength; and some of you are called to die, and some sent back to the feeblest old age, so that they know nothing after having known (much), and (further), thou seest the earth barren and lifeless, but when We pour down rain on it, it is stirred (to life), it swells, and it puts forth every kind of beautiful growth in pairs).

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YUSUFALI: 19: It is He Who brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living, and Who gives life to the earth after it is dead: and thus shall ye be brought out (from the dead.)
YUSUFALI: 20 Among His Signs is this, that He created you from dust; and the, behold, ye are men scattered (far and wide!)
YUSUFALI: 21 And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.
YUSUFALI: 22 And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know.
YUSUFALI: 23 And among His Signs is the sleep that ye take by night and by day, and the quest that ye (make for livelihood) out of His Bounty: verily in that are signs fro those who hearken.
 YUSUFALI: 24 And among His Signs, He shows you the lightning, by way both of fear and of hope, and He sends down rain from the sky and with it gives life to the earth after it is dead: verily in that are Signs for those who are wise.
YUSUFALI: 25 And among His Signs is this,k that heaven and earth stand by His Command: then when He calls you, by a single call, from the earth, behold, ye (straightway) come forth.
YUSUFALI: 26 To Him belongs ever being that is in the heavens and on earth: all devoutly obedient to Him.
SHAKIR: 27 And He is is Who originates the “creation,” then reproduices it, and it is easy to Him; and His are the most exalted attribute4s in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.

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YUSUFALI: And Allah did create you from dust; them from a sperm-drop; then He made you in pairs. And no female conceives, or lays down (her load), but with his knowledge. Nor is a man long-lived granted length of days, nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Decree (ordained). All this is easy to Allah.

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YUSUFALI: 67 It is He Who has created you from dust then from a sperm-drop, then from a leech-like clot, then does He get you out (into the light) as a child: then lets you (grow and) reach your age of full strength; then lets you become old,  though of you there are some who die before; and lets you reach a Term appointed; in order that ye may learn wisdom.
YUSUFALI: 68 It is He Who gives Life and Death; and when He decided upon an affair, He says to it, “Be” and it “is.”
YUSUFALI: 69 Seest thou not those that dispute concerning the Signs of Allah? How are they turned away (from Reality)?-
YUSUFALI: 70 Those who reject the Book and the (revelations) with which We sent our messengers: but soon shall they know,-  
YUSUFALI: 71  When the yokes (shall be) round their necks, and the chains; they shall be dragged along-

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YUSUFALI: 6 He is created from a drop emitted-
YUSUFALI: 7 Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs:
YUSUFALI: 8 Surely (Allah) is able to bring him back (to life)!

**(This clearly shows lack of understanding of human anatomy and the source of spermatozoa by Muhammad. The lack of knowledge of biology, anatomy, and medicine in man of that era is totally appreciated and understood. But that should not preclude god (Allah) from transmitting the correct wisdom to his prophets. Thus these allegories can only be accepted as myths.)
 
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YUSUFALI: 13 O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).
YUSUFALI: 14 The desert Arabs say, “We believe.” Say, “Ye have no faith, bey but ye (only) say “We have submitted out will to Allah,” For not yet has Faith entered your hearts. But if ye obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not belittle aught of your deeds: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

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YUSUFALI: Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater (matter) than the creation of men: Yet most men understand not.

Comments on Creativity in the Abrahamic Faiths


In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And then God said, “Let there be light and there was light.” Then God said, Let us make man in our image….in the image of God. And he created him, male and female. And on the seventh day god rested having created Heaven and Earth. “So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all his work which he had done in creation.”

According to the Torah, the Bible, and the Qur’an, the first man, represented by Adam was created by God soon after he created the world, and according to Biblical text, 

MAN WAS CREATED IN 3760 BC (GENESIS 5:2) SOME 5770 YEARS AGO.


Most Abrahamic faith believers believed in God’s creations were literal words of the prophets (and Gods) described in detail throughout this article. But with the advancement of knowledge, science and cosmology in the 20th Century, many of these religious events, genealogy, and statements of creativity have been turned into religious myths.

The fact that

THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE IS 15 BILLION YEARS

**(This calculation totally discredits the Old Testament’s claims that The Universe is only 5770 years old, out by billions of years.

This fact places biblical records into the realms of myths, and questions the fallibility of all the Abrahamic prophets and the reliability of their source of information. This fact alone, questions the existence of the Abrahamic god upon whom the three faiths have built their foundations. If  God did create the Universe, then he must have existed more than 15 billion years ago to do so, long before the god of Moses or Jesus or Muhammad.)

The equation generally used to show the age of the Universe is shown here: 

          (distance of a particular galaxy)/(that Galaxy’s velocity) = (time)  or

4.6 x 10^26 cm/1×10^9 cm/sec = 4.6 x 10^ 17 sec

This equation, equalling 4.6 x 10^ 17 seconds =

“approximately fifteen billion years.”

This calculation is almost exactly the same for every galaxy that can be studied.

Today, many scientists and others have accepted the evidence produced by anthropologists that “modern man” can be traced back to 200,000 years to 250,000 years ago. However, such researchers as Milford Wolpoff considers that the human species can be traced back as far as about 2 Million years ago, subsuming H.erectus, H. ergasterm and H. hiedelbergensis. [13]

There is an even different view from China”
“…despite the seemingly conclusive genetic evidence, Professor Wu Xinzhi insists the debate between “single-region evolution” and “multi-region evolution.” is not settled. He maintains that Africa is not the only origin of modern humans, but that modern man evolved separately in several parts of the world. He believes there is ample evidence that at least some of the ancestors of modern Chinese were native to the area.

From the 1920’s on, archaeologists discovered large numbers of ancient human fossils in China. According to Professor Wu, different populations of ancient humans lived in overlapping periods. Yuanmou Man in Yunnan Province dates back 1,700,000 years, Shaanxi Lantian Man 1,150,000 to 600,000 years, Peking Man 500,000 to 200,000 years, Shandong Yiyuan man 400,000 years, Anhui Hexian 300,000 to 200,000 years and Guangdong Maba Man 100,000 years.”

Hence it must be concluded that most of the religious narrations concerning the creation of man were based on the limited knowledge of Moses, Jesus, or Muhammad from the errors of detail in their narrations and proven to be nothing but ancient myths, dispelled by modern science. Man evolved some 1.7 million years ago and not 5770 years ago according to the Jewish history and genealogy as found in the Old Testament and other Jewish documents.

It also clearly establishes that Abrahamic prophets were earthly creatures limited in their wisdom by knowledge available at that time and that their claims to access to the All Seeing and All Knowing God, Creator of the Universe and of Man is a Myth. A myth because all such claims have been disproved with the advancement of human knowledge and science and cosmology. The Abrahamic monotheistic god is mythical. 

ADAM
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YUSUFALI: “O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and enjoy (its good things) as ye wish: but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression.”
YUSUFALI: Then began Satan to whisper suggestions to them, bringing openly before their minds all their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said: “Your Lord only forbade you this tree, lest ye should become angels or such beings as live for ever.”
YUSUFALI: And he swore to them both, that he was their sincere adviser.  
YUSUFALI: So by deceit he brought about their fall: when they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they began to sew together the leaves of the garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: “Did I not forbid you that tree, and tell you that Satan was an avowed enemy unto you?”
YUSUFALI: They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged our own souls: If thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us Thy Mercy, we shall certainly be lost.”
YUSUFALI: (Allah) said: “Get ye down. With enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood,- for a time.”  
YUSUFALI: He said: “Therein shall ye live, and therein shall ye die; but from it shall ye be taken out (at last).”

ABRAHAM (A Semite, the Father of Jews, and also considered Father of Islam?)
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YUSUFALI: And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase their souls with folly? Him We chose and rendered pure in this world: And he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous. 
YUSUFALI: Behold! his Lord said to him: “Bow (thy will to Me):” He said: “I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe.”
YUSUFALI: Behold! his Lord said to him: “Bow (thy will to Me):” He said: “I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe.”
YUSUFALI: 133 Were ye witnesses when death appeared before Jacob? Behold, he said to his sons: “What will ye worship after me?” They said: “We shall worship Thy god and the god of my fathers, of Abraham, Isma’il and Isaac,  the one (True) Allah: To Him we bow (in Islam.)”
YUSUFALI: That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no question in your case!  
YUSUFALI: They say: “Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (To salvation).” Say thou: “Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with Allah.”
YUSUFALI: Say ye: “We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam).”  
YUSUFALI: So if they believe as ye believe, they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.
YUSUFALI: (Our religion is) the Baptism of Allah: And who can baptize better than Allah? And it is He Whom we worship.  
YUSUFALI: Say: Will ye dispute with us about Allah, seeing that He is our Lord and your Lord; that we are responsible for our doings and ye for yours; and that We are sincere (in our faith) in Him?
YUSUFALI: Or do ye say that Abraham, Isma’il Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know better than Allah? Ah! who is more unjust than those who conceal the testimony they have from Allah? but Allah is not unmindful of what ye do!

(Historically and archaeologically, records prove that before the arrival of Islam, 610 AD, the Arabs were polytheist pagans, mostly Sun and Moon worshippers. To back-date Islam to include Abraham (1813-1638 BC, a gap of 2248 years) is a miraculous feat in itself and lies in the realms of mythology. A typical myth spun by Muhammad.)

Is Muhammad’s Genealogy Back to Ishmael and Abraham Sound?


It was more than likely on the basis of the following verse that Muslims believe that Abraham and Ishmael raised the Foundations of the Kaaba and were thus the father of Islam and Muhammad’s tribe, even though during the time of Abraham and Ishmael, the Kaaba contained only pagan gods. (Abraham 1813-1638 BC and Muhammad 570-632 AD Islam was created in 610 AD.) However, as this issue is a very important and fundamental concept it is best to quote in full.
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YUSUFALI: And remember Abraham and Isma’il raised the foundations of the House (With this prayer): “Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: For Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-knowing.
YUSUFALI: “Our Lord! make of us Muslims, bowing to Thy (Will), and of our progeny a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (will); and show us our place for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
YUSUFALI: “Our Lord! send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in scripture and wisdom, and sanctify them: For Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”
YUSUFALI: And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase their souls with folly? Him We chose and rendered pure in this world: And he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous.
YUSUFALI: Behold! his Lord said to him: “Bow (thy will to Me):” He said: “I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe.”
YUSUFALI: And this was the legacy that Abraham left to his sons, and so did Jacob; “Oh my sons! Allah hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of Islam.”
YUSUFALI: Were ye witnesses when death appeared before Jacob? Behold, he said to his sons: “What will ye worship after me?” They said: “We shall worship Thy god and the god
YUSUFALI: That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no question in your case!
YUSUFALI: They say: “Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (To salvation).” Say thou: “Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with Allah.”
YUSUFALI: Say ye: “We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam).”
YUSUFALI: So if they believe as ye believe, they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.
YUSUFALI: So if they believe as ye believe, they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.
YUSUFALI: Say: Will ye dispute with us about Allah, seeing that He is our Lord and your Lord; that we are responsible for our doings and ye for yours; and that We are sincere (in our faith) in Him?
YUSUFALI: Or do ye say that Abraham, Isma’il Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know better than Allah? Ah! who is more unjust than those who conceal the testimony they have from Allah? but Allah is not unmindful of what ye do!

It becomes abundantly clear that Muhammad borrowed or adopted Jewish history and genealogy to provide details to prove that Islam was as ancient and respectable as the Jewish Torah. All the verses quoted for the Quran clearly show the duplication and the corruption of Jewish history and genealogy to enhance that of Islam, which was of course blank before Muhammad’s introduction of Islam. However, the illiterate nomadic tribes were in no position to challenge any of such information and accept Muhammad’s myths as the literal world of Allah. Historical, archaeological evidence proves that Islamic myths have no foundations of fact as this paper will have shown.

MUSLIMS BELIEVE THAT MUHAMMAD IS A DESCENDANT OF ISHMAEL

Muslims believe that Mohammed is a descendant of Ishmael. As proof of their position, Muslims refer to genealogies written around 770-775 A.D. by Ibn Ishak.

What he has written is simply not true.  Ishmaelite tribes, especially the tribe of Nebaioth from which, according to Ibn Ishak, Mohammed is said to have come, were nomadic tribes who lived in the Sinai and Fertile Crescent deserts. These tribes disappeared after the 7th century B.C.

Mohammed’s family was a Sabaean Yemeni family, while the Ishmaelites, who lived in the deserts of the Fertile Crescent, became extinct many centuries before Mohammed’s family left Yemen.
Historians say that the family of Mohammed was a  family which lived in Saba-Yemen. In the 5th century A.D., Qusayy Bin Kilab, the 8th ancestor of Mohammed, gathered an alliance of many Yemeni families forming Quraish, the tribe from which Mohammed later came.  These families only came to occupy Mecca in the 5th century A.D. The city of Mecca was built by the tribe of Khuzaa’h in the 4th century A.D.

Mohammed’s family is not connected to any Ishnaelite tribe because Mohammed’s family didn’t leave Yemen until the 5th centruy A.D., and that is about 1,100 years after the Ishmaelites disappeared. Mohammed’s tribe could not have lived in the same locations as the Ishmaelite tribes at any time throughout history.

The genealogy fabricated by Ibn-Ishak contradicts the sayings of Mohammed, who expressed his ignorance about his ancestors prior to his 17th ancestor.

Ibn Ishak was considered by the Muslim scholars of his time as being guilty of forgery and fabricating false genealogies.

Long before Ibn Ishak, Muslims who lived in Mohammed’s own time also fabricated genealogies in an attempt to connect Mohammed to the descendants of Ishmael.  Mohammed, himself, rejected all of these false genealogies, and he put limits regarding the genealogy of his ancestors. Regarding Mohammed’s own rejection of the false genealogies, Amru bin al-As wrote:

Mohammed genealogised(sic) himself regarding his ancestors until he reached al-Nather bin Kinaneh, then he said, “anyone who claimed otherwise or added further ancestors, has lied.”

By this, Mohammed confessed that neither he, nor anyone else, knew about his ancestors beyond al-Nather bin Kinaneh. Nather bin Kinaneh is the 17th ancestor in the genealogy which Mohammed recognized as true. Other narrations of the customs, or sayings, of Mohammed, called Hadiths, show Mohammed refused to be genealogized prior to Maad,  معدwho some suggested, was the 4th ancestor prior to al-Nather bin Kinaneh.

When we look at the ancestors of Mohammed, it’s reasonable to estimate 30 years for each generation of the 17 ancestors of Mohammed. Therefore, we can conclude that Mohammed knew about the genealogy of his tribe as far back as about 510 years. If we want to add the other four ancestors that Mohammed listed, we would go back 630 years. The truth is, nobody knew beyond such date. How, then, could Ibn Ishak and his followers reliably document a genealogy back to Ishmael, who lived in 2050 B.C.?  This gives approximately 2000 years between the 21st ancestor of Mohammed and Ishmael. How could Ibn Ishak claim the Ishmaelites lived in Mecca during this period and give details about their history when Mohammed himself said that nobody knew about his relatives prior to his 17th or 21st ancestor?  Mecca was not even in existence during this period, as we have clearly demonstrated. Ibn Ishak’s genealogy contradicts Mohammed’s own claims that he did not know his ancestors farther back than al-Nather bin Kinaneh, the 17th ancestor before himself.

All the genealogies that appeared at the time of Mohammed were considered by Mohammed ad his close followers to be false.

Many versions of Hadith of Mohammed coming from the followers of Mohammed all report that Mohammed opposed to be genealogized until Ishmael. All his closest contemporaries and followers considered the genealogies appearing at his time to be false. Among the people who reported Mohammed’s opposition to such genealogies were his wife, Aisheh, and his cousin, Ibn Abbas, one of the most important reporters of Mohammed’s Hadith.  Ibn Ishak went against what all these people had said by creating genealogies which connect the ancestors of Mohammed with Ishmael.

Ibn Ishak altered the genealogies listed by Moses in Genesis; he inserted Arabic names from his time and contradicted the history regarding Amalek.

The fabrication went beyond this. The genealogies created by Ibn Ishak and others who came after him inserted Arabic names into the genealogies which we find in Genesis.  For example, Ibn Ishak inserted the Arabic name “Ya’rab,” which comes from the word  “Arab,” listing him as the son of “ Khahtan.” Ibn Ishak then replaced Khahtan for Joktan, mentioned in the book of Genesis as the son of Eber, the son of Arphaxad, and the third son of Shem, the son of Noah. We know that the term “Arab” didn’t exist until the 10th century B.C.  How, then, could it be inserted into history shortly following Noah, perhaps around 5500 B.C.?

Ibn Ishak went still farther. He changed the name of Lud, the fourth son of Shem, to Luth. He then made Luth the father of Amalek, who fathered the Amalekites. He also claimed that Amalek and his tribe lived in Mecca, and he claimed that the ancient Egyptians were also descendants of Amalek. He then made Amalek’s original name “Arib,” just to connect him with the Arabs. Indirectly, through these false genealogies, Ibn Ishak claimed that Mecca existed at the time of Noah and his grandson, Lud. This directly contradicts the historical facts we examined before, showing that Mecca didn’t exist until the 4th century A.D.

Amalek is a descendant of Esau, the son of Isaac. Genesis 36:12 states that Timma was a concubine of Eliphaz, the first born of Esau, and that she bore Amalek to Eliphaz. Amalek became the father of the Amalekites, which was an Edomite tribe which originally lived in southern Jordan, but moved to the eastern part of the Sinai, as was attested at the time of Moses. The Amalekites became extinct after the 10th century B.C. There’s no mention of Amalek in any inscription or in the writings of any Greek historian, which would indicate that the tribe lived in central, western or northern Arabia.

Refuting the Claim about Jurhum

Ibn Ishak claimed that the tribe of Jurhum lived in Mecca as far back as the time of Abraham. He also claimed that Jurhum was the grandson of Joktan, the son of Eber. He further claimed that Jurhum’s original name was “Hathrem.”The significance of the name “Hathrem” is that it is characteristic of Arabic-style names used at the time of Ibn Ishak, which was in the 8th century A.D. The names given in the inscriptions of Yemen and northern Arabia are totally different from the style of the names given in Ibn Ishak’s genealogies, which reflect the names of his generation. It is a fact that no inscription, no Greek or Roman historian, and no geographer who visited Arabia, ever mentioned a tribe called Jurhum. The first mention of Jurhum we find it in a poesy of Ummyya bin Abi al-Salet, the maternal cousin of Mohammed, who also claimed to be a prophet. The poem attributed to Ummyya says “the Lord of Ad and Jurhum”  First of all, the poem most probably was composed after the event of Islam, because we do not have in Jahiliyah pre-Islam any mention about Jurhum. The idea that many of the Jahiliyah poetry were added after Islam is embraced by great scholars such as Tah Hussein, the famous Egyptian scholar. Secondly, for the case of argument, if we want to admit the originality of such verse, we could not build upon it a history that a nation called Jurhum existed in Arabia since the time of Abraham, because Ummyya was contemporary of Mohammed, and he can’t be a source of documentation about a nation which would have existed prior to his time by 2700 years. Because there were no archiving methods and no printing like we have today, it’s commonly accepted that tradition can be considered accurate only if it was written within four centuries of the writers. If Jurhum existed as tribe in Arabia, it could have been a small tribe that appeared some time after the Christian era. Since no classical writer mentioned this tribe, if existed, it should have been insignificant. Ummyyia’s poems are full of myths: such as his claim that the Queen of Saba, who visited king Solomon was his aunt; he claimed this to justify his claim to the role of prophecy. In addition, Ummyyia had relationship with a Jinn-devil, who used to instruct him, which proves that he was a part of the occult religion of Arabia. If we want to accept this poem as composed by him, how can we rely on poems of such personality to establish history dating back to 2700 years before his time?

 Enormous historical mistakes exist in the Quran, and the genealogies created afgter the rise of Islam to support the Quran. Some examples are the genealogies regarding Thamud and Nimrod.

There are other serious historical mistakes in the Islamic genealogies regarding the tribe of Thamud. Thamud is an Arabic tribe which appeared in the 8th century B.C., as was attested at the time of the Assyrian King Sargon II through his Inscriptions. Thamud later lost its political power about the 5th century A.D. The Islamic genealogies attempted to back statements made in the Qur’an which placed Thamud and Ad – another Arabian tribe which appeared after Thamud-as tribes which came right after Noah. So they created a father for the tribe of Thamud and named him “Thamud.” Then they claimed he was the grandson of Shem, the son of Noah.  All this was created just to fit the narration of the Qur’an.

The Qur’an claims that the tribe of Thamud was the third generation after Noah, ( The Qur’an made the Arabian tribe of Ad to be second generation after Noah’s generation; then Thamud as the third generation, See Surah 7:69; 23:31,32;14:8,9)  and it was condemned by Allah to be punished by a wind. (The wind was the god who brought judgment in Zoroastrianism. We know this is also an enormous historical mistake. Not only did Thamud not appear until the 8th century B.C., but the official history, as shown by Assyrian inscriptions, demonstrates that Thamud continued to exist during the 7th century B.C. Also, writings by various Greek and Roman geographers who wrote about Arabia, said Thamud continued until the 5th century A.D. as a politically-organized tribe which occupied a large part of northern Arabia.  No wind destroyed the tribe, as the Qur’an claims.

This should be enough to convince us, but there’s yet another enormous historical mistake in the Islamic genealogies. This one concerns Nimrod. According to Genesis 10:8-11, Nimrod was the first builder of the old cities of Mesopotamia. He was the son of Cush, the son of Ham, the son of Noah.We can date him to between 5000 and 4500 B.C.  Islamic genealogies correctly state that Nimrod was the son of Cush, but incorrectly state that he lived around the time of Abraham. This false claim about Nimrod was made to conform to a mistake in the Qur’an, which made Nimrod reign at the time of Abraham. The Qur’an says Nimrod persecuted Abraham and cast him into a fire which did not harm him. We read this in Surah al-Anbiya’ 21:51-70 and Surah al-Safat 37:95. The narration of the Qur’an is taken from the Jewish book called Midrash Rabbah, chapter 17.

We urge Muslims to study history, and to compare the facts to what they have been told in the Qur’an and in Islamic tradition. The claims of Mohammed, the Qur’an and Islam are clearly unfounded. Even if such historical errors were accepted by the followers in Mohammed’s time, we now have so much more evidence which proves them in error. How can anyone embrace these enormous mistakes, when a simple study of history demonstrates how wrong they are.

 No one has the right to claim he descended from a specific man who lived 2,000 years before him, unless he has written documents which testify to his claim. In Mohammed’s case, those documents simply do not exist. We have no proof that the ancestors of Mohammed were the descendants of Ishmael.

I will continue to analyze the Islamic genealogies which began to appear in the 8th century A.D., and which endeavor to connect Mohammed with Ishmael. I already quoted the Hadith of Mohammed, in which he prohibited any genealogy which described him any further back than Nather bin Kinaneh, who lived 17 generations before him. Other Hadith of Mohammed state that he didn’t want to be genealogized prior to Maad معد ,  which some suggested to be the fourth person prior to Nather bin Kinaneh. The many genealogies which appeared since the 8th century A.D. confirm the same information, that the genealogy of Mohammed is limited to probably 17 generations before him, but certainly not more than 21 ancestors.

Why is this significant in our search for Mohammed’s genealogy?  In the first place, Mohammed himself confessed that he didn’t know of any ancestor before his 17th ancestor.  Secondly, after the 17th generation, we begin to notice the differences in these genealogies.  After Maad bin Adnan, number 21, the genealogies begin to contradict themselves with big differences, reflecting the fact that the authors of such genealogies couldn’t find resources on which to build their genealogies.  That’s because Mohammed prohibited his contemporaries from going any further back than his 17th ancestor. Thus, every one fabricated Mohammed’s genealogy differently from the other.

Another interesting feature of their work is that all of the biographers used Arabic-style names of the 8th and 9th centuries A.D., but they applied the names to the generation in which Ishmael lived. As an example, we find a genealogy mentioned by Tabari, in which the author of the genealogy said Nebaioth, the first-born of Ishmael, begot a son under the name of al-Awam  العوام , and al-Awam to beget al-Saboh الصابوح. Notice the Arabic names. In the genealogy, designations of al-Awam, and al-Saboh, respectively, follow the names.  We don’t find this style even in the inscriptions of North Arabia before the Christian era.  Instead, we see these names are of the same style as the Umayyad and Abassid periods, after the 8th and 9th centuries A.D.( the Abassid period began in the year 750 A.D.).

When we return to the genealogy fabricated by Ibn Ishak, on which other Muslim writers built in more recent times, we notice his Arabization of the genealogy. As I stated previously, he listed the son of Nabaioth, first-born of Ishmael, as Yashjub يشجب, his son is Yarob يعرب.  Yarob is, in itself, a word derived from the word Arab. Ibn Ishak did this in order to make Ishmael appear to be an Arab. Though we know that the word “Arab” was not known before the 10th century B.C., this style for names like Yarob and Yashjub is characteristic of the 8th century A.D., in which Ibn Ishak lived.  A common characteristic to all these genealogies is that they claim Mohammed was descended from Ishmael, and they all give a limited number of ancestors between Mohammed and Ishmael.

 

There are 2,670 years between Ishmael and Mohammed; a large span of time which cannot be covered with only 40 generations.

Mohammed claimed to have ascended to heaven, met Abraham, and learned that 

he, Mohammed, was a true copy of Abraham,

so as to convince his followers that he was descended from Abraham.

(Of course a trip to heaven, Paradise, for Mohammed has to be mythology.)
We saw how Mohammed claimed that Ishmael was his ancestor. He claimed this, even though the time between Mohammed and Ishmael was about 2,700 years, and there were no written documents at any time to support this claim.

But there is more involved than supporting an unhistorical claim. Mohammed connected himself to Abraham by saying he was a physically-true copy of Abraham, because he had ascended to heaven where he encountered many Biblical figures –  and among them was Abraham.

He also claimed that heaven has seven layers, copying the idea embraced by many religions and sects of his time, such as Gnosticism, Manicheism and Zoroastrianism. Gnostic literature makes man responsible for each of the sky’s seven layers. Mohammed claimed the same. Mohammed placed Abraham in the sky’s seventh layer,[15][xv] where he ruled over believers who did more works, and performed more religious rites, than the inhabitants of the lower layers.

 In order to persuade his followers that He, Mohammed, was the offspring of Abraham, Mohammed claimed that he was a true copy of Abraham.

(This again is Mohammed’s mythology. Imagine an Abraham clone in the 7th century?)

When his followers asked Mohammed what Abraham looked like, he told them that Abraham was a copy of Mohammed himself. He told them:

I did not see a man similar to him like your friend, nor is your friend likened to any person like him. (By “friend,” Mohammed meant himself.)

Al-Bukhari, the authoritative book of Mohammed’s Hadith, quotes Mohammed as saying, “I am the most likened son to Abraham.” Mohammed wanted to persuade his followers that he was the offspring of Abraham, so he claimed that physically he was a copy of Abraham. Isaac did not dare to make such a claim, though he was Abraham’s son, and his mother was Abraham’s step sister.  Neither did Jacob, or any of his descendents who were close to Abraham’s time, claim that they were a physical copy of Abraham. How could a man who lived 2,700 years after Abraham make such claim? [4]

 

Appendix 1

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF GOD
(1)I am the Lord thy God

(2)Thou shalt not have strange gods before me
Thou shalt not make for thyself any graven image

(3)Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain

(4)Remember to keep holy the sabbath day

(5)Honour thy father and mother

(6)Thou shalt not kill.

(7)Thou shalt not commit adultery.

(8)Thou shalt not steal.

(9)Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.

(10)Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife.
Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s (goods)  [3]


APPENDIX 2 – Old Testament Genealogy
http://www.d.umn.edu/~jbelote/pics/bible.GIF

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