Book on Islamic Government: Sahih Muslim Bk 20

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Book on Government: Sahih Muslim Bk.20

(11,320 words)

Essential extracts from Sahih Muslim Bk.20 to understand Islamic Theocracy. (With highlights.)


Sahih Muslim, Book 20:


Chapter 1: THE PEOPLE ARE SUBSERVIENT TO THE QURAISH AND THE CALIPHATE IS THE RIGHT OF THE QURAISH


Book 020, Number 4473: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims among them being subservient to the Muslims among them, and the disbelievers among the people being subservient to the disbelievers among them.

Book 020, Number 4477:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I joined the company of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) with my father and I heard him say: This Caliphate will not end until there have been twelve Caliphs among them. The narrator said: Then he (the Holy Prophet) said something that I could not follow. I said to my father: What did he say? He said: He has said: All of them will be from the Quraish.

Chapter 2: APPOINTING ANYONE AS A SUCCEEDING CALIPH OR LEAVING ASIDE THE QUESTION OF APPOINTMENT

Book 020, Number 4486:

It has been reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said: I entered the apartment of (my sister) Hafsa. She said: Do you know that your father is not going to nominate his successor? I said: He won’t do that (i. e. he would nominate). She said: He is going to do that. The narrator said: I took an oath that I will talk to him about the matter. I kept quiet until the next morning, still I did not talk to him, and I felt as if I were carryint, a mountain on my right hand. At last I came to him and entered his apartment. (Seeing me) he began to ask me about the condition of the people, and I informed him (about them). Then I said to him: I heard something from the people and took an oath that I will communicate it to you. They presume that you are not going to nominate a successor. If a grazer of camels and sheep that you had appointed comes back to you leaving the cattle, you will (certainly) think that the cattle are lost. To look after the people is more serious and grave. (The dying Caliph) was moved at my words. He bent his head in a thoughtful mood for some time and raised it to me and said: God will doubtlessly protect His religion. If I do not nominate a successor (I have a precedent before me), for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not nominate his successor. And if I nominate one (I have a precedent), for Abu Bakr did nominate. The narrator (Ibn Umar) said: By God. when he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr, I (at once) understood that he would not place anyone at a par with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and would not nominate anyone.

Chapter 3: PROHIBITION OF A DESIRE FOR A POSITION OF AUTHORITY AND COVETOUSNESS THEREOF


Book 020, Number 4487:

It has been reported on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to me: ‘Abd al-Rahman, do not ask for a position of authority, for if you are granted this position as a result of your asking for it, you will be left alone (without God’s help to discharge the responsibilities attendant thereon), and it you are granted it without making any request for it, you will be helped (by God in the discharge of your duties).

Chapter 4: UNDESIRABILITY OF GETTING A POSITION OF AUTHORITY WITHOUT NECESSITY

Book 020, Number 4491:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr who said: I said to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him): Messenger of Allah, will you not appoint me to a public office? He stroked my shoulder with his hand and said: Abu Dharr, thou art weak and authority is a trust. and on the Day of judgement it is a cause of humiliation and repentance except for one who fulfils its obligations and (properly) discharges the duties attendant thereon.

Chapter 5: THE MERITS OF A JUST RULER AND THE DEMERITS OF A TYRANT RULER

Book 020, Number 4493:

It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Behold! the Dispensers of justice will be seated on the pulpits of light beside God, on the right side of the Merciful, Exalted and Glorious. Either side of the Being is the right side both being equally meritorious. (The Dispensers of justice are) those who do justice in their rules, in matters relating to their families and in all that they undertake to do.

Chapter 6: MISAPPROPRIATION OF BOOTY IS A SERIOUS OFFENCE

Book 020, Number 4505:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: One day the Messenger of Allah (may  peace be upon him) stood among us (to deliver a sermon). He talked about the misappropriation of booty, and declared it to be a serious matter and a grave sin. Then he said: I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgement with a growling camel mounted on his neck, and should appeal to me for help saying:” Messenger of Allah, help me.” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I already communicated to you. I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a bleating ewe mounted on his neck, and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me,” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn’t find that one of you should come on the Day of Judgement with a Person crying loudly mounted on his neck, and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me,” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn’t find that any one of you should come on the Day of Judgement with fluttering clothes wrapped round his neck and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me,” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgement with a heap of gold and silver placed on his neck and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me.” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I already conveyed to you (the warning from the Almighty).

Chapter 7: ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS ON THE PART OF STATE OFFICERS IS FORBIDDEN

Book 020, Number 4509:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa’idi who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed a man from the Asad tribe who was called Ibn Lutbiyya in charge of Sadaqa (i. e. authorised hign to receive Sadaqa from the people on behalf of the State. When he returned (with the collections), he said: This is for you and (this is mine as) it was presented to me as a gift. The narrator said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood on the pulpit and praised God and extolled Him. Then he said: What about a State official whom I give an assignment and who (comes and) says: This is for you and this has been presented to me as a gift? Why didn’t he remain in the house of his father or the house of his mother so that he could observe whether gifts were presented to him or not. By the Being in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, any one of you will not take anything from it but will bring it on the Day of Judgement, carrying on his neck a camel that will be growling, or a cow that will be bellowing or an ewe that will be bleating. Then he raised his hands so that we could see the whiteness of his armpits. Then he said twice: O God, I have conveyed (Thy Commandments).

Chapter 8: OBEDIENCE TO THE RULER IS FORBIDDEN IN MATTERS SINFUL, BUT IS OTHERWISE OBLIGATORY

Book 020, Number 4518:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Holy prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Whoso obeys me obeys God, and whoso disobeys me disobeys God. Whoso obeys the commander (appointed by me) obeys me, and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me. The same tradition transmitted by different persons omits the portion: And whose disobeys the commander disobeys me.

Chapter 9: WHEN A RULER ENJOINS ALLAH -CONSCIOUSNESS AND DOES JUSTICE, HE WILL HAVE A (GREAT) REWARD

Book 020, Number 4542:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A commander (of the Muslims) is a shield for them. They fight behind him and they are protected by (him from tyrants and aggressors). If he enjoins fear of God, the Exalted and Glorious, and dispenses justice, there will be a (great) reward for him; and if he enjoins otherwise, it redounds on him.

Chapter 10: FULFILMENT OF THE COVENANT MADE WITH THE CALIPHS IS IMPERATIVE. THE CALIPH TO WHOM ALLEGIANCE IS SWORN IN THE FIRST INSTANCE HAS AN ESTABLISHED SUPREMACY OVER THOSE WHO ASSUME POWERS LATER

Book 020, Number 4543:

It has been narrated by Abu Huraira that the Holy Prophet (may pceace be upon him) said: Banu Isra’il were ruled over by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him; but after me there is no prophet and there will be caliphs and they will be quite large in number. His Companions said: What do you order us to do (in case we come to have more than one Caliph)? He said: The one to whom allegiance is sworn first has a supremacy over the others. Concede to them their due rights (i. e. obey them). God (Himself) will question them about the subjects whom He had entrusted to them.

Chapter 11: PATIENCE AT THE TYRANNY OF THE GOVERNORS AND THEIR UNDUE PREFERENCES

Book 020, Number 4549:

It has been narrated on the authority of Usaid b. Hudair that a man from the Ansar took the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) aside and said to him: Will you not appoint me governor as you have appointed so and so? He (the Messenger of Allah) said: You will surely come across preferential treatment after me, so you should be patient until you meet me at the Cistern (Haud-i-Kauthar).

Chapter 12: OBEDIENCE TO BE SHOWN TO THE (CALIPHS) EVEN IF THEY WITHHOLD THE PEOPLE’S DUE RIGHTS

Book 020, Number 4551:

It has been narrated on the authority of Alqama b. Wai’l al-Hadrami who learnt the tradition from his father. The latter said: Salama b. Yazid al-ju’afi asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him): Prophet of Allah, what do you think if we have rulers who rule over us and demand that we discharge our obligations towards them, but they (themselves) do not discharge their own responsibilities towards us? What do you order us to do? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) avoided giving any answer. Salama asked him again. He (again) avoided giving any answer. Then he asked again-it was the second time or the third time-when Ash’ath b. Qais (finding that the Holy Prophet was unnecessarily being pressed for answer) pulled him aside and said: Listen to them and obey them, for on them shall he their burden and on you shall be your burden.

Chapter 13: INSTRUCTION TO STICK TO THE MAIN BODY OF THE MUSLIMS IN THE TIME OF TRIALS AND WARNING AGAINST THOSE INVITING PEOPLE TO DISBELIEF

Book 020, Number 4553:

It has been narrated on the authority of Hudhaifa b. al-Yaman who said: People used to ask the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about the good times, but I used to ask him about bad times fearing lest they overtake me. I said: Messenger of Allah, we were in the midst of ignorance and evil, and then God brought us this good (time through Islam). Is there any bad time after this good one? He said: Yes. I asked: Will there be a good time again after that bad time? He said: Yes, but therein will be a hidden evil. I asked: What will be the evil hidden therein? He said: (That time will witness the rise of) the people who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine. You will know good points as well as bad points. I asked: Will there be a bad time after this good one? He said: Yes. (A time will come) when there will be people standing and inviting at the gates of Hell. Whoso responds to their call they will throw them into the fire. I said: Messenger of Allah, describe them for us. He said: All right. They will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. I said: Messenger of Allah, what do you suggest if I happen to live in that time? He said: You should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader. I said: If they have no (such thing as the) main body and have no leader? He said: Separate yourself from all these factions, though you may have to eat the roots of trees (in a jungle) until death comes to you and you are in this state.

Chapter 14: DECISION ABOUT ONE WHO TRIES TO DISRUPT THE UNITY OF THE MUSLIMS

Book 020, Number 4565:

It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Arfaja who said: I have heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Different evils will make their appearance in the near future. Anyone who tries to disrupt the affairs of this Umma while they are united you should strike him with the sword whoever he be. (If remonstrance does not prevail with him and he does not desist from his disruptive activities, he is to be killed.)

Chapter 15: WHEN THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE HAS BEEN OBTAINED FOR TWO CALIPHS

Book 020, Number 4568:

It has been narrated on the authority of Aba Sa’id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When oath of allegiance has been taken for two caliphs, kill the one for whom the oath was taken later.

Chapter 16: JUSTIFICATION FOR HATING THE AMIRS FOR VIOLATING THE LAWS OF THE SHARI’AH

Book 020, Number 4569:

It has been narrated on the authority of Umm Salama that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: In the near future there will be Amirs and you will like their good deeds and dislike their bad deeds. One who sees through their bad deeds (and tries to prevent their repetition by his band or through his speech), is absolved from blame, but one who hates their bad deeds (in the heart of his heart, being unable to prevent their recurrence by his hand or his tongue), is (also) fafe ( so far as God’s wrath is concerned). But one who approves of their bad deeds and imitates them is spiritually ruined. People asked (the Holy Prophet): Shouldn’t we fight against them? He replied: No, as long as they say their prayers.

Chapter 17: THE BEST AND THE WORST OR YOUR RULERS

Book 020, Number 4573:

It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Auf b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, who invoke God’s blessings upon you and you invoke His blessings upon them. And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you and whom you curse and who curse you. It was asked (by those present): Shouldn’t we overthrow them with the help of the sword? He said: No, as long as they establish prayer among you. If you then find anything detestable in them. You should hate their administration, but do not withdraw yourselves from their obedience.

Chapter 18: IT IS GOOD ON THE PART OF A LEADER TO TAKE THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE FROM HIS FORCES WHEN INTENDING TO FIGHT AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE ALLEGIANCE OF GOD’S PLEASURE UNDER THE TREE

Book 020, Number 4576:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir who said: We were one thousand and four hundred on the Day of Hudaibiya. We swore fealty to Him (the Holy Prophet) and ‘Umar was holding the latter’s hand (when he was sitting) under the tree (called) Samura (to administer the oath to the Companions). The narrator added: We took oath to the effect that we would not flee (from the battlefield if there was an encounter with the Meccans), but we did not take oath to fight to death.

Chapter 19: IT IS FORBIDDEN TO A MUHAJIR TO RETURN TO HIS NATIVE PLACE FOR THE PURPOSE OF RESETTLING THERE

Book 020, Number 4593:

It has been narrated by Salama b. al-Akwa’ that he visited al-Hajjaj who said to him: O son of al-Akwa’, you have turned apostate and have come to live again in the desert with the Bedouins (after your migration). He said: No, but the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) has permitted me to live in the desert.

Chapter 20: NO MIGRATION AFTER THE CONQUEST OF MECCA BUT ALLEGIANCE COULD BE SWORN (TO A RIGHTFUL LEADER) ON SERVING THE CAUSE OF ISLAM, ON FIGHTING IN THE WAY OF ALLAH AND ON FOLLOWING THE PATH OF VIRTUE

Book 020, Number 4594:

It has been reported on the authority of Mujashi’ b. Mas’ud as-Sulami who said: I came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) to offer him my pledge of migration. He said: The period of migration has expired (and those who were to get the reward for this great act of devotion have got it). You may now give your pledge to serve the cause of Islam, to strive in the way of Allah and to follow the path of virtue.

Chapter 21: HOW THE WOMEN SWORE FEALTY (TO THE HOLY PROPHET)

Book 020, Number 4602:

It has been narrated on the authority of ‘A’isha, the wife of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). She said: When the believing women migrated (to Medina) and came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), they would be tested in accordance with the following words of Allah. the Almighty and Exalted:” O Prophet, when believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee that they will not associate in worship anything with God, that they will not steal. that, they will not commit adultery…” to the end of the verse (lx. 62).

Whoso from the believing women accepted these conditions and agreed to abide by them were considered to have offered themselves for swearing fealty. When they had (formally) declared their resolve to do so, the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) would say to them: You may go. I have confirmed your fealty. By God, the hand of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) never touched the hand of a woman. He would take the oath of fealty from them by oral declaration. By God, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) never took any vow from women except that which God had ordered him to take, and his palm never touched the palm of a woman. When he had taken their vow, he would tell them that he had taken the oath from them orally.

Chapter 22: SWEARING FEALTY FOR LISTENING TO AND OBEYING THE ORDERS OF THE LEADER AS FAR AS POSSIBLE

Book 020, Number 4604:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. ‘Umar who said: We used to take oath to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) that we would listen to and obey his orders. He would tell us (to say in the oath): As far as it lies in my power.

Chapter 23: THE AGE OF MAJORITY

Book 020, Number 4605:

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) inspected me on the battlefield on the Day of Uhud, and I was fourteen years old. He did not allow me (to take part in the fight). He inspected me on the Day of Khandaq-and I was fifteen years old, and he permitted me (to fight), Nafi’ said: I came to ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz who was then Caliph, and narrated this tradition to him. He said: Surely, this is the demarcation between a minor and a major. So he wrote to his governors that they should pay subsistence allowance to one who was fifteen years old, but should treat those of lesser age among children.

Chapter 24: IT IS FORBIDDEN TO TAKE THE QUR’AN TO THE LAND OF THE INFIDELS WHEN IT IS FEARED THAT IT MIGHT FALL INTO THEIR HANDS

Book 020, Number 4607:

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade that one should travel to the land of the enemy taking the Qur’an with him.

Chapter 28: THE MERIT OF JIHAD AND CAMPAIGNING IN THE WAY OF ALLAH

Book 020, Number 4626:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace upon him) said: Allah has undertaken to look after the affairs of one who goes out to fight in His way believing in Him and affirming the truth of His Apostles. He is committed to His care that He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home from where he set out with a reward or (his share of) booty. By the Being in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad. If a person gets wounded in the way of Allah, he will come on the Day of Judgement with his wound in the same condition as it was when it was first inflicted; its colour being the colour of blood but its smell will be the smell of musk. By, the Being in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s life, if it were not to be too hard upon the Muslim. I would not lag behind any expedition which is going to fight in the cause of Allah. But I do not have abundant means to provide them (the Mujahids) with riding beasts, nor have they (i. e. all of them) abundant means (to provide themselves with all the means of Jihad) so that they could he left behind. By the Being in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s lap, I love to fight in the way of Allah and be killed, to fight and again be killed and to fight again and be killed.

Chapter 29: THE MERIT OF MARTYRDOM

Book 020, Number 4634:

It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:” Nobody who dies and has something good for him with Allah will (ever like to) return to this world even though he were offered the whole world and all that is in its (as an inducement), except the martyr who desires to return and be killed in the world for the (great) merit of martyrdom that he has seen.

Book 020, Number 4635:

It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik (through a different chain of transmitters) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Nobody who enters Paradise will (ever like to) return to this world even if he were offered everything on the surface of the earth (as an inducement) except the martyr who will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him.

Book 020, Number 4636:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was asked: What deed could be an equivalent of Jihad in the way of Allah, the Almighty and Exalted? He answered: You do not have the strength to do that deed. The narrator said: They repeated the question twice or thrice. Every time he answered: You do not have the strength to do it. When the question was asked for the third time, he said: One who goes out for Jihad is like a person who keeps fasts, stands in prayer (constantly), (obeying) Allah’s (behests contained in) the verses (of the Qur’an), and does not exhibit any lassitude in fasting and prayer until the Mujahid returns from Jihad in the way of Allah, the Exalted.

Book 020, Number 4637:

This tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4638:

It has been narrated on the authority of Nu’man b. Bashir who said: As I was (sitting) near the pulpit of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), a man said: I do not care if, after embracing Islam, I do not do any good deed (except) distributing drinking water among the pilgrims. Another said: I do not care if, after embracing Islam, I do not do any good deed beyond maintenance service to the Sacred Mosque. Another said: Jihad in the way of Allah is better than what you have said. ‘Umar reprimanded them and said: Don’t raise your voices near the pulpit of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on Friday. When prayer was over, I entered (the apartment of the Holy Prophet) and asked his verdict about the matter in which they had differed. (It was upon this that) Allah, the Almighty and Exalted, revealed the Qur’anic verse:” Do you make the giving of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque equal to (the service of those) who believe in Allah and the Last Day and strive hard in the cause of Allah. They are not equal in the sight of God. And Allah guides not the wrongdoing people” (ix. 20). This tradition has been narrated on the authority of Nu’man b. Bashir through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 30: MERIT OF LEAVING FOR JIHAD IN THE MORNING AND EVENING

Book 020, Number 4639:

It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Leaving (for Jihad) in the way of Allah in the morning or in the evening (will merit a reward) better than the world and all that is in it.

Book 020, Number 4640:

It has been narrated on the authority of Sahl b. Sa’d as-Sa’idi that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The journey undertaken by a person in the morning (for Jihad) in the way of Allah (will merit a reward) better than the world and all that is in it.

Chapter 31: THE HIGH POSITION RESERVED BY GOD FOR MUJAHIDS IN PARADISE

Book 020, Number 4645:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to him): Abu Sa’id, whoever cheerfully accepts Allah as his Lord, Islam as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise. He (Abu Sa’id) wondered at it and said: Messenger of Allah, repeat it for me. He (the Messenger of Allah) did that and said: There is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred (higher), and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth. He (Abu Sa’id) said: What is that act? He replied: Jihad in the way of Allah! Jihad in the way of Allah!

Chapter 32: ONE WHO IS KILLED IN THE WAY OF ALLAH WILL HAVE ALL HIS SINS BLOTTED OUT EXCEPT DEBT

Book 020, Number 4646:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Qatada that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood up among them (his Companions) to deliver his sermon in which he told them that Jihad in the way of Allah and belief in Allah (with all His Attributes) are the most meritorious of acts. A man stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, do you think that if I am killed in the way of Allah, my sins will be blotted out from me? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Yes, in case you are killed in the way of Allah and you were patient and sincere and you always fought facing the enemy, never turming your back upon him. Then he added: What have you said (now)? (Wishing to have further assurance from him for his satisfaction), he asked (again): Do you think if I am killed in the way of Allah, all my sins will be obliterated from me? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Yes, it you were patient and sincere and always fought facing the enemy and never turning your back upon him, (all your lapses would be forgiven) except debt. Gabriel has told me this.

Chapter 33: THE SOULS OF THE MARTYRS ARE IN PARADISE; THEY ARE ALIVE AND FIND THEIR SUSTENANCE FROM THEIR LORD

Book 020, Number 4651:

It has been narrated on the authority of Masruq Who said: We asked ‘Abdullah about the Qur’anic verse:” Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Nay, they are alive, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord..” (iii. 169). He said: We asked the meaning of the verse (from the Holy Prophet) who said: The souls, of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like and then nestle in these chandeliers. Once their Lord cast a glance at them and said: Do ye want anything? They said: What more shall we desire? We eat the fruit of Paradise from wherever we like. Their Lord asked them the same question thrice. When they saw that they will continue to be asked and not left (without answering the question). they said: O Lord, we wish that Thou mayest return our souls to our bodies so that we may be slain in Thy way once again. When He (Allah) saw that they had no need, they were left (to their joy in heaven).

Chapter 34: MERIT OF JIHAD AND OF KEEPING VIGILANCE (OVER THE ENEMY)

Book 020, Number 4652:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri that a man came to the Holy Prophet (may peace he upon him) and said: Who is the best of men? He replied: A man who fights in the way of Allah spending his wealth and staking his life. The man then asked: Who is next to him (in excellence)? He said: Next to him is a believer who lives in a mountain gorge worshipping hid Lord and sparing men from his mischief.

Chapter 35: THE TWO MEN, BOTH OF WHOM WILL ENTER PARADISE THOUGH ONE OF THEM SLAYS THE OTHER

Book 020, Number 4658:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: God laughs at the two men both of whom will enter Paradise (though) one of them kills the other. They said: Messenger of Allah, how is it? He said: One of them fights in the way of Allah, the Almighty and Exalted. and dies a martyr. Then God turns in mercy to the murderer who embraces Islam, fights in the way of Allah, the Almighty and Exalted, and dies a martyr.

Chapter 36: ABOUT A MAN WHO KILLED A DISBELIEVER AND EMBRACED ISLAM

Book 020, Number 4661:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A disbeliever and a believer who killed him will never be gathered together in Hell.

Chapter 37: THE EXCELLENCE OF CHARITY IN THE WAY OF ALLAH AND ITS MANIFOLD REWARD

Book 020, Number 4663:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari who said A man brought a muzzled she-camel and said: It is (offered) in the way of Allah. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: For this you will have seven hundred she-camels on the Day of Judgement all of which will be muzzled.

Chapter 38: THE MERIT OF HELPING THE WARRIOR (FIGHTING IN THE WAY OF ALLAH) WITH SOMETHING TO RIDE UPON AND LOOKING AFTER HIS FAMILY IN HIS ABSENCE

Book 020, Number 4665:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari who said: A man came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: My riding beast has been killed, so give me some animal to ride upon. He (the Holy Prophet) said: I have none with me. A man said: Messenger of Allah, I can guide him to one who will provide him with a riding beast. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who guides to something good has a reward similar to that of its doer.

Chapter 39: THE WIVES OF MUJAHIDS, A SACRED TRUST, AND SINFULNESS OF THOSE WHO BETRAY THIS TRUST

Book 020, Number 4673:

It has been narrated on the authority of Sulaimin b. Buraida who learnt the tradition from his father. The latter said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The sanctity of the wives of Mujahids is like the sanctity of their mothers for those who sit at home (i. e do not go out for Jihad). Anyone who stays behind looking after the family of a Mujahid and betrays his trust will be made to stand on the Day of judgement before the Mujahid who will take away from his meritorious deeds whatever he likes. So what do you think (will he leave anything)?

Chapter 40: JIHAD NOT COMPULSORY FOR THOSE WHO HAVE A GENUINE EXCUSE

Book 020, Number 4676:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq, that he heard Bara’ talking about the Qur’anic verse:” Those who sit (at home) from among the believers and those who go out for Jihad in the way of Allah are not equal” (iv. 95). (He said that) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered Zaid (to write the verse). He brought a shoulder-blade (of a slaughtered camel) and inscribed it (the verse) thereon. The son of Umm Maktum complained of his blindness to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). (At this) descended the revelation:” Those of the believers who sit (at home) without any trouble (illness, incapacity, disability)” (iv. 95). The tradition has been handed down through two other chains of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4677:

It has been narrated on the authority of Bara’ who said: When the Qur’anic verse:” Those who sit (at home) from among mu’min” (iv. 94) was revealed, the son of Umm Maktum spoke to him (the Holy Prophet). (At this). the words:” other than those who have a trouble (illness)” were revealed.

Chapter 41: IN PROOF OF THE MARTYR’S ATTAINING PARADISE

Book 020, Number 4678:

It has been reported on the authority of Jabir that a man said: Messenger of Allah, where shall I be if I am killed? He replied: In Paradise. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed (i. e. he did not wait until he could finish the dates).

In the version of the tradition narrated by Suwaid we have the words:” A man said to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). on the day of Uhud……”

Book 020, Number 4679:

It has been reported on the authority of Bara! ‘ who stated: A man from Banu Nabit (one of the Ansar tribes) came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: I testify that there is no god except Allah and that thou art His bondsman and Messenger. Then he went forward and fought until he was killed. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: He has done a little but shall be given a great reward.

Chapter 42: ONE WHO FIGHTS THAT THE WORD OF ALLAH IS EXALTED FIGHTS IN THE WAY OF ALLAH

Book 020, Number 4684:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Musa Ash’ari that a desert Arab came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, one man fights for the spoils of war; another fights that he may be remembered, and another fights that he may see his (high) position (achieved as a result of his valour in fighting). Which of these is fighting in the cause of God? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who fights so that the word of Allah is exalted is fighting in the way of Allah.

Chapter 43: WHO FOUGHT FOR OSTENTATION AND VANITY DESERVED (PUNISHMENT IN) HELL

Book 020, Number 4688:

It has been narrated on the authority of Sulaiman b. Yasar who said: People dispersed from around Abu Huraira, and Natil, who was from the Syrians. said to him: O Shaikh, relate (to us) a tradition you have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: Yes. I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The first of men (whose case) will be decided on the Day of Judgement will be a man who died as a martyr. He shall be brought (before the Judgement Seat). Allah will make him recount His blessings (i. e. the blessings which He had bestowed upon him) and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his life). (Then) will Allah say: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I fought for Thee until I died as a martyr. Allah will say: You have told a lie. You fought that you might be called a” brave warrior”. And you were called so. (Then) orders will be passed against him and he will be dragged with his face downward and cast into Hell. Then will be brought forward a man who acquired knowledge and imparted it (to others) and recited the Qur’an. He will be brought And Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Then will Allah ask: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I acquired knowledge and disseminated it and recited the Qur’an seeking Thy pleasure. Allah will say: You have told a lie. You acquired knowledge so that you might be called” a scholar,” and you recited the Qur’an so that it might be said:” He is a Qari” and such has been said. Then orders will be passed against him and he shall be dragged with his face downward and cast into the Fire. Then will be brought a man whom Allah had made abundantly rich and had granted every kind of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them and (admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Allah will (then) ask: What have you done (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I spent money in every cause in which Thou wished that it should be spent. Allah will say: You are lying. You did (so) that it might be said about (You):” He is a generous fellow” and so it was said. Then will Allah pass orders and he will be dragged with his face downward and thrown into Hell.

Chapter 44: THE REWARD OF ONE WHO FOUGHT AND GOT HIS SHARE OF THE BOOTY AND OF ONE (WHO FOUGHT) BUT DID NOT GET ANY BOOTY

Book 020, Number 4690:

It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A troop of soldiers who fight in tile way of Allah and get their share of the booty receive in advance two-thirds of their reward in the Hereafter and only one-third will remain (to their credit). If they do not receive any booty, they will get their full reward.

Book 020, Number 4691:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Amr (through a different chain of transmitters) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A troop of soldiers, large or small, who fight (in the way of Allah), get their share of the booty and return safe and sound, receive in advance two-thirds of their reward (only one-third remaining to their credit to be received in the Hereafter) ; and a troop of soldiers, large or small, who return empty-handed and are afflicted or wounded, will receive their full reward (in the Hereafter).

Chapter 45: THE VALUE OF AN ACTION DEPENDS ON THE INTENTION BEHIND IT

Book 020, Number 4692:

It has been narrated on the authority of Umar b. al-Khattab that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: (The value of) an action depends on the intention behind it. A man will be rewarded only for what he intended. The emigration of one who emigrates for the sake of Allah and His Messenger (may peace be upon him) is for the sake of Allah and His Messenger (may peace be upon him) ; and the emigration of one who emigrates for gaining a worldly advantage or for marrying a woman is for what he has emigrated.

Chapter 46: DESIRABILITY OF SEEKING MARTYRDOM

Book 020, Number 4694:

It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) said: Who seeks martyrdom with sincerity shall get its reward, though he may not achieve it.

Book 020, Number 4695:

It has been reported on the authority of Sahl b. Aba Umama b. Sahl b. Hunaif who learned the tradition from his father who (in turn) learned it from his grandfather-that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who sought martyrdom with sincerity will be ranked by Allah among the martyrs even if he died on his bed. In his version of the tradition Abd Tahir did not mention the words:” with sincerity”.

Chapter 47: DENUNCIATION OF ONE WHO DIED BUT NEVER FOUGHT IN THE WAY OF ALLAH NOR DID HE EVER EXPRESS A DESIRE OR DETERMINATION FOR JIHAD

Book 020, Number 4696:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who died but did not fight in the way of Allah nor did he express any desire (or determination) for Jihid died the death of a hypocrite.

‘Abdullah b. Mubarak said: We think the hadith pertained to the time of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

Chapter 48: REWARD OF THOSE WHO COULD NOT JOIN A JIHAD EXPEDITION ON ACCOUNT OF ILLNESS OR SOME OTHER EXCUSE

Book 020, Number 4697:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir who said: We were with the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) on an expedition. He said: There are some people in Medina. They are with you whenever you cover a distance or cross a valley. They have been detained by illness.

Chapter 49: THE MERIT OF JOINING A NAVAL EXPEDITION FOR JIHAD

Book 020, Number 4699:

It has been reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to visit Umm Haram daughter of Milhan (who was the sister of his foster-mother or his father’s aunt). She was the wife of ‘Ubada b. Samit, One day the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) paid her a visit. She entertained him with food and then sat down to rub his head. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) dozed off and when he woke up (after a while), he was laughing. She asked: What made you laugh. Messenger of Allah? He said: Some people from my Umma were presented to me who were fighters in the way of Allah and were sailing in this sea. (Gliding smoothly on the water), they appeared to be kings or like kings (sitting) on thrones (the narrator has a doubt about the actual expression used by the Holy Prophet). She said: Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah that He may include me among these warriors. He prayed for her. Then he placed his head (down) and dozed off (again). He woke up laughing, as before. (She said) I said: Messenger of Allah, what makes you laugh? He replied: A people from my Umma were presented to me. They were fighters in Allah’s way. (He described them in the same words as he had described the first warriors.) She said: Messenger of Allah, pray to God that He may include me among these warriors. He said: You are among the first ones.

Umm Haram daughter of Milhan sailed in the sea in the time of Mu’awiya. When she came out of the sea and (was going to mount a riding animal) she fell down and died.

Book 020, Number 4700:

It has been narrated on the authority of Umm Haram (and she was the aunt of Anas) who said: The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) came to us one day and had a nap in our house. When he woke up, he was laughing. I said: Messenger of Allah, what made you laugh? He said: I saw a people from my followers sailing on the surface of the sea (looking) like kings (sitting) on their thrones. I said: Pray to Allah that He may include me among them. He said: You will sit among them. He had a (second) nip, woke up and was laughing. I asked him (the reason for his laughter). He gave the same reply. I said: Pray to Allah that He may include me among them. He said: You are among the first ones. Anas said: ‘Ubada b. Samit married her. He joined a naval expedition and took her along with him. When she returned, a mule was brought for her. While mounting it she fell down, broke her neck (and died).

Chapter 50: THE MERIT OF KEEPING WATCH IN THE WAY OF ALLAH, THE ALMIGHTY AND EXALTED

Book 020, Number 4703:

It has been narrated on the authority of Salman who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Keeping watch for a day and a night is better (in point of reward) than fasting for a whole month and standing in prayer every night. If a person dies (while, performing this duty), his (meritorious) activity will continue and he will go on receiving his reward for it perpetually and will be saved from the torture of the grave.

Chapter 51: ABOUT THE MARTYRS

Book 020, Number 4705:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the, Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: While a man walks along a path, finds a thorny twig lying on the way and puts it aside, Allah would appreciate it and forgive him The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: The martyrs are of five kinds: one who dies of plague; one who dies of diarrhoea (or cholera) ; one who is drowned; one who is buried under debris and one who dies fighting in the way of Allah.

Book 020, Number 4706:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (through another chain of transmitters) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Whom do you consider to be a martyr among you? They (the Companions) said: Messenger, of Allah, one who is slain in the way of Allah is a martyr. He said: Then (if this is the definition of a martyr) the martyrs of my Umma will be small in number. They asked: Messenger of Allah, who are they? He said: One who is slain in the way of Allah is a martyr; one who dies in the way of Allah, is a martyr; one who dies of plague is a martyr; one who dies of cholera is a martyr.

Ibn Miqsam said: I testify the truth of your father’s statement (with regard to this tradition) that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: One who is drowned is a martyr.

Book 020, Number 4709:

It has been narrated on the authority of Hafsa daughter of Sirin who said: Anas b. Malik asked me the cause of death of Yahya b. ‘Abu ‘Amra. I said: (He died) of plague. He said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said that death by plague is martyrdom for a Muslim.

Chapter 52: THE MERIT OF ARCHERY AND INDUCING OTHERS TO LEARN IT AND DENUNCIATION OF ONE WHO LEARNT THE ART AND THEN NEGLECTED IT

Book 020, Number 4711:

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Amir who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say-and he was delivering a sermon from the pulpit: Prepare to meet them with as much strength as you can afford. Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery.

Book 020, Number 4714:

It has been reported by ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Shamasa that Fuqaim al- Lakhmi said to Uqba b. Amir: You frequent between these two targets and you are an old man, so you will be finding it very hard. ‘Uqba said: But for a thing I heard from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him), I would not strain myself. Harith (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: I asked Ibn Shamasa: What was that? He said that he (the Holy Prophet) said: Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us. or he has been guilty of disobedience (to Allah’s Apostle).

Chapter 53: SAYING OF THE HOLY PROPHET (MAY PEACE BE UPON HIM):” A GROUP OF PEOPLE FROM MY UMMA WILL ALWAYS REMAIN ON THE RIGHT PATH AND CONTINUE TO BE TRIUMPHANT; THEIR OPPONENTS SHALL NOT BE ABLE TO DO THEM ANY HARM”

Book 020, Number 4715:

It has been narrated on the authority of Thauban that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A group of people from mv Umma will always remain triumphant on the right path and continue to be triumphant (against their opponents). He who deserts them shall not be able to do them any harm. They will remain in this position until Allah’s. Command is executed (i. e. Qayamah is established). In Qutaiba’s version of the tradition, we do not have the words:” They will remain in this position.”

Book 020, Number 4716:

It has been narrated on the authority of Mughira who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to be triumphant over the people until the Command of Allah overtakes them while they are still triumphant. The same tradition has been narrated through another chain of transmitters on the same authority.

Book 020, Number 4717:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: This religion will continue to exist, and a group of people from the Muslims will continue to fight for its protection until the Hour is established.

Book 020, Number 4718:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to fight In defence of truth and remain triumphant until the Day of judgement.

Book 020, Number 4719:

It his been narrated on the authority of Umair b. Umm Hani who said: I heard Mu’awiya say (while delivering a sermon from the pulpit) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to obey Allah’s Command, and those who desert or oppose them shall not be able to do them any harm. They will be dominating the peeple until Allah’s Command is executed (i. e. Resurrection is established).

Book 020, Number 4720:

It has been related by, Yazid b. al-Asamm that he heard Mu’awiya b. Abu Sfyan quote a tradition from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) which he related from the Prophet (mail peace he upon him) -and he did not hear him quote from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) any tradition other than this in the course of his sermon from the pulpit-that whom Allah wants to do a favour, He grants him an understanding of religion. A group of people from the Muslims will remain on the Right Path and continue until the Day of Judgement to triumph over those who oppose them.

Book 020, Number 4721:

It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Shamasa al- Mahri who said: I was in the company of Maslama b. Mukhallad, and ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. ‘As was with him. ‘Abdullah said: The Hour shall some only when the worst type of people are left on the earth. They will be worse than the people of pre-Islamic days. They will get whatever they ask of Allah. While we were yet sitting when ‘Uqba b. ‘Amir came, and Maslama said to him: ‘Uqba, listen to what ‘Abdullah says. ‘Uqba said: He knows better; so far as I am concerned, I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to fight in obedience to the Command of Allah, remaining dominant over their enemies. Those who will oppose them shall not do them any harm. They will remain ill this condition until the Hour overtakes them. (At this) ‘Abdullah said: Yes. Then Allah will raise a wild which will be fragrant like musk and whose touch will be like the touch of silk; (but) it will cause the death of all (faithful) persons, not leaving behind a single person with an iota of faith in his heart. Then only the worst of men will remain to be overwhelmed by the Hour.

Book 020, Number 4722:

It has been narrated by Sa’d b. Abu Waqqas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The people of the West will continue to triumphantly follow the truth until the Hour is established.

Chapter 54: KEEPING THE GOOD OF THE ANIMALS IN VIEW DURING A JOURNEY AND FORBIDDEN FROM HALTING FOR THE NIGHT ON THE TRACK

Book 020, Number 4723:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When you journey through a fertile land, you should (go slow and) give the camels a chance to graze in the land. When you travel In an arid (land) where there is scarcity of vegetation, you should quicken their pace (lest your camels grow feeble and emaciated for lack of fodder). When you halt for the night, avoid (pitching your tent on) the road, for it is the abode of noxious little animals at night.

Chapter 55: TRAVELLING, A TORTUOUS EXPERIENCE-DESIRABILITY OF A TRAVELLER’S HASTENING HIS RETURN TO HIS FAMILY AFTER THE TRANSACTION OF HIS BUSINESS

Book 020, Number 4725:

On the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Travelling is a tortuous experience. It deprives a person of his sleep. his food and drink. When one of you has accomplished his purpose, he should hasten his return to his family.

Chapter 56: UNDESIRABILITY OF RETURNING TO ONE’S FAMILY AT NIGHT (AFTER A LONG ABSENCE FROM HOME)

Book 020, Number 4726:

It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would not come (back) to his family by night. He would come to them in the morning or in the evening. Another version of the tradition narrated on the some authority is a little differently worded. It says: (He) would not enter (upon his household at night).

Book 020, Number 4727:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah who said: We accompanied the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on an expedition. When we came (back) to Medina and were going to enter our houses, he said: Wait and enter (your houses) in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb, and a woman whose husband has been away from home may have removed the hair from her private parts.

Book 020, Number 4728:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: If one of you comes (back from a journey) at night. he should not enter his house as a night visitor (but should wait) until a woman whose husband has been away from house has removed the hair from her private parts and a woman with dishevelled hair has combed her hair. [1]

Comments on the Islamic Book on Government: Sahih Muslim Bk 20

The above outlines the way an Islamic Theocracy perceives the governance of Muslim states/nations. The only form of government discussed is that of a Caliphate and the duties of a Caliph and the obedience owed to the Caliph. The Caliph rules from the authority of Allah and abides by all the Laws of Allah, the Sharia Laws. The rule of the Caliph is absolute.

An inordinate amount of  the Book of Government stresses the importance of Jihad, and the desirability of martyrdom, the place of mujahids in the pecking order of Muslims in Paradise, and the assurances that the wives of mujahids are cared for. It also stresses the importance of charity. All this seems to be a consolidation of what is already in the Qur’an.

ISLAMIC POLITICS

The politics of Islam are confusing and controversial: “Jihad has been made obligatory, which means that the individual should, when the occasion arises, offer even his life for the defense and protection of Islam and the Islamic state.”1 — Khurshid Ahmad

“Islam is international in its outlook and approach and does not admit barriers and distinctions based on color, clan, blood or territory . . . It wants to unite the entire human race under one banner.”2 — Khurshid Ahmad

Islamic Politics – The Concept of Jihad

One of the most controversial aspects of Islamic politics is the concept of jihad,or “holy war.” Since September 11, 2001, many Muslims have sought to soften jihad, relegating it to the realm of the personal struggle with sin. While the Qur’an does allow for this view of jihad that is not all the Qur’an has to say about it. Most passages in the Qur’an teach that jihad is warfare against peoples who oppose the Islamic faith.

    A Muslim is one whose outlook on life is permeated with this consciousness [of the pillars of Islam]. He is committed to the values of life given by the Qur’an and the

Sunnah.

    He tries to live according to the guidance given by God and His Prophet and he strives to promote the message of Islam through his word and actions. This striving is known as

Jihad

    which means a striving and a struggle in the path of God. It consists in exerting one’s self to the utmost in order to personally follow the teachings of Islam and to work for their establishment in society.

Jihad

    has been described in the Qur’an and the

Sunnah

    as the natural corollary of these pillars of faith. Commitment to God involves commitment to sacrifice one’s time, energy and wealth to promote the right cause. It may be necessary at times to give one’s life in order to preserve Truth.

Jihad

    implies readiness to give whatever one has, including his life, for the sake of Allah.

3

Islamic Politics – Islamic Theocracy

Islam, as with Christianity, is a worldview with the vision to encompass the entire world. Whereas Christians hold to the Great Commission—the call to make disciples of all nations (Matthew 28:18-20) and proclaim the ministry of reconciliation to the whole world (2 Corinthians 5:18-19)—Muslims hold to the call of global Islam, a goal accomplished if need be through the force of jihad. Global Islam means that all nations would be ruled under an Islamic theocracy. “Islam is international in its outlook and approach and does not admit barriers and distinctions based on color, clan, blood or territory,” explains Khurshid Admad. “It wants to unite the entire human race under one banner. To a world torn by national rivalries and feuds, it presents a message of life and hope and of a glorious future.”4

Zaki Badawi speaks to the reality that many Muslims exist with minority status in non-Muslim countries. While it is a struggle some Muslims have always faced, it is not a satisfactory situation in their eyes. He explains,

    As we know, the history of Islam as a faith is also the history of a state and a community of believers living by Divine law. The Muslims, jurists and theologians, have always expounded Islam as both a Government and a faith. This reflects the historical fact that Muslims, from the start, lived under their own law. Muslim theologians naturally produced a theology with this in view—it is a theology of the majority. Being a minority was not seriously considered or even contemplated. The theologians were divided in their attitude to the question of minority status. Some declared that it should not take place; that is to say that a Muslim is forbidden to live for any lengthy period of time under non-Muslim rule. Others suggested that a Muslim living under non-Muslim rule is under no obligation to follow the law of Islam in matters of public law. Neither of these two extremes is satisfactory. Throughout the history of Islam some pockets of Muslims lived under the sway of non-Muslim rulers, often without an alternative. They nonetheless felt sufficiently committed to their faith to attempt to regulate their lives in accordance with its rules and regulations in so far as their circumstances permitted. In other words, the practice of the community rather than the theories of the theologians provided a solution. Nevertheless Muslim theology offers, up to the present, no systematic formulation of the status of being a minority. The question is being examined. It is hoped that the matter will be brought to focus and that Muslim theologians from all over the Muslim world will delve into this thorny subject and allay the conscience of the many Muslims living in the West and also to chart a course for Islamic survival, even revival, in a secular society.

5Muslim minorities in Western countries often place themselves in positions where they seek to govern themselves under Shari’ah law, while simultaneously maintaining citizenship in their respective countries. To this end, many Muslims seek advancement in politics, education, and law, all with the hope of being better able to make their case. Typically they seek to implement Shari’ah in regard to education and family law, seeing Islamic law—in additions to being an obligation for Muslims—as superior to other law systems. Additionally, these Muslims seek to squelch any and all public criticisms of their faith. In our current politically correct culture, Muslims sometimes join hands with the political Left in opposing traditional Western values. Both are critical of the Christian faith and the Christian history of their respective countries. But at other points, especially with regard to family values, Muslims and leftists find little common ground.

Currently this situation is a reality in Canada and Australia. The Muslim population in Canada has gained a significant voice regarding the implementation of Shari’ah within their communities. In Australia, Christian apologists are regularly hassled in courts, sometimes being forced into silence regarding their critique of Islam. Recent court decisions are very troubling in this regard. While Muslims may continue their critique of the Christian faith, standing alongside the political and anti-Christian leftist movements, Christians in turn are threatened with loss of income or home as Muslims sway the courts to rule in their favor.

Islamic Politics – Global Islamic State

The vision of Muslims is that Islam will one day be global in extent and authority. Yet some people refuse to convert to Islam or to submit to Muslim conquest and rule. When this occurs, these individuals are deemed aggressors against Islam and are seen as legitimate targets for jihad if they seek to stop Islamic practice and growth.

When we understand this Muslim vision, especially in light of the fact that most Western nations have refused Islamic demands to establish Shari’ah (or even to permit Muslim ghettos to practice Shari’ah among their Muslim populations), then we cannot fail to see that Muslims view such refusals as aggressive toward Islam. These nations are deemed aggressors against Islam because they refuse to permit Muslims to live as they please—not only in regard to ruling their own subcultures, but also because of a refusal to adopt and propagate Islam (as Muslims believe they are commanded to do).

More fundamentally, though, because the world was created in submission to Allah and every human being is born a Muslim, to refuse Allah’s demands to seek to restore the world and its inhabitants to that state is to perpetuate rebellion against Allah. This sets such people or nations up in opposition to Islam itself and causes them to become a legitimate target for jihad. Jihad, while being called “defensive,” is nothing less than the offensive posture of Muslims intent on seeing the world Islamicized.

Thus when a modern Muslim claims that jihad is only a defensive action, the typical non-Muslim understands that in terms quite different than Islam teaches. What the typical non-Muslim understands as military aggression, especially as expressed in the early conquest history of Islam, is seen by Muslims as a defensive action against those who oppose Islam. But if this Islamic viewpoint of the world is not understood, then it is easy and natural for us to take modern Muslim statements (that Islam is a religion of peace or that jihad is only defensive) quite differently than how this has been understood throughout Islamic history.

Islamic Politics – Conclusion

Although there is some diversity among Muslims regarding Islamic politics, the historical patterns and precedent support the self-ascribed agenda of more traditional Muslims. Early Islam spread largely through force; the (radical) Muslims of the twenty-first century desire to return to that golden age. [2]

Islamic Systems of Governance

An Islamic state bases its political system on the Quran and Islamic theological texts. It is important to note that not all countries where Islam is the dominant religion follow the Islamic political model; the majority have either a monarchy or a conventional democratic structure. Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Mauritania are called Islamic republics; to some Muslims this means a state ruled by a theocratic government based on sharia law.

The Foundations of Law and Politics

Monotheism, or tawheed, is the foundation of Islamic governance. God is the supreme authority and He alone has jurisdiction over the world through his commandments; these form Islamic law or shariah. Muslims received the Law of God through the medium of risalat, which means prophethood. This refers to the Quran, which is God’s word revealed through the prophet Muhammad, and Muhammad’s own writings –hadith — and the example of his life. The purpose of Islamic governance, according to Iranian Shi’ite theologian Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi, is to establish social order, discipline and social justice. In his paper on Shi’ite political thinking he points out that no society can survive without a concept of justice: Islam provides one model for a system of justice. The Islamic state is called a “khilafat,” or caliphate.

Leadership

An amir is the leader of an Islamic government. His position is similar to that of a president or prime minister in a conventional democracy, according to Discover Islam. Typically, an amir is already an Islamic scholar or noted political thinker. He is chosen by the shura; these are representatives of the people who are themselves well known for their morality, knowledge of Islam and sound judgment. Members of the shura form an advisory council. An amir stays in office for as long as he has the confidence of the shura, which is an advisory council. He only has to leave office if his conduct contravenes shariah law and God’s law as set out in the Quran.

The Legal System

The legal framework of an Islamic government is defined by shariah law. Amendments to laws are permitted, and where there is confusion over points of law, a subcommittee of the shura debates the issue. The members of this committee are acknowledged shariah legal experts. The judiciary is not controlled by the shura: judges are ruled by God and by Shariah law. The shura may appoint a judge, but once he is in his post he is expected to dispense justice according to God’s law. A judge also has jurisdiction over members of the government, because under Islamic law every citizen has equal status regardless of public position or wealth.

Islamic Governance and Western Democracy

One of the main differences between the Islamic style of government and the Western democratic model is the absence of party politics. Clearly, some predominantly Islamic countries, such as Pakistan, do have competing political parties, but these countries don’t exclusively use the Islamic model. Another difference is that the amir doesn’t have the same celebrity status as the president of the United States or other leaders of Western countries. He is a leader but not a figurehead. Also, in Western democracies, voters can only remove a leader at specified times. In an Islamic state, he can be removed at any time if the electorate and the shura feel he isn’t doing his job properly.

 http://people.opposingviews.com/islamic-systems-governance-3382.html

Reference:

[1] Sahih Muslim Bk.20 :http://www.muslimaccess.com/sunnah/hadeeth/muslim/020.html

[2] Islamic Politics: http://www.allaboutworldview.org/islamic-politics.htm

[3] List Rules for Government: http://www.iium.edu.my/deed/hadith/muslim/content20.html

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