Islam is Locked in to a 7th Century Time Capsule


Islam is Locked in to a 7th Century Time Capsule

(14,320 words)

“The Muslim concentration within a population is directly proportional to the decline of scientific achievement. When the Muslims stopped expanding and conquering non-Muslim nations and to strip them of their intellectual assets, the Muslim had nothing to show for themselves in terms of scientific, or intellectual achievements, as evidenced for the past 1,000 years. [17]”
This paper will attempt to investigate such a bold and controversial statement above. It was therefore necessary to provide details for a thorough search(to avoid bigotry) and also so that others may be able to investigate further from the references provided.

China’s New Industrial Revolution

After reading Michael Robson’s article, “China’s New Industrial Revolution” dated August 1st, 2010 in a BBC documentary, I was prompted to look at the effect of cultures on the scientific and technological discoveries of different cultures to examine if there is a correlation. This analysis is to place my analysis and conclusions for others, especially educationalists, to ponder upon. It is best if I begin by reproducing Robson’s article as the prelude, in full below:

China’s new industrial revolution [1]

By Michael Robinson BBC World Service documentaries

In its race to provide future growth, the speed at which China is adopting new technologies is breathtaking.

Take one example:

High Speed Rail

Five year ago (ref:today 01.08.10), there was not a single kilometre of high speed track in China. Today, it has more than Europe and by 2012, it will have more than the rest of the world put together.

A vast, spotless factory in the port city of Qingdao is in the front line of this new industrial revolution.

It is here that the giant state-controlled train-making company CSR developed a Chinese high-speed train.

China’s leaders “played a strong role in making all of this happen”, says CSR’s chairman, Xiaogang Zhao.

Foreign Know How

China’s leaders started by demanding that any foreign company bidding for a part of the massive proposed high-speed programme to share its technology with a Chinese partner.

Ding Sansan is developing an ultra-fast train
The Japanese engineering giant Kawasaki accepted this condition. A pioneer of high-speed rail, with almost half a century of development to its name, Kawasaki agreed to share its knowledge with CSR.

Siemens of Germany struck a similar deal with another Chinese train-maker.

With access to foreign know-how secured, the government then provided an army of 10,000 engineers and academics to create a Chinese train, Mr Zhao explains.

They did it, he says, in less than three years.

New train
Inside the Qingdao factory, senior engineer Ding Sansan explains how every aspect of the Japanese train had to be redesigned for the faster 350 kilometres per hour running speed that China’s high-speed strategy demanded.

Everyone worked so hard on the project that he can hardly remember his last holiday.

“It was a very big challenge”, he says.

And it is just the beginning.

Mr Ding is now working on a new train, due to be tested next year at an astonishing 500 kilometres per hour.

Unacceptable condition

Having acquired the technology, China is already exporting it.

This year, CSR supplanted Siemens as lead contractor on a new 440 kilometre high-speed line in Saudi Arabia.

Professor GuosongLiu says China’s culture inhibits new ideas.
Outside China, the speed at which such leading-edge technologies are being adopted is causing concern.

But China now plans to go one step further.

Under a new proposal, “indigenous innovation”, foreign companies bidding for Chinese government contracts will not only have to share existing know-how.

They (foreign companies bidding for Chinese contracts) will also be required to conduct any new research and development work in China. (Transfer of technology.)

For some companies this will prove an unacceptable condition, according to Brenda Foster, head of the American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai.

“It will keep American companies from being able to compete in the Chinese domestic market,” she says.

“For some companies, that could actually put them out of business.”

 Hindering Ideas

While America and China argue over “indigenous innovation”, China is taking a new, direct approach – encouraging highly-skilled Chinese-born expatriates to return home from overseas, bringing their ideas and expertise with them.

But some of these experts have found that China’s top-down, centrally-controlled culture, so successful in delivering technologies such as high-speed rail, can prove an obstacle to innovation. (Innovation feeds on intellectual freedom.)

Top medical scientist Professor Guosong Liu, moved from America to take up a post at Tsinghua, China’s leading scientific university.

There, the memory and intelligence-enhancing drugs he has been developing in the US and Germany are being tested on thousands of rats and mice.

Frightened Students

For such meticulous, labour-intensive work, Professor Liu says, China’s hierarchical culture is perfect.

But when it comes to innovation, “this culture inhibits the evolution of new ideas”,  Professor Liu says.

Professor Liu finds his Chinese students to be very different from their American counterparts.

Where American students are active in the lecture hall and constantly challenge what they are told, Chinese respect for hierarchy and authority means that even at a top university such as Tsinghua, it is hard to generate creative debate, he explains.

“I always say there’s no stupid question. Ask me something stupid – it’s better than nothing”, Professor Liu says.

“But they sit there. Maybe they’re scared of me, but they’re not challenging me”.

Competitive Edge

Another top scientific returnee, Professor Shi Yigong, shock his colleagues at the top US university Princeton by turning down a $10 m research grant to become Dean of Life Sciences at Tsinghua. Prpfesspr Shi believes China’s hierarchical, top-down environment stifles creative debate.

“Every time you say something, you have to think whether what I said appeases my superior,” he says.

“You begin to limit your innovation. I think you basically have less innovative factors in your mind”.

Companies outside China may fear the break-neck speed at which China is adopting leading edge technologies.

But when it comes to new ideas and innovation, Professor Shi says, China’s top-down, hierarchical culture means Europe and the US look likely to keep their competitive edge for some time yet.” [1]

The critical comments of both Professors LuiGuoSong and ShiYiGong are highly relevant in the assessment of the effect of not only state managed technological development of the nation but on the whole philosophy of educations and its interaction with the culture of the nation. It is also clear that China is attempting to hasten the transfer of technology by trading markets for know-how. A very clever move if successful. The following paragraphs is a copy of my response in a forum on this same topic. I am using it as a platform to expand my investigations:

Educational Process (Oriental Culture)

” (Kebau,) the following are my personal observations, having been in education, regarding the educational process.(1) Most people who use hieroglyphics as their medium of communication have to memorise thousands of different combinations of symbols. This must occupy a great deal of the memory bank and absorbs a lot of energy to be master of the language. So in the early years, language excellence required a lot of mental energies leaving little room for other pursuits. People gifted with a photographic memory were blessed in the study of hieroglyphic languages, and it tended to foster learning by rote, a method of teaching common among the earlier civilisations.(2) Also the method of teaching and learning was based on the ability to be able to reproduce as close to the original, the works being studied, i.e. learning by rote. Hence, hieroglyphic language pupils are usually excellent in anything that requires memory skills like history, languages, mathematics, and examinations standards are based upon perfect answers. There is no stress on developing perception or analysis and the best students are based on those who can ape the original text best.

(3) Because of the culture of the people, that instils respect for authoriity,  for Parents, the Elderly, Teachers, Professors, Preachers, the younger generation “never dares” to challenge the teacher, or parents on anything accept what they have been told or taught without questioning or challenging, even at university level. This is all part and parcel of the culture of the people and the culture of the teaching profession of that culture.

(4) As a result. most students from such cultures lag behind students in the West who are more precocious, defiant and will freely inquire and challenge views placed before them without any fear of chastisement. While the Asian student will prefer to remain quiet.

(5) In the West, science is taught slightly differently from that in the East. In the west they encourage and reward “open scientific inquiry.” The student who challenges the teacher is encouraged rather than punished. This I believe results from all those factors I have presented earlier. The east lacks the scientific inquiring mind, not only in science but in philosophy, religion, or any authoritarian laws that inhibits the freedom of the people. They, in the West, are not considered rebels or upstarts or renegades but encouraged to seek out the true basis of the query by challenging the facts.

(6) From the very early years the Chinese Emperors have been successful in ruling their empire by recruiting Civil servants on the basis of “meritocracy” rather than depending upon “patronage or nepotism.”  Hence the curricula to produce candidates suitable for the ruling classes would have been a fairly broad and liberal one covering aspects of knowledge that allows them to understand the problems of state.  I quote:

China’s Public Services is Based on Meritocracy

Emperor Wen of Sui (r. 581–604), who established the first civil service examination system in China (6th century); a painting by the chancellor and artist Yan Liben (600–673).

One of the oldest examples of a civil service based on meritocracy is the Imperial bureaucracy of China, which can be traced as far back as the Qin Dynasty (221–207 BC). During the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) the xiaolian system of recommendation by superiors for appointments to office was established. In the areas of administration, especially in the military, appointments would be based solely on merit.

After the fall of the Han Dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy would regress into a semi-merit system known as the Nine-rank system, yet in this system noble birthright became the most significant prerequisite for one to gain access to more authoritative posts.

This system was reversed during the short-lived Sui Dynasty (581–618), which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited by written examinations and recommendation. The following Tang dynasty (618–907) would adopt the same measures of drafting officials, and would decreasingly rely upon aristocratic recommendations and more and more upon promotion based on the written examinations.

However, the civil service examinations were practised on a much smaller scale in comparison to the stronger, centralized bureaucracy of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). In response to the regional military rule of jiedushi and loss of civil authority during the late Tang period and Five Dynasties (907–960), the Song emperors were eager to implement a system where civil officials would owe their social prestige to the central court and gain their salaries strictly from the central government. This ideal was not fully achieved since many scholar officials were affluent landowners and partook in many anonymous business affairs in an age of economic revolution in China. Nonetheless, gaining a degree through three levels of examination — prefecture exams, provincial exams, and the prestigious palace exams — was a far more desirable goal in society than becoming a merchant. This was because the mercantile class was traditionally regarded with some disdain by the scholar official class. This class of state bureaucrats in the Song period were far less aristocratic than their Tang predecessors. The examinations were carefully structured in order to ensure people of lesser means than candidates born into wealthy, landowning families were given a greater chance at passing the exams and gaining an official degree. This included the employment of a bureau of copyists who would rewrite all of the candidate’s exams in order to mask one’s handwriting and therefore make all candidates anonymous and unable to employ favoritism by graders of the exams who might be associated to them and recognize their handwriting. The advent of widespread printing in the Song period allowed many more candidates of the exams access to required Confucian texts which could be utilized in passing the exams. [2]

(7) Most of China’s population were poor illiterate peasants, who would remain tied to the soil for generations unto generations. However, the route from peasantry to a respected and well paid “mandarin” serving the government, was through scholarship. This was observed in the very early years of Chinese history. It was ever peasants dream and hopes that one of their children would succeed in scholarship and serve in the Emperor’s courts, and help provide for his ageing parents. Thus scholarship has always been the driving force of every aspiring (Chinese) family, so much so that it became characteristic of even poor family for their children to study and do well. This characteristic has survived generations and can be observed in every Chinese family even today. This is probably what has given the Chinese common man hope and direction over centuries. Besides, there was nothing politically, or culturally, or any religious social doctrine to inhibit this ambition to unshackle the chains of ignorance and poverty. This was an avenue of hope for all (Chinese) families that one member of their family could succeed through scholarship.

Can some of these traditional attitudes, in the East, be altered to improve the system such as reducing the top-down management control? Such ingrained cultural norms are very difficult to change, but it can be done.

You said, but China invented this or that in the very early years. Yes, perhaps these people where not inhibited by custom or tradition and stumbled on these discoveries by accident or by necessity. But in recent years, what have they invented or discovered compared with other nations or nationalities? I am not saying that the innate intelligence or inquiring mind does not exist, but indications are that it has been suppressed and surface by chance or when that person is very much older when he ability to think and express himself independently, with no inhibitions, surface at a much later stage in his life when he is fully mature. There are, of course, also some child protégés that will succeed no matter what tries to hold them back. But this is rather the exception than the rule.”

Has China Learned from her Arrogance and Humiliations

China’s memory is like that of an elephant’s. China will never forget the utter humiliation she suffered (caused through her own arrogance) in the 17th, 18th 19th centuries at the hands of the East India Company. Through the exploitations of that British company it eventually brought down the Dynasty of the Emperors, Imperial China, and even looted her treasures. So today China is slowly building her defences so that she will never be caught with her knickers down again. Hence the build-up of her defensive forces to counteract the threats that lie off her shores. China has never been known to aspire to invading other nations. (Genghis Khan was not Chinese but a Mongol.) The following illustrate examples of their efforts to shore up her weaknesses. It certainly indicates that this backward, almost medieval nation in the 1940’s has come a very long way in modernising her economy and her infrastructure by rebuilding her nation unhindered from outside foreign interference and obstruction. China, through MaoTseDung isolated herself from foreign influence and revolutionised the nation into a reborn nation with a new zeal for life. 

China’s Avionics has come a very long way

J-11b Fighter Plane-China Built to Russian Design

“The Chinese aviation industry is making robust progress in its quest to catch up and become a leading global player within the next 1-2 decades. The industry has managed to escape the quagmire of stagnation and isolation that had threatened its very survival in the 1990s, and today is profitable, displays growing innovative traits, and enjoys high-level political backing.
Over the next few years, the aviation industry will transition from being a technological imitator to becoming an emerging innovative power, although this will likely be at the lower rungs of the innovation ladder focusing on incremental and architectural types of innovation. The ability to successfully conduct modular and radical innovative activities is still beyond China’s reach for now. While the Chinese aviation industry will continue to chip away at the technological gap with the world’s leading aviation powers, its aspirations to join their ranks still remain a long-term prospect. ” [3]

China’s Comac C919 to Compete against Airbus A320 and Boeing 737

The following announcement indicates China’s growing confidence in the commercial aviation field.

The Comac C919 is a planned 168-190 seat narrow-body airliner to be built by the Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (Comac).
It will be the largest commercial airliner designed and built in China since the defunct Shanghai Y-10. Its first flight is expected to take place in 2014, with deliveries scheduled for 2016.[4] The C919 forms part of China’s long-term goal to break Airbus and Boeing’s duopoly, and will compete against Airbus A320 family and the Boeing 737 Next Generation.
Construction of the nose section of the aircraft commenced on 2 September 2009. [3.1]

From Humble Rubble’s: Impressive sea defences

“by Dr. Lyle Goldstein and Bill Murray

The maritime balance of power in the East Asian littoral is undergoing slow, but steady change in Beijing’s favour. Numerous indicators, including the imminent sea-trials of the first of China’s 2nd-generation nuclear submarines, the first serial production of its indigenous Song-class diesel boats, and the ongoing purchase from Russia of eight “Kilo”-class diesel submarines, all confirm PRC progress in undersea warfare across a broad front.Because of a centuries-long history of neglect, incompetence, and defeat at sea, there is a strong tendency in Washington to rate the Chinese as poor mariners. The recent accident and loss of all hands onboard a Ming-class submarine in April 2003 only serves to reinforce these stereotypes. However, besides obvious safety lapses, the incident also shows that the submarine force of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is engaged in a vigorous program of realistic at-sea training, under battle-like conditions. Moreover, despite this recent mishap, the appointment of Admiral Zhang Dingfa – a nuclear-trained submariner – to head the PLAN suggests growing momentum in undersea warfare. Indeed, it was the emerging “ASW problem that we have out there in the Western Pacific,” that moved Pacific Fleet Commander ADM Walter Doran to call on the U.S. Navy to “rededicate ourselves to getting back into [the ASW] business.” With undersea operations a key element of China’s emerging maritime strategy, the U.S. submarine community must learn more about this prospective competitor. Since the origins and development of any large and complex institution over time will have a strong influence on its future evolution, this article reviews the known history of the PLAN submarine force.

200 Submarines for China

Following the humiliating Opium War of the mid-19th century, China faced continual encroachment from Western nations, and total defeat at the hands of the “upstart” Japanese in 1895. The occupation of Beijing by an alliance of powers in 1900 only added insult to injury. China’s profound maritime weakness, however, encouraged surprisingly bold thinking about emerging technologies for undersea warfare. Over the last decades of the 19th century, Chinese leaders attempted vainly to gain the support of foreign powers, particularly Britain and France, for constructing a modern navy. In 1915, a former U.S. naval attaché, CDR Irvin Gillis, arranged for the visit of Vice-Admiral Wei Han and 30 Chinese student officers to Groton, Connecticut to observe submarine building and operations. According to one account, Wei Han “delighted [Electric Boat] officials by announcing that China needed a fleet of 200 submarines.” An initial purchase of 12 vessels was inked, and plans for training Chinese crews were put into place. Unfortunately for China’s navy – and for Electric Boat – these agreements collapsed as the imperial regime gradually gave way to the so-called warlord era.

Years of desultory internecine warfare among the warlords were followed by a period of growing consolidation during the late 1920s and early 1930s under the leadership of the Chinese nationalist, Chiang Kai-shek. Submarines continued to be of significant interest. Chiang attempted to purchase German submarines in 1934 and hired a German naval advisor. Although nothing materialized, Chiang did succeed in sending a number of young naval officers to Germany for training on submarine technology. Some of these officers would later rise to prominence in the PLAN. After these false starts, China finally received its first two submarines from the British after World War II, but following the Communist civil war victory in 1949, China would look to Russia for submarine assistance. “[4]

China’s ICBM Deterrent Not to be Scoffed At

The balance of deterrents from the two big powers in the Pacific is levelling out.

China Launched Stealthy Submarine ICBM from California Coast in Show of Force

Nov 12th, 2010 | By Kevin Hayden | Category: Police, Military & war:

Donate to the Truth

Source: Wayne Madsen

Former NSA Intelligence Officer

China flexed its military muscle Monday evening in the skies west of Los Angeles when a Chinese Navy Jin class ballistic missile nuclear submarine, deployed secretly from its underground home base on the south coast of Hainan island, launched an intercontinental ballistic missile from international waters off the southern California coast. WMR’s intelligence sources in Asia, including Japan, say the belief by the military commands in Asia and the intelligence services is that the Chinese decided to demonstrate to the United States its capabilities on the eve of the G-20 Summit in Seoul and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Tokyo, where President Obama is scheduled to attend during his ten-day trip to Asia.

The reported Chinese missile test off Los Angeles came as a double blow to Obama. The day after the missile firing, China’s leading credit rating agency, Dagong Global Credit Rating, downgraded sovereign debt rating of the United States to A-plus from AA. The missile demonstration coupled with the downgrading of the United States financial grade represents a military and financial show of force by Beijing to Washington.

Missile experts, including those from Jane’s in London, say the plume was definitely from a missile, possibly launched from a submarine. WMR has learned that the missile was likely a  JL-2 ICBM, which has a range of 7,000 miles, and was fired in a northwesterly direction over the Pacific and away from U.S. territory from a Jin class submarine. The Jin class can carry up to twelve such missiles.

Navy sources have revealed that the missile may have impacted on Chinese territory and that the National Security Agency (NSA) likely posseses intercepts of Chinese telemtry signals during the missile firing and subsequent testing operations. [4.1]

***Educational Process (Islamic Culture)

(This analysis will attempt to follow a similar format as that of “oriental culture” for the purpose of comparisons. The disparity of these two cultures is so different it is fascinating to note the differences.)

(1*) The hieroglyphics used by the Arabs utilise a system of “root consonants” that is used for a family of words and to clarify one word from another, vowels are inserted at different locations of the root consonants to avoid confusion. In some early translations, many of these consonants were missing, either due to bad/indifferent writing or having been lost/eroded with time, has caused misunderstandings or misinterpretations of those words. A typical and contentious example is the interpretation of the word “Islam” using the consonants S-L-M that many Muslims claim to mean “peace” but it actually means “submission” without a shadow of a doubt. [5]

(1a*) Islamic purists have always insisted that to fully appreciate Islam, it must be read and interpreted in the Arabic language only. This has caused a burden on the millions of non-Arabic speaking peoples of the Islamic world like Muslims in Pakistan, or Saharan Africa, or Xinjiang, or Indonesia, of Philippines, or Europe, or Turkey, of Chechen and so on. Such Muslims learn to repeat prayers in Arabic, or recite the Quran in Arabic while they are barely literate in their own national language let alone Arabic. Would their comprehension of Islam be more precise through this method of learning about Islam, i.e., learning by recitation in a complex and difficult language, Arabic? It is very doubtful that any depth of comprehension would have been the result. In fact, the opposite would be expected.

(2*)*** The method of learning and teaching in Islamic countries is unique because it is taught through “memorisation and repetition.” This technique simplifies teaching for the teacher and allows the student to know what is expected of him/her. It is all a matter of memorising/rote learning what is contained in the text with no requirement for comprehension.

(3*) In all Islamic communities there is a similar respect for the elders, the parents, the teacher, the Imam, the Prophet, and so there is will  be no challenges or questions from the students, who will accept what they are taught obediently.

(3a*) *****The most critical aspects in the education of a Muslim child is unique. The essential task in the education of a Muslim child is to teach them to be a good Muslim to serve and obey Allah i.e., the Islamic prayers, the Quran and the Hadiths and the Sira,  is 98% of the syllabus of primary education. There is no discussion or debate, because the learning in the early years is by rote.

(3b*) *****All Muslims believe the Quran contains the immutable Word of Allah, i.e., the “literal Word of Allah”  and as such, may not be tampered with by man because Allah is omnipotent and thus can never be wrong. Also Islamists believe that Allah’s words and laws were perfect for all time and for all men, and thus locked themselves into a time warp. *****Anyone attempting to alter Allah’s words will amount to committing blasphemy against Allah. With such convictions, Muslims are brought up to accept Islamic texts especially the Quran and the Hadiths without question. It would never occur for a young Muslim to question the wisdom of the Quran or the Hadiths. This attitude over the centuries has inhibited the curiosities or investigative minds. And eventually this acquired conditioned inhibition is transposed to the academic and scientific minds of students as a natural reflex, conditioned over centuries of cultural discipline. [6]

(3c*) *****Critical to Islamic beliefs is the acceptance by Muslims that “THE GATE OF IJTIHAD IS CLOSED in 900 CE.” The wisdom of the Islamic scholars determined that “no further benefit would be derived by any further interpretations of the Quran”  and thus closed the Gate of Ijtihad. This ended all possible modifications or moderations of the Words of Allah.

“By the beginning of the fourth century of the hijra (about A.D. 900), however, the point had been reached when the scholars of all schools felt that all essential questions had been thoroughly discussed and finally settled, and a consensus gradually established itself to
the effect that from that time onwards no one might be deemed to have the necessary qualifications for independent reasoning in law, and that all future activity would have to be confined to the explanation, application, and, at the most, interpretation of the doctrine as it had been laid down once and for all.
This ‘closing of the door of  ijtihad’, as it was called, amounted to the demand for taklid, a term which had originally denoted the kind of reference to Companions of the Prophet that had been customary in the ancient schools of law, and which now came to mean the unquestioning acceptance of the doctrines of established schools and authorities. A person entitled to  ijtihad is called mujtahid, and a person bound to practice taklid, mukallid.” [7]

(4*) *****It must also be borne in mind that literacy in most Islamic nations has always been exceeding low. Parents of these young pupils would most likely be illiterate and in no position to contribute to furthering the Islamic knowledge of their children. With rampant illiteracy, there would not be many who could initiate questioning the ideologies that were passed on to them. On this basis, we can comprehend why intellectual or scientific curiosity and questioning is inhibited in the educational process of children brought up in such an environment. Nothing in 3 a, b, c, or d, encourages the development of an inquiring mind but  instead to accept Islamic doctrines without question. I have found that the methodology of Islamic education and instruction completely inhibits intellectual inquiry, and is so different from all other cultures, especially the western methods of education.

(5*) One has only to attend and observe a class in an Asian school, and compare it to a class in a Western school to note the difference in the behaviour of the students, with regard to respect of the teacher and the discipline in the class. The total relationship between student and teacher is different. While the student in an Asian school is quiet, subdued and respectful at all times to the teacher, in a western school there is usually indiscipline and much more interaction between student and teacher. The western student is not subdued, rather more exuberant and difficult to control and will challenge the teacher if she made an error or said something questionable. The western student is extroverted and confident and often even arrogant to the point of rudeness. But he will challenge the teacher freely and is not put down or punished, but instead the matter is discussed openly in front of the class. The difference in teaching methods and class discipline is transparently different.

(6*) On close examination of the syllabus of the elementary and secondary level school, we again notice a vest difference on the subjects considered necessary to complete a secondary education. Both eastern and western schools normally select subjects so that the students receive an all round education suitable to multiple applications for job applications and serving the nation. This would include the main topics of Reading, Writing, and numeracy, plus the additional subjects like, the classics, history, geography, the sciences, and arts but usually relating to national interests, with the exception of Islamic education. Bearing this in mind, this explains the difference in the attitudes of the products of such education.

(6a*) *****There is one culture that is more exclusive than the others. That is Islam and we will compare their educational aims, methods and syllabus compared with that of the West.

The National Curriculum for Britain

The National Curriculum for Britain for “core” and “foundation” subjects are best illustrated as follows:

There are two principal aims and four main purposes set out in the National Curriculum documentation:

  • Aim 1: The school curriculum should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve.
  • Aim 2: The school curriculum should aim to promote pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural development and prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life.
  • Purpose 1: To establish an entitlement
  • Purpose 2: To establish standards
  • Purpose 3: To promote continuity and coherence
  • Purpose 4: To promote public understanding

Statutory subjects

Core and foundation subjects
The table below lists those subjects which form a statutory part of the National Curriculum under the Education Act 2002 (Part 6) as updated.[2][3][4]

  Key Stage1
Stage 2
Key Stage 3
Key Stage4
 English (core)  Yes*  Yes  Yes  Yes
 Mathematics (core)
 Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes
 Science (core)
 Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes
 Art & Design  Yes  Yes  Yes
 Citizenship  Yes  Yes
 Design & Technology
 Yes  Yes  Yes
 Geography  Yes  Yes  Yes
 Yes  Yes  Yes
 Information & Communication Technology  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes**
 Modern Foreign Languages  Yes
 Yes  Yes  Yes
 Physical Education  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes
 Work-related Learning  Yes
 Welsh (Wales only)  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes

*English is not statutory in Key Stage 1 in Welsh-medium schools in Wales
**ICT is not statutory at KS4 in Wales or Northern Ireland. [8]

(7*)Madrassa Curriculum

The following is organised so that a comparison can be made with the British educational curriculum. The arrangement of data has been adjusted so that it can be better compared.

Aim 1:The emphasis for Islamic education is focused around Islam in order to propagate Islamic ideology and obeisance to Allah. Muslims see education as,

Aim 2: “Religious learning is the only true science, whose sole aim is the understanding of Allah’s word.”

Aim 3: The primary function of all Islamic institutions of learning was to serve as Islamic centres for spiritual learning. For Muslims,

Aim 4: “The goal of all knowledge and in particular, of the spiritual sciences is knowledge of Allah.” And Inalcik mentions, “Those (sciences) which aid religion are good and sciences like astrology are bad.” The ultimate objective of Islamic education is aimed to further solidify and consolidate Islamic practices, and ideologies. [9]

There are basically two levels of elementary and secondary education available for most Muslims, and they are the “hifz course” and the “Alim course.” These will be illustrated to see the scope of the courses.

(8*)HIFZ Course: Elementary Quran & Islamic Studies

The hifz course is to learn about the fundamentals of Islam and is suitable for pupils between the ages of 5 to 15 years of age. The full course takes about 5 years with one year for each level.

Hifz Syllabus:

 Level 1 (normally 5-7 yrs)  • Complete the Ahsanul Qawaid & the Noorani Qaida
• children able to read Qur’anic text and gain fluency with practice.
• Tajweed Level 1 (correct pronunciation of the letters and mudd)
• LHA Dua Book 1
• Islamic studies – The Dar-us-Salam Series by Maulvi Abdul Aziz Book 1
 Level 2 (normally 6-8 yrs)  • Know how to pray – Book of Salah
• Memorise at least half of Juz Amma
• Read the whole of Juz Amma fluently.
• Certified Tajweed Level 2 (Wajib Gunna, Ikhfa, Idgham)
• LHA Dua Book 2
• Islamic studies – The Dar-us-Salam Series by Maulvi Abdul Aziz Book 2
 Level 3 (normally 7-9 yrs)  • Memorise Juz Amma completely
• Memorise Surah Ya Seen, Ar Rahman, Waa qia & Mulk,
• Read the Qur’an fluently (Juz 1 – 3)
• Certified Tajweed Level 3 (LHA Tajweed Book 1)
• LHA Dua Book 3 (Duas from the Qur’an)
• Islamic studies – The Dar-us-Salam Series Book 3 & 4
• Children Book of Salah – Ghulam Sarwar
• Fiqh of fasting – detailed
 Level 4(normally (8-10 yrs)  • Memorise Surah Baqarah
• Read the Qur’an fluently (Juz 4 – 10)
• Certified Tajweed Level 4 (LHA Tajweed Book 2)
• Husnul Muslim – Dua Book
• Introduction to Quranic Arabic
• Islamic studies – The Dar-us-Salam Series Book 5 & 6
 Level 5(normally 9-12 yrs)  • Admission to our Evening Hifz Class to  memorise the whole Qur’an

In short, the Hifz course of studies is to learn the rudiments of Islam and nothing outside of Islamic topics. To learn and be able to recite all Islamic prayers in Arabic, memorise the Quran, prayers and to be able to recite it, learn the basics of Arabic, learn about Islamic supplications/sayings and identify it in Arabic, learn a few fundamentals of Islamic fiqh (Islamic laws), sufficient to lead a Islamic life. It is basically to memorise Islamic prayers, the Quran, some Islamic sayings, and be familiar with Islamic practice and Islamic verses. Hifz would equate to the completion of primary school level in the English system. [10]

(9*)Alim course: Secondary level Islamic studies to Teacher or Imam Level

The complete course would take about 12 years to complete, and would be equivalent to GCSE in the English system. The syllabus is reproduced here in order to show how thorough Muslim educators teach their students about Islam almost exclusively. Comparing this syllabus to that of the “national curriculum” the disparities can be clearly observed. This is the main reason why there is such different attitudes and drive between the western school graduates and that of Muslim school graduates. The following syllabus is absorbed in 12 years of Madrassa education (approximately from 6 years to 18 years of age.)

(1) Tafseer ul Quran:

(Sora Baqara, Sora Nor, Sora Fater, ruba joz Amma with hifz)

  • History of revelation  of the Quraan
  • Detailed explanation of Commandments & Stories of Quraan
  • Connection among the verses
  • Arabic Grammar applying
  • Word translation and its analysis

(2) Hadith and Fiqh:

Book: “Bologh ul Maram by Hafiz ibne hajerبلوغ المرام من أدلة الأحكام لحافظ ابن حجر العسقلاني”
·        We will discuss information about the narrators concerning their:
·        Name, ancestry, moniker, tribal name, birthplace and date, place of death and date
·        When they accepted Islam
·        Major battles they participated in
·        Noteworthy accomplishments
·        Important stories about their life
·        We will also discuss important information about the text of the Hadith, such as
·        Classification of the strength/weakness of Hadith
·        Translating and understanding difficult words used
·        The relation of the Hadith to its chapter
·        Clarifying words or phrases that are implied but not clearly mentioned
·        Understanding the rulings and orders
·        Mentioning other Hadith relating to the subject
·        Classification of the chain of narrators
·        Mentioning the benefits of the Hadith and its relation to our daily lives
·        Defining the places and people mentioned in the Hadith
·        Referencing the circumstances surrounding the mentioning of the Hadith
·        Discussing whether the Hadith was abrogated and the reason for its abrogation
 (3) Principles of Tafseer:

Book: (Muqadimah Ibn e Tymiyah مقدمة ابن تيميه في أصول التفيبر)
Total and detailed understanding of the rules of the quran
Novels which opposed to Hakit
Interpretation of the mind and transport

Methods of interpretation(4) Principles of Hadith:

Book: (Atyab ul Minah أطيب المنح في علم المصطلح )
·        Types of Hadith according to Narrator (Isnad(
·        Types of Hadith according to Matan.
·        Principles of Sound (Sahih) and Weak Hadith (Zayeef(
·        Knowledge of Jirah and Ta’deel Hadith books and Introduction of Mohaddatheen

(5) Al-Jerh o AIT’adeel:

Book : Mukhtaser Toruq al tajreej (مختصر طرق التخريج )
—-how to search hadith
how to search narrators of hadith
how to search authentic narratives of hadiths

 (6) Principles of Fiqh::

·        Principles of deduction according to Quraan text
·        Principles of deduction according to Ahadith and Aa’saar
·        Consensus of opinion (Jam’a(
·        Analogical deduction (Qiyaas(

(7) Arabic Grammar:

·        Types of noun
·        Types of verbs
·        Types of harf (alphabets/preposition(
·        Marfu’aat   (Nominative Case(
·        Mansubaat ( Accusative Case(
·        Majroraat (Genetive Case(

(8 Tajweed:

·        Correct sounds and Pronounciation of the Arabic letters
·        Rules of Noon, Meen, Raa, and Laam
·        Rules of Madd
·        Rules of Waqf
(9) Meraath:

Division of ratt on the basis of knowledge
Quotas of warth and ratts

(10) Ilm ul Baghah:
Study of Arabic language
Introduction to the standard of Arabic language
 (11) The Arabic Language:

·        Listening
·        Understanding
·        Speaking
·        Writing

(10*)Comments of Alim Course

Looking at the syllabus of the Alim course, which is roughly equal to GCSE-O Level, (approximately 12 years of elementary and secondary education) the students should graduate with a very good understanding of Islam, the Hadiths the Fiqhs, an ability to read and understand Arabic, and well versed with the expectations of Islam. But as can be noticed, there is almost no exposure to other subjects outside of Islam. From the Islamic point of view, these students would have an unadulterated view of Islam as envisioned by the followers of the Prophet Muhammad. But from the point of employment, or contribution to the wider universal society, these students have a very narrow exposure to other knowledge and skills for an industrialised or scientific world. This explains the dogmatic views of must Muslims with regard to Islamic ideology and why they cannot comprehend or appreciate the concepts of other cultures. This intense concentration to impart an indelible Islamic knowledge is at the expense of rejecting general knowledge, which strongly inhibits logical perceptions or cognition of a wider and broader curiosity about cause and effect. This adds to the burden of encouraging the inquiring mind and thus inhibits scientific progress.

Very few Muslims go beyond the Alim course, aside from a few Islamic scholars, and so such men will be the exception than the rule. [11]

(11*) The Curse of Oil

Oil was found in Bahrain in 1932, and by Saudi Aramco in Saudi Arabia in 1933 and from then on Middle Eastern wealth allowed the Arabs to buy anything they wanted from Rolls Royce’s to the latest fighter aircraft or inter-ballistic missiles or even nuclear fission material and Nuclear warheads. There was no need for scientific, intellectual, or innovative prowess, oil money would buy anything they needed, even loyalty. This was both a blessing as well as a curse. There was no need for intellectual effort any longer.

Miracles are Proof of God/Allah

“Over the centuries, there have been many attempts by religious philosophers to prove the existence of God, and a canon of classic arguments has been developed. Not all of these arguments have their origins in Christian philosophy; Jewish and Muslim philosophers have made significant contributions to the philosophy of religion, and both Plato and Aristotle have influenced its development.

Recent decades have seen a rise in interest in natural theology and the philosophy of religion. Each of the classic theistic proofs has been revived and refined, presented in revised form and defended afresh. Whether any of these arguments for the existence of God is successful, of course, remains controversial.

The Arguments for the Existence of God section sets out to explain each of the common philosophical arguments for theism, and so to explore the case for the existence of God.

The Argument from Miracles

The “argument from miracles” is the argument that the occurrence of miracles demonstrates both the existence of God and the truth of Christianity. If the Bible is to be believed, then Jesus’ ministry was accompanied by frequent miraculous signs that his claims and his teachings were endorsed by God the Father. His resurrection from the dead was, of course, the greatest of these, and is still taken by many today to be a solid foundation for their faith. Miracles typically involve the suspension of the natural operation of the universe as some supernatural event occurs. That can only happen, of course, given the existence of some supernatural being.” [12]

“Approximately 80% of all people on earth are adherents of organized religions. No religion can exist without a belief in one or more gods: Supernatural beings who are claimed to be omniscient and omnipotent.

This widespread human trait makes it obvious that the need for religion-based gods is not episodic but has become embedded in human genes. Only long-term survival factors can embed new traits into the human genome complex.

Like all explanations of human behaviour, the answer to this conundrum is simple. It rests in the process of evolution: The natural law of the survival of the fittest.

A survival benefit accrued to prehistoric man as a result of the deification of those aspects of nature that he considered beyond his control: The Supernatural. Without such survival benefits, the inherently irrational belief in gods and a life after death could not have permanently embedded itself in the human brain and genes.

In primitive societies, definite survival benefits accrue to the belief in the supernatural. Humans, who where motivated by a god or gods whom they feared and whom they were willing to obey, acted with a high degree of cooperation. Fear of punishment from their god or his priests would be a powerful force for socialized behaviour.

Under these conditions, individuals subordinated their urges and passions to the commands of their gods. This coordination of activities resulted in civilized behaviour and a distinct benefit for survival.

The commands of the gods, as communicated by their priests, worked to the advantage of a particular civilization and its individuals. Groups of people, held together by the glue of a religion, would thrive and would enjoy the increased efficiency and productivity resulting from increased cooperation.

Since a pre-packaged moral code is associated with all organized religions, a belief in the supernatural would also lower crime within a society. Priests or witch doctors established a moral code of conduct. The alleged supernatural powers of the gods enforced this morality system.

A fear of all-powerful gods deterred people from engaging in hostile or destructive acts against other members of their society. The resulting low-crime environment represented another distinct survival benefit within a primitive, religious society. Members of society who refused to participate in such religious rites were ostracised or eliminated and thus did not perpetuate their genes.

This congregation of a society around mutually accepted beliefs also served to reinforce its resistance to external threats, such as attacks from other tribes. By merging his resources under the promised umbrella of a Supreme Being, early man enhanced his chances of surviving attacks by other societies.

It is a well-established psychological fact that people who think alike, meet alike: Baptists congregate with Baptists and Jews congregate with Jews. By coordinating their individual activities with other persons who shared common religious beliefs, this coalescence of spiritual motivations provided for the security and survival of the members of a religious group. Religious beliefs and rites are implanted in adherents of a religion in their early youth, excluding them from rational analysis.

On the other hand, societies that had no gods and thus did not cooperate with each other as well as their god-fearing neighbours did, were disadvantaged with respect to survival. Such atheistic societies would either not come into existence, or they would not be able to compete efficiently with their devoutly religious neighbours. These early atheistic societies would fail to survive, enhancing the evolutionary propagation and predominance of those genes that compelled adherence to supernatural belief systems.

Thus, a distinct survival benefit embedded itself into the genes of members of prehistoric societies that engaged in the worship of gods or other supernatural beings.

During the prehistoric development of man, he could rely only on his physical prowess and very primitive tools. Many millennia of environmental hardships enhanced evolutionary progress and honed the thought processes of man. He learned to rely on the power of his brain to an ever-increasing degree. Increased brainpower demonstrated the trend of evolution to increase complexity of the brain because increased complexity provides for a higher degree of specialization.

Advanced specialization provides for improved adaptability to changing environmental conditions. The development of life from a simple amoeba to the complex brain of modern man demonstrates the relentless evolutionary trend towards higher adaptability by ever-increasing complexity and specialization.

The Existence of God

Discussions regarding religion often evoke the question: Does god exist?  It is sometimes helpful to apply a little common sense to what pretends to be an intricate philosophical enigma.

What do we mean when we say that something exists? As far as human beings are concerned, nothing exists unless it manifests itself in some form, shape or manner to man or to his extended sensory perceptions.

If something is claimed to exist but does not impinge on man in any way whatsoever, we can safely say that it does not exist as far as human existence is concerned. This purported mirage may still exist somewhere in the universe or another universe. However, since this alleged object or event does not manifest itself to us, it does not affect us in any way whatsoever and we must simply state that it does not exist as far as human beings are concerned.

Religious people argue that, although they cannot prove that god exists, atheists cannot prove that god does not exist. This argument is inherently faulty.

It is logically impossible to prove that an object or event does not exist. However, it is the essence and the backbone of science to provide evidence that something does exist. If something exists, such as energy, matter or space, it manifests itself to us by objective evidence. We can measure such manifestations or we can take objective images of them.

It is axiomatic in the affairs of man, and steeped in common sense that, whoever makes a claim, has to prove its validity. The burden of proof is always on the person making the claim. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.

If a person should claim that the moon is made of green cheese, he has to prove that the moon actually consists of green cheese, instead of rock, as established by previous, hard, factual, objective evidence. It is logically impossible and absurd to demand that, whoever does not accept the claim that the moon is made of green cheese, should disprove the claim.

Only persons, who do not utilize logic, will accept as true statements that are completely unsupported by factual evidence. Yet, this form of irrationality and lack of fundamental logic is the foundation of all religions. Since approximately 80 % of the world population accepts the completely unsubstantiated statements of various religions, 80 % of the world population suffers from a severely distorted and thus ineffective world view.

Christian dogma expects people to believe the fairy tale of Noah’s ark, although it is patently impossible to squeeze even samples of billions of the world’s animals into one small ark. Rational persons consider such stories ludicrous. And yet, such is the brainwashing power of religion, that the majority of the people on earth accept such fairy tales as facts.

The bible account of the creation of man and the universe, as set forth in the Book of Genesis, is in such contradiction to irrefutable facts that a rational person cannot help but laugh about such fantasies. It may be all right for children to believe in Santa Claus and the Tooth Fairy, but functional adults are expected to outgrow such fairy tales.

Another absurdity is embedded in the fact that every religion claims to pray to the one and only true god. How can such contradiction be rationalized? Who is the true god? Allah, or Jesus, or Jehovah, or Buddha, or Krishna?

Where was the Jewish God Jehovah, when Hitler incinerated five million of his chosen people; where was the Buddha when Truman vaporized 250,000 Japanese women and children; where was the Christian God when Stalin killed thirty million Christians?

It defies rationality when religious persons pray to these same gods for individualized help and salvation.


Where are the miracles that gods can supposedly perform? There has never been any objective evidence of a single miracle. Religious belief systems routinely claim miracles performed by their gods. Alas, not even a scintilla of objective evidence has ever supported an alleged miracle.

Miracles cannot possibly occur in reality because they would violate or modify firmly established natural laws of the universe, such as gravity, time or entropy. If anyone tried to rearrange these fundamental forces, the whole universe would instantly come to a screeching halt.

After horrendous disasters or personal calamities, religious people commonly thank their god for the miracle of saving them or helping them. It does not occur to them that, if god is omnipotent, he could have prevented the disaster before it struck. Since god did not prevent the disaster, he obviously harmed his poor believer purposely and with malice. Who needs gods like that?

Miracles and other reversals of natural laws supposedly occur merely at the whim of a god who is clearly non-existent and non-omnipotent. With modern recording devices, scientists can expose any sham, almost instantly. Since the advent of objective recording devices, there have been no claims for miracles.

The Origins of God and the Universe

Maybe man will never know the conundrum of the creation of the universe. Maybe he will do so at some distant time in the future. However, ordinary human beings do not need an answer to this question because any answer would be irrelevant to human existence and happiness. Whatever we may find, it is extremely unlikely that the ultimate answer to the secrets of the universe will reveal a God with a flowing white beard who answers human prayers.

Understanding the creation of the universe and knowing what lies on the other side of the Big Bang does not have the slightest effect on our life and our happiness. We enhance our happiness, our emotional state of well being, by minimizing pain and by maximizing our alignment with Objective Reality, by understanding how life really works.

Human beings do not live in the fairyland of religious speculation. Neither do human beings live in the world of quantum particles, relativity and cosmology. We merely need to know how life actually proceeds on the human plane, in the world we live in. We can accomplish this objective by trying to enhance our factual understanding of the nature of Objective Reality, without blinkers imposed on us by religion.” [13]

The Myths of Islamic Inventions and Miracles

At the Kensington Science Museum, London, there has been a display showing the public 1001 Muslim inventions that have contributed to our modern civilisation.

1.  Central to the exhibition was a waterwheel. But the waterwheel existed long before the arrival of Islam (Muhammad started preaching Islam in 610 CE.) and the waterwheel  was already in use by others:

The water wheel is an ancient device that uses flowing or falling water to create power by means of a set of paddles mounted around a central wheel or axle. The force of the water moves the paddles, blades or buckets, and the consequent rotation of the wheel is transmitted to machinery via the shaft of the wheel. The first reference to its use dates back to about 400 B.C., where, in a poem by an early Greek writer, Antipater, it tells about the freedom from the toil of young women who operated small hand mills to grind corn. were used for crop irrigation, grinding grains, supply drinking experts water to villages and later to drive sawmills, pumps, forge bellows, tilt-hammers, trip hammers, and to power textile mills.[14]

2.  There is a picture of a stone arch originating some 2000 years ago, but again this pre-dates Islam and thus Islam cannot take any credit for arches.3.  Another exhibit shows that Islam named some stars in the heavens, but research discloses that the Arabs only translated the names of the stars into the Arabic language from a well known book written by the Greek astrologer, Ptolemy. There was no science or astrology involved in this translation.4.  It was also claimed that the Muslims conceived the concept of a spherical world in the 9th century. However the earliest known records of the concept of a spherical Earth came from Pythagoras (500 BC), and Eratosthenes estimated the circumference of the earth in 200 BC. Thus dismissing any originality of this discovery by the Muslims.

There has not been any scientific discoveries or inventions from the Muslim nations in the past 1000 years. The reasons that little scientific discoveries or inventions have come from Islamic countries is the main purpose of this paper. Islam inhibits/forbids creativity that comes from the inquiring mind especially if it challenges any concepts from the Islamic Holy texts. The ideology of Islam discourages resourcefulness and promotes instead a strict observance of the diktats of Islamic ideology as explained in this discussion. Yet our learned British Museum Curators go along with this façade and deception, at taxpayers expense, to propagate these myths. Either the British Museum Curators are ignorant illiterates or they are appeasing the sensitivities of the Muslim exhibitors.[15]
Islamic Claims to Scientific Achievements are Dubious

1.  Historical evidence shows that most of the Muslim’s early knowledge of science was learned from Greek sciences. These were translated and transferred to the Muslims through Christian and Jewish scholars.

2.  Many scientific advances credited to Islam were actually “borrowed”  or “assumed” from other cultures conquered by the Muslim invaders. For example, Islam claim to have discovered the algebraic/mathematical concept of “zero” but in fact this was discovered by Hindus, and only introduced to the West by the Muslims. Much of the Islamic science can be traced to the contribution of the conquered population of the Muslims, and some others were non-Muslims but  were forced conversions to Islam or others were the works of Dhimmis living in  Muslim nations, and were in effect non-Muslim (dhimmi) discoveries.

3.  Muslims are so obsessed with the concept of Islam, and Allah, that any discoveries that deviates from Islamic scriptures will be considered a heretic. One such person was the Persian scientist and philosopher, al-Razi. But al-Razi was denounced as a blasphemer and heretic since he followed his own religious beliefs, and although a Persian/Iranian, he was an apostate, i.e., a non-Muslim because he dared to challenge the ideology of Islam with his scientific concepts. [16]

The Muslim concentration within a population is directly proportional to the decline of scientific achievement. When the Muslims stopped conquering non-Muslim nations and stripped them of their intellectual assets, the Muslim had nothing to show for themselves in terms of  scientific, or intellectual achievements, as evidenced in the past 1,000 years. [17]



YUSUFALI: To Allah belong the east and the West: Whithersoever ye turn, there is the presence of Allah. For Allah is all-Pervading, all-Knowing.
PICKTHAL: Unto Allah belong the East and the West, and whithersoever ye turn, there is Allah’s Countenance. Lo! Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.
SHAKIR: And Allah’s is the East and the West, therefore, whither you turn, thither is Allah’s purpose; surely Allah is Ample giving, Knowing.

[49.16] Say: Do you apprise Allah of your religion, and Allah knows what is in the heavens and what is in the earth; and Allah is Cognizant of all things.
[49.17] They think that they lay you under an obligation by becoming Muslims. Say: Lay me not under obligation by your Islam: rather Allah lays you under an obligation by guiding you to the faith if you are truthful.
[49.18] Surely Allah knows the unseen things of the heavens and the earth; and Allah sees what you do.

Allah’s omniscience:

While the dominant aspect of Allah’s decrees is His absolute sovereignty, the passive side is His omniscience. His omniscience determines  that He knows all things, past, present, and future. Another attribute assigned to Allah that separates Him from His creation is that he transcends “time” as he is “timeless.”  He is not limited by the boundaries of time or affected by their change; He is atemporal and sees time as an ever present. The Qur’an mentions Allah’s omniscience many times:

bullet And the keys of the unseen are with God, who alone knows them. And God knows what is on the land and in the sea. And not a leaf falls but God knows it
bullet Knower of the invisible and the evident, God is the greatest
bullet God is aware of whatever you do
bullet God knows what is manifest and what is concealed

Allah’s omniscience is what Mohammed used to encourage the unbelievers to faith and the believers to piety. It is one of Allah’s great metaphysical qualities; one that determines our realm of understanding and exceeds it infinitely. Of the ninety-nine names given to Allah in the Qur’an is the “All-Knowing (Arb. Al Alim), and the Muslim praises his Allah for having such an aspect.

horizontal rule

Allah’s omnipotence:

Closely related to sovereignty is Allah’s omnipotence, that is, His all-powerfulness. The Qur’an speaks frequently of Allah’s power being displayed in nature and His ability to do as he pleases, which implies the power to do so. Numerous Qur’anic titles are given to Allah which speak of His power:

He is called,

bullet The Mighty (Al Aziz)
bullet The Subduer (Al Quhhar)
bullet The Great One (Al Azim)
bullet The Most Great (Al Kabir)
bullet The Most Strong (Al Qawi)
bullet The Powerful (Al Muqtadir)

Including these names several verses speak of Allah’s omnipotence:

bullet Did you not know that God has ultimate power over all things?
bullet And God is capable of all things
bullet God is most forgiving, most powerful
bullet God is not to be thwarted by anything in the heaven or on earth, for God is omniscient, all-powerful

To clarify, Muslim theologians adhere to Allah’s ability to do only what is logically possible. Islamic theology does not believe that Allah could do what is by nature impossible, like create a rock that He could not lift, or create a god greater than Himself. Allah is bound to His own nature but is free to do whatever is possible for Him to do. This attribute is one of exaltation and veneration within Muslim theology and practice, as Dr. Gorder notes: “The all powerful majesty of Allah is the guiding principle that helps Muslims understand Allah’s actions.”

The Qur’an describes Allah in many ways, some that produce fear and some that inspire worship. Allah is the centre of the Qur’an and the Islamic faith and His characteristics are thought upon frequently in practice. To Muslims Allah is one, sovereign, omniscient, omnipotent, eternal, and reveals Himself as loving and illuminating. The Qur’an is His revelation, Mohammed His prophet, Islam His people. In response to this Muslims repeatedly say “There is no God but Allah”. [18]

These characteristics of Allah in the minds of Muslims formulates their perception of the omniscience of Allah, superseded by no other.


Genesis is the first book of the Old Testament: it tells of the creation of Heaven and Earth, the creation of Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God’s covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers. Essentially Genesis is a historical narrative of the evolution of the Jewish peoples as narrated and recorded through the vision of Moses and his followers. It was the most profound and prophetic insight into the origins of the universe and the Jewish peoples and man. It was so profound and unique that there was nothing comparable to it for thousand of years since. So profound was Genesis that it was accepted by the peoples of that region with little question, that god created the world, and he created man, i.e., Adam and Eve. This concept has been accepted without question by Jews, Jesus and the Christians, and Muhammad and his followers ever since.

There is no question that the Prophet Muhammad was familiar with the Jewish Torah and Genesis and he accepted the essential concepts of the origins of the Universe and the origins of man, based on Moses’ revelations, which is essentially the history of the Jewish peoples in accordance with Moses. The Prophet Muhammad did tinker around this concept and added some of his own interpretations that differed in detail from the Jewish version, but in order to establish antiquity and origins connected to  monotheist god, he borrowed/adopted concepts that were unique and prophetic from Genesis. In order to further strengthen his claims of being descendent of Adam and Abraham, he or his disciples had to find a genealogical link to Abraham and Adam and this has been made through claims that the Quraish tribe (Muhammad’s tribe) were descendants of his Abraham’s son Ishmael. This genealogy has been accepted by most Muslims throughout the generations, but has since been disproved by modern historians and archaeologists. Ishmael could not have been the progenitor of the Quraish tribe as has been claimed by Muslims. [19] [20]

If Allah is/was omnipotent, why was it necessary for the Prophet Muhammad to borrow the concepts from a Jew, Moses,(Jews of course became the most hated of all peoples by the Muhammadans) and accept all of Moses’ visions of the creation of the universe, of man, Adam, and of a monotheist Moses’ god? (initially). Surely, Allah, being omniscient, would have been able to predict that the Hubble Telescope was going to introduce doubts to such claims of “creativity.” It has created serious doubts of the chronology of the creation of the Universe and the evolution of Man. It has in fact assigned the Abrahamic Faith’s concept of creativity into the realms of mythology. [21]

To aid other researches the following list are references to Quranic verses relating to:

(1) Creation of the Universe: According to the Quran

(1a) [7.54] Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods of time, and He is firm in power; He throws the veil of night over the day, which it pursues incessantly; and (He created) the sun and the moon and the stars, made subservient by His command; surely His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

(1b) [10.3] Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, and He is firm in power, regulating the affair, there is no intercessor except after His permission; this is Allah, your Lord, therefore serve Him; will you not then mind?

(1c) [11.7] And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods– and His dominion (extends) on the water– that He might manifest to you, which of you is best in action, and if you say, surely you shall be raised up after death, those who disbelieve would certainly say: This is nothing but clear magic.

(1d)[25.59] Who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six periods, and He is firmly established on the throne of authority; the Beneficent God, so ask respecting it one aware.

(1e) 12:4 Joseph saw in a dream eleven planets. [Does this mean that according to the Quran there are eleven planets in our solar system? ]

(1) 13:2 “The sun … runneth unto an appointed term.”
[The sun (according to the Quran) orbits the earth.]

(2) 13:3 “He … spread out the earth.”
[The earth is flat.]

(3) 15:19 “And the earth have We spread out.”
[The earth is flat according to the Quran.]

(4) 18:86,90 The sun rises and sets at particular places on a flat earth. At the westernmost point on earth, the sun sets in a muddy spring.

(5) 21:30 The heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them.”
[The sun, stars, and earth were joined together until Allah separated them (about six thousand years ago).]

(6) 21:33 The sun “floats” in an orbit around the earth.

(7) 24:33 “He sendeth down from the heaven mountains wherein is hail.”
[Hail comes from mountains.]

(8) 27:61 The earth is fixed and does not move.

(9) 35:13 “He hath subdued the sun and moon to service. Each runneth unto an appointed term.”
[The sun orbits the earth.]

(10) 36:38 “The sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him.”

(11) 36:40 It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.”
The sun and the moon orbit the earth. ( half right here! But by sheer chance.)

(12) 41:42 “We decked the nether heaven with lamps.”
[Allah put “lamps” in the lower heaven to serve as lights. These are the stars that we see in the sky at night.]

(13) 50:7 “And the earth have We spread out.”
[The earth is flat according to the Quran.]

(14) 51:48 “And the earth have We laid out, how gracious is the Spreader (thereof)!”
[The earth is flat according to the Quran.]

(15) 54:1-2 “The moon was rent in twain.”
[Muhammaed split the moon into two pieces.]

(16) 65:12 “Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof.”
[The “seven heavens” refer to the sun, moon, and five planets that were known at the time of Muhammad (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn). The earth was flat and the “seven “heavens” revolved around it.]

(17) 67:3 “Who hath created seven heavens … Canst thou see any rifts?”
[Allah asks Muhammed to examine the sky to see if it has any cracks.]

(18) 67:5 Allah made the stars as missiles to throw at devils.

(19) 69:14 At the end of the world the earth with the mountains will be lifted up and crushed with one crash.

(20) 71:16 “And hath made the moon a light”
[This verse implies that the moon produces its own light, rather than reflecting light from the sun.]

(21) 78:6-7 “Have We not made the earth an expanse, And the high hills bulwarks?”
[The earth is flat according to the Quran.]

(22) 79:30 “He spread the earth.”
[The earth is flat according to the Quran.]

(23) 81:2 Someday the stars will fall.

(24) 88:20 “And the earth, how it is spread ?”
[The earth is flat according to the Quran.]

(25) 91:1-2 The sun … and the moon when she followeth him.”
[The moon orbits the earth; it doesn’t “follow the sun.”]

(25) 91:6 The sun … and the moon when she followeth him.”
[The moon orbits the earth; it doesn’t “follow the sun.”]

(2) The creation of man: (According to the Quran)

(1a) [3.59] Surely the likeness of Isa (Jesus) is with Allah as the likeness of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him, Be, and he was.
(1b) [3.60] (This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of the disputers. (This absurd and erroneous claim by Muhammad from Jewish genealogy shows he lacked comprehension of the Old Testament. Adam was also not created by the word of Allah(god) but by the breadth of god.)

(1) [4.1] O people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship; surely Allah ever watches over you. (Man was not made from a single person.)

(2) 7:80-81 Homosexual acts are condemned as unnatural. (Will ye commit abomination such as no creature ever did before you?) But, in fact, such acts are common in many other species.

(3) 7:189 Humans created from a single man.

(4) 11:15 “They fold up their breasts that they may hide (their thoughts) from Him.”
Allah thinks (in his heart) that humans have their brains in their breasts.


[15.26] And certainly We created man of clay that gives forth sound, of black mud fashioned in shape. (Biblical accounts say that Adam was made from dust. No clay was involved.)
[15.27] And the jinn(a non-malicious spirit) We created before, of intensely hot fire.
[15.28] And when your Lord said to the angels: Surely I am going to create a mortal of the essence of black mud fashioned in shape.
[15.29] So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down making obeisance to him.
[15.30] So the angels made obeisance, all of them together,
[15.31] But Iblis (a wicked jinn did it not); he refused to be with those who made obeisance.
[15.32] He said: O Iblis! what excuse have you that you are not with those who make obeisance?
[15.33] He said: I am not such that I should make obeisance to a mortal whom Thou hast created of the essence of black mud fashioned in shape.
[15.34] He said: Then get out of it, for surely you are driven away:
[15.35] And surely on you is curse until the day of judgement.
[15.36] He said: My Lord! then respite me till the time when they are raised.
[15.37] He said: So surely you are of the respited ones
[15.38] Till the period of the time made known.
[15.39] He said: My Lord! because Thou hast made life evil to me, I will certainly make (evil) fair-seeming to them on earth, and I will certainly cause them all to deviate
[15.40] Except Thy servants from among them, the devoted ones.
[15.41] He said: This is a right way with Me:
[15.42] Surely. as regards My servants, you have no authority ,over them except those who follow you of the deviates.
[15.43] And surely Hell is the promised place of them all:
[15.44] It has seven gates; for every gate there shall be a separate party of them.

(5)  016.004
YUSUFALI: He has created man from a sperm-drop; and behold this same (man) becomes an open disputer!
PICKTHAL: He hath created man from a drop of fluid, yet behold! he is an open opponent.
SHAKIR: He created man from a small seed and lo! he is an open contender.(Man is created with sperm and ovum not by itself.)

(5) 16:68-69 “And thy Lord inspired the bee, saying … eat of all fruits.”
Allah told bees to eat from all fruits, but decided to eat nectar and pollen instead. (Knowledge of insect biology wanting.)

(6) 20:71 The Pharaoh threatens to crucify Hebrews on palm tress. (But crucifixion was a Roman form of punishment that was unknown at the time. Time scale error.)


[22.5] O people! if you are in doubt about the raising, then surely We created you from dust, then from a small seed, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make and incomplete, that We may make clear to you; and We cause what We please to stay in the wombs till an appointed time, then We bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity; and of you is he who is caused to die, and of you is he who is brought back to the worst part of life, so that after having knowledge he does not know anything; and you see the earth sterile land, but when We send down on it the water, it stirs and swells and brings forth of every kind a beautiful herbage.

[23.12] And certainly We created man of an extract of clay,
[23.13] Then We made him a small seed in a firm resting-place,
[23.14] Then We made the seed a clot, then We made the clot a lump of flesh, then We made (in) the lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, then We caused it to grow into another creation, so blessed be Allah, the best of the creators.
[23.15] Then after that you will most surely die.
[23.16] Then surely on the day of resurrection you shall be raised.
[23.17] And certainly We made above you seven heavens; and never are We heedless of creation. (The above verses certainly shows Allah’ uncertainty of creation of man.)
[25.54] And He it is Who has created man from the water, then He has made for him blood relationship and marriage relationship, and your Lord is powerful. (Man created from water is unique in the annals of the Abrahamic faiths.)
[30.20] And one of His signs is that He created you from dust, then lo! you are mortals (who) scatter. (Man was not created from dust, only Adam was. More confusion and ambiguity with Allah.)[32: 7-8]

YUSUFALI: He Who has made everything which He has created most good: He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay,
PICKTHAL: Who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay;
SHAKIR: Who made good everything that He has created, and He began the creation of man from dust.

YUSUFALI: And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised:
PICKTHAL: Then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid;
SHAKIR: Then He made his progeny of an extract, of water held in light estimation.

(Reference 32: 7-8,  Muhammad became confused with what he had learned from a Rabbi: “Mishnah in Tractate Avoth, Chapter 3:1 which states “….Whence thou are come – from a foetid drop; and whither thou are going – to a place of dust, worms and maggots…..   [22]

(8)  Evidence point to the fact that Muhammad was certainly very naive about the conception of humans from some of the revealing statements in the Quran. He has on numerous occasions mentioned sperm, but have never accompanied it with an ovum, the other essential element in the creation of life. The missing ovum in his concepts shows his lack of appreciation of human conception. Perhaps this was the state of the knowledge of conception throughout the region in the 7th century. Here are some examples:

36: 77 Doth not man see that it is We Who created him from sperm [Nutfati]? Yet behold! He (stands forth) as an open adversary!

39: 6    He created you (all) from asingle person [Nafsi Wahidati]: then created of like nature his mate; and He sent down for you eight head of cattle in pairs: He makes you in the wombs of your mothers in stages one after another in three veils of darkness.  Such is Allah your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion.  There is no god but He: then how are ye turned away (from your true Centre)?
[Does 39:6 imply that man was cloned from one individual i.e., Adam?]

40: 67 It is He Who has created you fromdust [Trurab]then from a sperm-drop [Nutfati] then from a leech-like clot [Alqati] ; then does He get you out (into the light) as a child: then lets you (grow and) reach your age of full strength; then lets you become old though of you there are some who die before; and lets you reach a Term appointed: in order that ye may learn wisdom.

70: 39 By no means! For We have created them out of the (base matter) they know! (Yusufali translation.)
[Why has “dust” be translated to “base matter?” An indication of the lack of perception of Genesis.]

75: 37 Was he not a drop ofsperm [Nutfat]  emitted (in lowly form)? 38  Then did he become a leech-like clot [Alaq] ; then did (Allah) make and fashion (him) in due proportion.
[36:77; 40:67; 75:37 indicates confusion between sperm and semen. In all cases semen would have been more appropriate. Was this a lack of understanding in embryology?]

77: 20 Have We not created you from a fluid [Maain] (held) despicable [maheen]?
[Again loose diction. Is the fluid meant to be semen?]
78: 8        And (have We not) created you in pairs
[According to the Bible, all animals were created in pairs except Man.]

80: 19 From a sperm-drop [Nutfat]: He hath created him and then mouldeth him in due proportions; 
86: 6  He is created from adrop emitted [maai dafiqi] 7 Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs:
and 86:6 refer not to sperm but semen produced between the backbone and the ribs. Again showing complete ignorance of physiology.]

94:1Have We not opened up your chest and removed your burden which left you hopeless?

Tabari 6:75 “‘Messenger, how did you first know with absolute certainty that you were a prophet?’ He replied, ‘Two angels came to me while I was somewhere in Mecca…. One angel said, “Open his breast and take out his heart.” He opened my chest and heart, removing the pollution of Satan and a clot of blood, and threw them away. Then one said, “Wash his breast as you would a receptacle.” He summoned the Sakinah, which looked like the face of a white cat, and it was placed in my heart. Then one said, “Sew up his breast.” So they sewed up my chest and placed the seal between my shoulders.'”    
[Quran 94:1 and Tabari 6:75 admits that Muhammad’s heart was filled with Satan (sin) that  was contained in his heart (not mind) and was cleansed by two angels by opening his breast to remove Satan implying Muhammad admitted he was no without sin.]

96: 2        Created man out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood [Alaq]:
[Quran 96:2 Shows that Muhammad was obsessed with the word “Alaq=Leach/Blood Clot for he believed that MAN was created from a Clot of Blood.]

Man’s Gestation in the Hadiths

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.430 & 4.549 & 8.593      Narrated byAbdullah bin Musud

Bukhari 8.593

“Allah’s Apostle, the truthful and truly-inspired, said, “Each one of you collected in the womb of his mother for forty days, and then turns into a clot for an equal period (of forty days) and turns into a piece of flesh for a similar period (of forty days) and then Allah sends an angel and orders him to write four things, i.e., his provision, his age, and whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter). Then the soul is breathed into him. And by Allah, a person among you (or a man) may do deeds of the people of the Fire till there is only a cubit or an arm-breadth distance between him and the Fire, but then that writing (which Allah has ordered the angel to write) precedes, and he does the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters it; and a man may do the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is only a cubit or two between him and Paradise, and then that writing precedes and he does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters it.”[The 3 similar Hadiths all state that the human gestation is a period of 4 months instead of 9 months. Showing complete ignorance of human embryology. It also believes that Muslims believe that all men have their lives predestined by Allah even before birth and are born Muslims.] [22]

(7) 24:45 Allah created all animals. Some with no legs, some with two, and some with four. (Most insects have six legs. Did Allah forget about the insects?)

(8) 37:142 Jonah was swallowed by a fish.

(9) 51:49 All things We have created by pairs.” This is not true. Many bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and plants reproduce asexually.

(10) 86:5-7 “He is created from a gushing fluid that issued from between the loins and ribs.”
Semen, according to the Quran, is formed not in the testicles, but somewhere “between the loins and ribs.”

(11) 86:6 “He is created from a gushing fluid.”
Humans are not created from semen, but from fertilized eggs.

(12) 96:1-2 Thy Lord … createth man from a clot.”
Humans were created from a clot?

(13) 105:1-3 Allah dealt with the owners of the elephant by sending swarms of “flying creatures”.

Summary & Conclusions***Islamic culture inhibits development and innovation because:

(1*) ***Hieroglyphics requires photographic memory making learning cumbersome & difficult to the less intelligent. It requires good photographic memory and repetition.

(1a*) ***Learning Islam in Arabic for non-Arabic peoples causes a burden.

(2*) ***The teaching method is mainly by repetition and rote memory. (No stimulation for independent inquiry.)

(3*) Hierarchical social structure demands obedience without question.

(3a*) ***Islamic learning is by rote and questions are unnecessary.

(3b*) The Quran in the immutable Word of Allah and may not be challenged.(Questioning the Quran is heresy.)

(3c*) ***The Closing of the Gates of Ijitihad in 900 CE ended all discussion of the Quran. (This gave Muslims the excuse not to investigate and query anything in the Quran or Ahadith.)

(4*) ***Family literacy is extremely low so interaction in the home was nil.

(5*) ***Muslim children, by nature are docile and do not curious.(Curiosity caused disruption.)

(6*) ***The Islamic syllabus is almost confined to Islamic subjects only.

(6a*) ***Islamic education is exclusive and repressive – closed curricula.

(7*)*** Madrassa education is very restricted and confined to Islam only.

(8*) The elementary “Hifz” course, taken by most village Muslims is essentially a course to memorise Prayers and to recite the Quran in Arabic.

(9*) The syllabus of the Alim course is quite fundamental and exclusive.

(10*) The secondary school lever course “Alim” is confined to Islamic subjects qualifying, after a total of 12 years as a student to qualify to be teachers or Imams in Mosques. This shows the level of education that teachers or preachers have. and is equivalent to O-Level or GCSE at about 18 years of age.Thus the level of intellect to pass on to the next generation is quite low.

(11*) ***Oil wealth has also become a vehicle of indolence, corruption & sloth.It also does not encourage invention and industry.

(12) ***** The most restrictive of Islamic Commands that has held Muslim back are the following:

*****Muhammad says Allah hates when you ask too many questions

In Sahih al-Bukhari, the most canonical hadith collection:

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 555:

Narrated Ash-sha’bi:
The clerk of Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba narrated, “Muawiya wrote to Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba: Write to me something which you have heard from the Prophet (p.b.u.h) .” So Al-Mughira wrote: I heard the Prophet saying, “Allah has hated for you three things:

1. Vain talks, (useless talk) that you talk too much or about others.

2. Wasting of wealth (by extravagance)

3. And asking too many questions (in disputed religious matters) or asking others for something (except in great need). 

Note: the parenthetical insertion, “in disputed religious matters,” is not mine. It’s part of the hadith as available at the University of Southern California hadith database. To see for yourself, click the link near the top of this comment.

Quranic Inadequacies

It is obvious from the errors and the discrepancies listed, that Muhammad, and his disciples after him who were responsible for compiling the Quran, were naive about the creation of the Universe and the creation of Man. But Muhammad could only base his declarations with whatever knowledge that was available to all peoples in the 7th Century in Arabia so he accepted the Jewish Old testament as his gospel. Certainly, Allah the omnipotent, should have provided Muhammad his prophet, with more reliable information if he valued his  own omnipotence as Allah. It is therefore difficult to credit the Quran to any other than Muhammad (the man) and his followers.


[1] China’s New Industrial Revolution:
[2] Chinese Civil Service based on meritocracy:
[3] The Chinese Aviation Revolution:
[3.1] China’s C919 Commercial plane:
[4] China’s Submarine Force Comes of Age:
[4.1] China’s Deterrent ICBMs:
[5] Root consonants S-L-M and Islam:
[6] The immutable and literal Word of Allah:
[7] Closing the Gates of Ijtihad:
[8] National Curriculum (Britain):,_Wales_and_Northern_Ireland%29
[9] The purpose of Islamic learning:
[10] Hifz Elementary Islamic Studies:
[11] Alim Secondary Islamic Studies:
[12] Existence of God:
[13] Does God Exist?:
[14] Early Waterwheel:
[15] Myths of Islamic Inventions:
[16] Islamic myths and Al-Razi:
[17] Myths of Islamic scientific discoveries:
[18] Allah is Omnipotent:
[19] Ishmael could not have been the ancestor of Muhammad:
[20] Muhammad was not a descendent of Ishmael:
[21] Creativity & Evolution:
[22] Creation of Man: Islam:

Unallocated References:

1. Quran & Expanding Universe:
2. Golden Age of Islam:
3. Origins of the Quraish tribe, false:

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