§8 Faux Islam: Indonesia

· Indonesia-Malaysia, Islam
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§8 FAUX ISLAM: INDONESIA

(5022 words)


FAUX ISLAM: Indonesia

Some misconceptions that need a true perspective. Any similarity to other blogs is a coincidence:

Nowhere else in the world did Islam have such a conservative form in 1740 other than Saudi Arabia.

From the time the Prophet Muhammad began to abrogate the Quran, Islam took on “a conservative and exclusive form and that was established in the mid-7th century and it has never changed.” So the above quote is an oxymoron.

Islam came to the new lands in a different form and changed further. It first appeared in Indonesia for instance in the tenth century around 650 years at least before the regressive influences of Wahabbi, and this is part of the reason why the Islam there is so different from the Islam that has become the popular conception of the non-Muslim world; an Islam that is new and in fact in its fundamentalist form that the terrorists pervert, a modern invention.

ISLAM WAS ESTABLISHED IN S.E. ASIA IN THE 15TH CENTURY

There was “no Islam” in Indonesia in the 10th century. Islam was only established by “the Sultanate of Malacca in 1409, i.e. the 15th century. So this was a misinformation out of ignorance, casting total discredit to the blog. A few Muslim traders may have reached Indonesia in the 10th century but there were well established Buddhist and Hindu civilisations in Indonesia during the 10th century and no evidence of a Muslim civilisation at that time.

Hinduism Flourished in Indonesia from the 4th Century to the 16th Century

The Tarumanagra Hindu Empire flourished in 358-669 AD, succeeded by The Srivijaya Hindu Kingdom that declined somewhere during 1200 -1300 AD as the Majapahit Hindu Kingdom took over but finally crumbled in 1527 AD.

Buddhism was established in the 8th to the 15th Centuries in Indonesia

The Mataram Buddhist Kingdom ruled by the Suilendra clan was well established in the 8th and 9th centuries. Buddhist pilgrims from the rest of Asia were making pilgrimages to the Borobudur Temple in the 9th and 10th centuries. During the 13th to 15th centuries, Buddhists and Hindus coexisted peacefully with one another. Eventually with the decline of the Majapahit Hindu Kingdom, the Malacca Sultanate dominated the region in the 15th century onwards. That is the religious history of South East Asia.

Indonesian Islam was a Thin Veneer

Islam is so different in Indonesia is not because a different benign form of Islam was imported, but because Indonesian Islam is but a thin veneer laid on top of (1) spiritualism, (2) Shamanism, (3) Buddhism, (4) and Hinduism and (5) colonial Dutch Protestanism. It was an Islam that was ill taught and introduced by ignorant Muslim traders and has remained a shallow faux Islam as I will show later why that is so. But bear in mind that Indonesian Islam has had only 500 years of very superficial influence on the people compared to 1400 years of Islamic influence in its orthodox version in the Arabian Peninsular.

But essential to remember is that there is only one Allah, and one Quran, and one Islam in existence. The idea of a “moderate Islam” and a “fundamentalist Islam” is oxymoron.

Islam does not of itself seek to take over the world and produce a caliphate. That was another part of the modernity that is mistaken for ancient Islam (the talk endlessly is of the ‘seventh century barbaric religion of a warlord etc’). The concept of a modern worldwide caliphate started with the political aims of the Muslim Brotherhood; with Qutb and others. Qutb was executed in Egypt in the 60’s (modern or not?). His perversion of Wahabb’s conservatism has been taken further by people like the Deobandi and Bin Laden. All modern stuff.

Quranic Verses are irrefutable word of Allah.

Interpret as you may:

Qur’an 59:22 “Allah is He, no other Ilah (God) may be worshiped; Who knows both secret and open; He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. He is Allah, Whom there is no other Ilah (God); the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Security, the Guardian of Faith, the Majestic, the Irresistible, the Superb, the Compeller: Glory to Allah! He is Allah, the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colors). To Him belong the Best Names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth declares His Praises and Glory: and He is the Mighty, the Wise.”

Ishaq:324 “He said, Fight them so that there is no more rebellion, and religion, all of it, is for Allah only. Allah must have no rivals.”

Qur’an:9:5 “Fight and kill the disbelievers wherever you find them, take them captive, harass them, lie in wait and ambush them using every stratagem of war.”

The above verses says all that needs saying and refutes those ridiculous ideas that there is any moderate form of Islam. There is no modernity in the Quran or the Hadiths.

First, how does one learn about Islam? It is claimed by Islamist that Islam can only be truly interpreted or understood if one studied it in the original Arabic script. Well, in the past 500 years, how many Indonesians or Indonesian Imams have learned the Arabic language and then studied thoroughly the Quran and the Hadiths and the Siras? I doubt if there have been more than a handful who are well versed and have cognisance of Islam especially from the Arabic. So who has been transmitting knowledge of Islam to the illiterate population, and how many comprehend Arabic language and understand its meanings? Reciting prayers in Arabic does not imply that one understands the significance of the words. What was the level of education of Indonesian Imams to qualify them to teach or preach Islam? Well according to my findings:

Islamic Education

(A) the ‘alim’ course or an accepted scholar course. The alim course takes 12 years, and qualifies that graduate to become an imam, or an Islamic teacher or to work in a Mosque. (On a time scale this is equivalent to an O-level or school leaving certificate level.) A typical curriculum for an alim course is,
(1) Arabic language, (2) Tafsir (Koranic interpretation), (3) Shari’ah (Islamic Law), (4)
Hadith (recorded sayings and deeds of Prophet Mohammed), (5) Mantiq (Islamic Logic), and (6) Muslim History. Some madrassas also offer courses in (a) Arabic Literature, (b) English or some other foreign language, and (c) science, and (d) World History.

Now that is a fairly basic educational standard to start preaching a religion. Little wonder why it creates such confusion among Muslims. In Christianity, most Christian preachers have spent not 12 years of education but 18 to 20 years of education with the last 8 years concentrating on faith studies ending with a Doctorate in Philosophy in Religion. That makes a vast difference in the ability to take cognisance of religious philosophy.

Indonesian Literacy


(B) Let us look at the literacy of Indonesians in the last 500 years. Indonesian are made up of many indigenous clans/tribes and each has their own spoken dialects differing from one another. In the early days long before Dutch colonialism, almost all the people were illiterate.

To provide a perspective, When Indonesia declared Independence from the Netherlands in 1945 only 5% of the population could read and write (Napitupulu 1980. The illiteracy prior to 1945 must have been only a fraction of this 5%. This is a very significant benchmark). This marks a demarcation of the change in Indonesia. In 35 years, in 1980 almost 70% of the population ages 15 years of older were literate in Bahasa Indonesia, but “illiterate in the Quran and in Islam.” But By 2000 that figure had grown to 87% Literacy (UNESCO 1999.) [24] Because of the introduction of Bahasa Indonesia in 1928 and with the help of the Dutch to introduce the Romanised script to Bahasa. It was only with this new written language that Indonesians could become literate. But this is 1928, where illiteracy before then, especially beyond 50 years must have been close to 100%. Is so, how does such a population be able to examine a Quran, read it and make cognisance to its meanings? Or to really comprehend the significance of Islam in their lives? Impossible.

Between the 13th and 17th centuries large scale conversion of Indonesians to Islam, introduced the Arabic writing that developed into the Jawi and Pegon scripts for Malay and Javanese, respectively. This new script was used for both secular and religious matters and largely used for the translation of Arabic literature for use in Malay and Javanese. What percentage of people were literate and could they understand what they read? Hence the population were completely under the influence of the semi-educated Imams and “faux Imams” with their skulduggery.

There was no way that Indonesians, Imams included, had any cognisance of the philosophy of Islam. The means of dissemination of Islamic knowledge was not available to them i.e. literacy. So what Indonesians had, even till today, is Spiritualism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Cjhristian ideologies with a very thin veneer of Islam dressing it. So this benign, non-aggressive Indonesian Islam is not Islam as understood in the Arabian Peninsula or Pakistan but a pseudo-Islam still in its infancy, the Indonesian pseudo-Islam or as I call it “faux-Islam.” And worst still when ignorant expatriates believe Indonesian Islam is the real thing and begin to preach it here.

The above 3 part blog expresses my hypothesis of Indonesian Islam. It is not Islam as described in the Quran and the Hadiths and it should never be considered as a moderate Islam because it is only the top layer of Islam. Most Indonesian Muslims who describe themselves as Muslims are only really “cultural Muslims” or “nominal Muslims.”

Today there are groups emerging in Indonesia who are attempting to enforce orthodox Islam, but the “cultural Muslims” are labelling them as “extremist Muslims” when in fact they are the truer Muslims, like the Muslims in Aceh who are attempting to establish strict Sharia Laws for their community. There are other fundamental groups like the JI, who will eventually lead Indonesians into orthodox Islam, because if the Indonesians want to identify themselves as Muslims that is the ONLY WAY TO GO. The other way, towards moderate Islam means embracing “APOSTASY.”

Part 4

Quote: ”


OCTOBER 19TH, 2010 18:46
Faux Islam: Indonesia (Part 4)

Continuing to correct inconsistencies:

A Blogger posted this:

Islam came to the new lands in a different form and changed further. It first appeared in Indonesia for instance in the tenth century around 650 years at least before the regressive influences of Wahabb, and this is part of the reason why the Islam there is so different from the Islam that has become the popular conception of the non-Muslim world; an Islam that is new and in fact in its fundamentalist form that the terrorists pervert, a modern invention. Islam does not of itself seek to take over the world and produce a caliphate. That was another part of the modernity that is mistaken for ancient Islam (the talk endlessly is of the ‘seventh century barbaric religion of a warlord etc’). The concept of a modern worldwide caliphate started with the political aims of the Muslim Brotherhood; with Qutb and others. Qutb was executed in Egypt in the 60’s (modern or not?). His perversion of Wahabb’s conservatism has been taken further by people like the Deobandi and Bin Laden. All modern stuff.

This blogger is most disingenuous. I reiterate, Islam only appeared in South East Asia, as an accepted religion with the establishment of the Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th Century and NOT THE 10TH CENTURY AS CLAIMED. Making false or erroneous statements of fact of such a serious topic is unforgivable. [The lack of accuracy of history discredits the credibility of the Blogger to be a person of serious intellect.]

In Part 3, I have partially explained the reasons why Indonesian Islam is so different from the Islam of the Arabian Peninsular is due to “illiteracy in Islam.” Besides, when Islam arrived in the 15th Century in Indonesia, it superimposed itself on an already benign and peaceful culture of Buddhism and Hinduism, in a peaceful transition. Islam in Indonesia has had no experience of persecution of any sort as there were no pagan Pharaohs or pagan nomadic tribes, or Romans, or Jews or Christians to challenge their proselytising in Indonesia. Also, Indonesia was a land of plenty and there was no need to fight over pasture land or fishing rights, as there was plenty of food for all in the tropical paradise. So Indonesian had no need to seek solace from the Quran to justify using the Sword to establish their faith. Islam was introduced to Indonesia through Muslim traders, and through the conversion of some of the Sultans by offerings of Muslim females as brides, as in the case of the establishment of the Sultanate of Malacca in 1409 i.e. 15th century.

To even suggest that a different, “benign form of Islam” was introduced to Indonesia, “different from that of the Arabian Peninsular Islam,” is a statement of BLASPHEMY. It also shows a complete lack of understanding of Islam, the Qur’anic verses and Islamic ideology. Any Muslim will tell you that there is only ONE ALLAH, ONE QUR’AN, AND ONE ISLAM. Any one telling that that is not so is blasphemous. It shows a total lack of knowing or understanding Islam. Again demolishing any credibility in anything that has been written by such a person on the topic of Islam.(Hence I have been accused of being a coward for not wanting to discuss Islam and withdraw. How can I possibly discuss with someone who is not discussing Islamic text or ideology but makes it up as he goes along to suit his uncorroborated statements about Islam or Islamic history? Someone who speaks with no credibility?)

Qur’an 20:14 “Verily, I am Allah. No Ilah (God) may be worshiped but I. So serve you Me, and perform regular prostration prayer for My praise. Verily the Hour is coming. I am almost hiding it from Myself.”

Qur’an 48:6 “He may punish the Hypocrites who imagine an evil opinion, or have evil thoughts about Allah. It is against them that the wheel of misfortune will turn, a disgraceful torment: the Wrath of Allah is on them: He has cursed them, and He has prepared Hell for them.”

Qur’an:2:216 “Jihad (holy fighting in Allah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims), though you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and like a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knows, and you know not.” [Another translation reads:] “Warfare is ordained for you.”

Qur’an:4:95 “Not equal are those believers who sit at home and receive no injurious hurt, and those who strive hard, fighting Jihad in Allah’s Cause with their wealth and lives. Allah has granted a rank higher to those who strive hard, fighting Jihad with their wealth and bodies to those who sit (at home). Unto each has Allah promised good, but He prefers Jihadists who strive hard and fight above those who sit home. He has distinguished his fighters with a huge reward.”

There is no choice in Islam: it is not a “pick-and-choose” religion. It is all or nothing religion. It is an exclusive religion with no room for liberalism. Quran 4:95 Makes that clear. There is no choice regarding Jihad, Quran 2: 216 makes that clear. There is no choice in religion because Quran 20:14 also makes that clear. If you question the wisdom of these verses, you are an apostate. Ask any genuine Imam or any knowledgeable Muslim who knows his Islam.

Quoting the blogger again:” an Islam that is new and in fact in its fundamentalist form that the terrorists pervert, a modern invention. Islam does not of itself seek to take over the world and produce a caliphate.”

There is nothing new or modern with the ideology of “The Muslim Brotherhood” or “Wahhabism.” To make such a statement again shows the shallowness of the blogger about Islam. Both these movements were movements to attempt to recapture the original concept of Islam. Again it shows that the blogger has made assumptions about Islam without any knowledge of Islam or even the Quran and the Hadiths. This again destroys his credibility as having any real knowledge of Islam. It is clear the Quran is the word of Allah and what Allah states is to be followed rigidly by his followers:

Qur’an:2:216 “Jihad (holy fighting in Allah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims), though you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and like a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knows, and you know not.” [Another translation reads:] “Warfare is ordained for you.”

Qur’an:8:12 “I shall terrorize the infidels. So wound their bodies and incapacitate them because they oppose Allah and His Apostle.”

Qur’an:9:5 “Fight and kill the disbelievers wherever you find them, take them captive, harass them, lie in wait and ambush them using every stratagem of war.”

Qur’an:9:112 “The Believers fight in Allah’s Cause, they slay and are slain, kill and are killed.”

Now, if the Indonesian version of the Quran is different from that quoted above, then the Indonesians are not worshipping the Islamic Allah but some other god. Perhaps the Gunong Agong god, or the “Bohong Orang god.”

In a way Islam is like Communism. For there to be universal peace on earth and for Islam to succeed, the whole world must worship Allah. So it is incumbent for all Muslims to serve Allah to accomplish a World Caliphate. Muslims all seek Dar al Islam and will subdue all Dar al Harb.

To Be a Muslim

To be a Muslim, a person has to accept the 5 pillars of Islam i.e. (1) The Shahadah, (2) Salah, (3) Zakat, (4) Sawm, and (5) Hajj and in some sects also (6) Jihad. If any Muslim does not adhere strictly to the above Pillars of Islam the are considered non-Muslims or apostates. I leave you to look up the significance of the Pillars of Islam.

I will end part 4 here.
OCTOBER 20TH, 2010 11:02
Nouveau Islam: Indonesia (Part 5)

Rebutting some erroneous/misleading presentations of demographic statistics:

tariqKhan: “Look at the numbers: 62% live in Asia(sic); only 18% in the Middle East(sic). The Asians are massively influenced by Islam as it came to them centuries before Wahabbism. The same is true throughout the Levant and into Europe.”

These statistics were probably gleaned from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Muslim_population

But what was not specified was what did Asia consist of? And on looking at the demographic data, Asia, in this case, could only mean: From Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, through Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, China, Mongolia, Russia.

(see:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia

That includes the Middle East except for North Africa. Thus it is misleading since Khan quotes that the Middle East Muslims only makes up to 18% of the world population when it is already included in the 62 %. But Khan is specifically referring to Indonesian Muslims and Indonesian Muslims make up to only 12.9% of the total world Muslim population. (Relative an insignificant number to represent the ideology of “a Nouveau Indonesian Islam.” However this seems to be Khan’s intention.)

So we see that statistics can be very misleading when used to intentionally mislead. So let me emphasise, Indonesian population is 27 million (2008) and if everyone there is a Muslim (or cultural Muslim) that consists of 12.9% of the total world Muslims. At most, the type of Islam Khan is proselytising is “a nouveau Islam: Indonesian style) that could possibly influence about 15% (of total Muslim population)Muslims in South East Asia if we consider including Malaysia into this equation. The reason Khan is deceitful is because he implies that Indonesian Islam is a genuine uncorrupted Islam that was introduced in the 10th Century (sic) to Indonesia and imply it represents 62% of all Muslims. It is misleading. This is what he says:

The basis of the extreme conservatism (and immense hypocrisy) that goes with the Saudi version of Islam is modern; fundamentalism is not going back to the original it is at best going back to 1740 (roughly a thousand years after the death of the Prophet Mohammad). This is not the Islam of the majority. This is not reality; it is control and the misuse of vast wealth. When the wealth goes the influence goes with it and Islam will be seen more clearly as the religion it truly is and no danger to anyone now as it has no central control, no form as a body of anything, no military and no political aims. Some nations that have a Muslim majority may, in fact almost certainly will, behave badly in the future but they will do so not because they are largely Muslim by religion any more than you do bad things because you are largely Christian. You do bad things because sometimes you elect idiots and it would be nice if you stopped doing that, and maybe in Britain you have.

Now I am beginning to see what Khan is attempting to propagate and proselytise, a “NOUVEAU ISLAM” that is a different Islam from the Islam of the Wahhabis and the Muslim Brotherhood, but a compassionate, all embracing Islam, a “NOUVEAU INDONESIAN ISLAM.” But there are no different forms of Islam, like “extremist Islam” and “moderate Islam” or “Indonesian Islam,” because Islam is based on ONE ALLAH, ONE MUHAMMAD, ONE QURAN, AND ONE ISLAM. So to try to create a “nouveau Islam” is no different from what Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of the Ahmadiyya cult attempted to do and has earned the scorn and rejection of all orthodox Muslims in the world. So is Khan aka Duckman attempting to be the new Mahdi of Indonesia and promoting an “Indonesian Islam” different from the Islam of the Arabian Peninsular? I believe he is. He is barking! But good luck to him and hope the orthodox Muslims go along with him.

AbdullahMuhammad
References:

Copy of original Blog by Tariq Khan aka John Duckman for reference:

October 17th, 2010 12:54

Islam: Wahabbism: Modernity: Reality


Wahhabism came into being around 1740 with the return of Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, its founder, to his home in the Nejd in what is now Saudi Arabia. He gathered a following amongst the tribal peoples of the Arabian Peninsula with his conservative interpretations of Islam. Not all accepted him and he had to find protection under the sponsorship of Muhammad ibn Saud. They formed an alliance and Wahabbism underpinned the drive for the supremacy of Saud in Arabia. The Saud dynasty took control of the Arabian Peninsula eventually and holds it until today as the House of Saud.

What is important to look at in these simple facts of history is this: By 1740 Islam was already well over a thousand years old and had spread worldwide. It was, or had been, part of great empires like the Mongol Empire and had faced Christian armies in the Crusades. It was not the only thing that made the empires great but it was a part of it. Christianity is not the only thing that made the industrial revolution, colonial expansion and the West’s rise for its time in the sunlit uplands of world domination (now painfully passing) so successful. However; religion’s part in empire building is not what I am aiming at. The point is that for over a thousand years before Wahabb came into being Islam had spread throughout the world in a version completely unlike that which Wahabb produced. It must have been different for two reasons; firstly the very obvious one that Wahabb could not have invented something that already existed and the other one which is this: Nowhere else in the world did Islam have such a conservative form in 1740 other than Saudi Arabia.

Everywhere else Islam was what it is today, a syncretism (blend) of traditions and cultures particular to the area in which it found itself by the sword or by trade; mostly in fact the empires expanded by trade assisted by the sword as necessary (true of all empires including the British) as it is impossible to control massive, populated, landmasses unless you have something to offer as well as something you want to take. The usual connivance of the rulers of the colonised with the incoming force produced the environment for trade and take-over.

Islam came to the new lands in a different form and changed further. It first appeared in Indonesia for instance in the tenth century around 650 years at least before the regressive influences of Wahabb, and this is part of the reason why the Islam there is so different from the Islam that has become the popular conception of the non-Muslim world; an Islam that is new and in fact in its fundamentalist form that the terrorists pervert, a modern invention. Islam does not of itself seek to take over the world and produce a caliphate. That was another part of the modernity that is mistaken for ancient Islam (the talk endlessly is of the ‘seventh century barbaric religion of a warlord etc’). The concept of a modern worldwide caliphate started with the political aims of the Muslim Brotherhood; with Qutb and others. Qutb was executed in Egypt in the 60’s (modern or not?). His perversion of Wahabb’s conservatism has been taken further by people like the Deobandi and Bin Laden. All modern stuff.

Meanwhile the bulk of the world is still practising the forms of Islam that came with the Walis (the jokes have all been done before you are tempted) or ’saints’ and ‘guardians’ who spread Islam and created schools and did the syncretising necessary to every area. This was not formalised but it happened generally and in amongst these were the Sufi wanderers such as the Nine Wali Songo of Java who brought Islam to Central Indonesia.

Sufism is not one type of Islam; it is many. It is the appreciation of the religion of Islam by mystical means and meditation and the attempt through ascetics and a whole way of life to find a path to realisation of the meaning of god in your own life. Sufis can be conservative or they can be liberal. They can be Bin Laden and they can be Jalaludin Rumi the poet and great Sufi philosopher. Take away the fundamentalist version of Islam, which goes back only to the 18th. Century at best and only exists beyond Saudi because of oil wealth and the ability of the House of Saud to finance its influence, and Islam is what it is in reality for the massive bulk of the ummah; a religion of the people used as they wish as individuals and as communities.

Think; do people really want to hack off thieves hands? Do people really want to stone adulterers to death? Do people really like this stuff? If you believe they do for some reason just because they are not Western that surely is illogical, isn’t it? No, this stuff is the stuff of nightmares and nightmare oppressive rule. No one wants to minimise that. It is not however the stuff that will affect your societies beyond terrorist attacks and loud stupid noise from a minority of your Muslim communities. I don’t want to diminish the horror of these attacks or the annoyance a vocal minority can cause in a society but look at the facts of how Islam has grown. Look at the numbers: 62% live in Asia; only 18% in the Middle East. The Asians are massively influenced by Islam as it came to them centuries before Wahabbism. The same is true throughout the Levant and into Europe.

The basis of the extreme conservatism (and immense hypocrisy) that goes with the Saudi version of Islam is modern; fundamentalism is not going back to the original it is at best going back to 1740 (roughly a thousand years after the death of the Prophet Mohammad). This is not the Islam of the majority. This is not reality; it is control and the misuse of vast wealth. When the wealth goes the influence goes with it and Islam will be seen more clearly as the religion it truly is and no danger to anyone now as it has no central control, no form as a body of anything, no military and no political aims. Some nations that have a Muslim majority may, in fact almost certainly will, behave badly in the future but they will do so not because they are largely Muslim by religion any more than you do bad things because you are largely Christian. You do bad things because sometimes you elect idiots and it would be nice if you stopped doing that, and maybe in Britain you have.

It is time to see Saudi and the Wahabbis for what they are: A modern conservative sect with too much money. Time to see the rest of Islam for what it is: A religion based on many, varied, interpretations of the Koran that is so much a mosaic as to be impossible to categorise with any accuracy and always will be; a religion that was brought to the world long before the Wahabbists were invented. Stop doing the bidding of the rich House of Saud because you are promoting their version as the only true Islam. It isn’t and they know it; it is a new perversion, and they don’t abide by it anyway and the rest of the ummah are aware of all this.

Only you in the West are panicking and panic is not the reaction to take against a small sect of hypocritical, literalist, dolts and their mad terrorist off-shoots. Oppose them if you want but don’t try to make out all the rest of the ummah is made up of the same type of people. It isn’t; it is based in all its glorious variety around the genuine original article, not the modern development.

http://my.telegraph.co.uk/tkhan/tariqkhan/60/islam-wahabbism-modernity-reality/

 


Additional References:

1. Hinduism in Indonesia: http://www.hinduyuva.org/tattva-blog/2007/01/hinduism-in-indonesia-a-brief-history/

2. timeline Indonesian history: http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/indonesia/timeline.html

3. Hindu-Buddhist civilisations in Indonesia: http://www.servinghistory.com/topics/History_of_Indonesia::sub::Hindu-Buddhist_Civilizations

4. Indonesian History: http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/indonesia/pro-history.htm

5. Indonesian History tiimeline: http://www.facts-about.org.uk/history-and-events-timeline-indonesian.htm

6. Indonesia to 1500: http://www.geschichteinchronologie.ch/as/indon/Gimon_chron00-1500.htm

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