Sufism-Muslim Brotherhood-Arab League

· Islam
Authors

SUFISM-Muslim Brotherhood-Arab League-Wahhabism

Wahhabism & the Muslim Brotherhood

This article attempts to show how the different Islamic movements are united in their undeviating belief that Islam is the only way to Paradise (heaven) as instructed by Allah. All Muslim luminaries who have led Islamic movements have all, without fail, depended on Islamic orthodoxy for their inspiration.There is little deviation in their ultimate aims and the driving force is Allah and Jihad no matter how it may be disguised or mitigated by Islamic apologists or their sympathisers. It is the strict orthodoxy of Islam that has kept the Islamic Umma together and united.


onToward the One, the perfection of

Love, Harmony, and Beauty

Ascetic and Mystical Sufism


What is Sufism? I am immediately blinded by such a profound and nebulous description as, “Sufism is an ascetic and mystical movement within Islam.” [1] So being no better off I had to investigate.

The Prophet Muhammad (570-632) died he left an Islamic empire that amassed a vast fortune from the conquered nations who were all paying tribute and the collection of Jizya from from non-Muslims. The Muslim leaders indulged in this new found good fortune and “surrounded themselves with captive slaves  and concubines and lived in luxury and material decadence on a scale never known in the Islamic world before. [2]

But some pious and ascetic Muslims, aware of the fundamental teachings of the eternal punishment in hell-fires focussed their minds on Islamic religious piety. A group of scholars known as “Ahle Suffe“, the People of Suffe, devoted themselves to meditation and self purification. They were scholars and devotees of the Prophet Muhammad who sought through meditations for the purification and realization of the ideal Islam in relation to the realities of everyday life. These individuals were the founders of Sufism and they were individuals like Salman Farsi, Ammar Yasser, Bala’al, Abdullay Masoud and Oveyse Gharani. Their strict adherence to the beliefs in asceticism and piety soon caught the imagination of the more devout and their followers soon spread their disciplines as far as Persia, India, Indonesia, Syria Egypt, Mesopotamia, and North Africa. [3]

It was some two centuries after the time of Muhammad that gnostic influences began to appear in some expressions of Islamic spirituality. This ascetic and spiritualistic influence upon Sufism was undoubtedly the result of the Christian monasticism practised and observed by all around them at that time. Junayd of Baghdad, (d. 910). a Persian, helped shape Sufism into a pantheistic system. He wrote, “Whatever attains to True Being is absorbed into [Allah] and becomes [Allah.]”  [2]

Islamic scholars and compilers of the Koran had gone to great pains to develop an orthodox presentation of their Quran and their faith to protect it from heretical innovations or corruption. Having produced such a perfect sacred text they would guard it with their lives. Thus, orthodox Islamic scholars suspected that the Sufi emphasis on experience and spirituality was a better source of truth, could possibly lead to the supplanting or the ridiculing of the Prophet Muhammad’s doctrines. But above all, the Muslim clergy and Islamic elders could be supplanted by the glib Sufi sheiks. Thus with these insecurities, the Ulama (Islamic authorities) attempted to silence the mystics. The conflict between the Islamic legalisms (orthodox) and the Inner Light followers (Sufi’s) seemed irreconcilable.

al-Ghazali (d.1111)

al-Ghazali, a Sufi but of Persian descent, on his retirement wrote, “The Revivification of the Religious Sciences.” In this works he clarified that it was the inner spiritual devotion in man (Sufi’s) that will fulfil the demands of the Quran and in no way deviated from the doctrines of the Quran. When it was seen that there was no deviation from the ideologies of the Quran and thus not a threat to Islamic teachings, it lifted the suspicions and the hostilities against the Sufi’s. The orthodox Islamic clergy thus afforded the Sufi’s more tolerance although not fully accepted. The two traditions, the legalists (orthodox) and the mystics (Sufi) accepted that the two disciplines had a role to fulfil the wider Muslim community.

 Al-Ghazali a Sufi Sheikh

This acceptance of Sufism by the orthodox Islamic Ulama was significant because it blurred several concepts previously restrained by the Ulama, i.e. astrology and divination, the cult of the saints, became a part of Islam. [2]

Sufi Principles:

Sufi attempts to stimulate the spiritual aspects of Islam and stresses on the self discipline for the attainment of a superior spiritual soul through living a life of righteousness, piety, and universal love. Sufi’s also believe that every prophet and saint have Divine Attributes that dominates them through Allah. All prophets possess the manifestations of the Divine Unity and Perfection, but Prophet Muhammad is its supreme manifestation. The ultimate goal of Sufis is to cultivate Perfect Beings, reflections of the Divine Prophets. Such perfect beings are known as “Wali” (saint), literally meaning “sincere friend.” Thus all prophets are also saints. (Saints are more commonly a Christian concept.)

The distinguishing thing about Sufism is that a Sufi is require to have implicit faith in his teacher, pir or murshid or Sheikh, and to consider his commands as divine and the path shown by him as the straightest. [This is understandable in view of the fact that in the early centuries, religion was taught to the illiterate tribesmen and herdsmen and village people, and the Sheikh was probably the highest educated person in the region. It also prevented dissension and challenges of authority and maintained the hierarchical order of society.] Sufism inculcated fraternity, equality, equity, service to humanity, and did not distinguish between races, communities, castes, creeds or colour.

Sufi’s stressed, “Love for Allah” (Total submission), and the need for mental and spiritual purification through the medium of prayer and meditation. [A slightly different emphasis from orthodox Islam.]

Uniquely, Sufism have incorporated a devotional dance to stir the ecstatic and musical aspects known as Sama. It is a spiritual dance with rhythmic music and paticular movements in the  worship and remembrance of Allah, and often work themselves into a state akin to a trance. The influence is definitely Vedantic and leads us to realise that the Hindu influence in the early formation of Sufism shows that the Hindu empire may have reached the Middle East even though historical records are flimsy. [3]

But what clearly identifies the Sufi’s as of the fold of Islam is their acceptance of the Quran, and that Muhammad was its messenger. The Sufi’s also accept the 5 pillars of Islam as essential to their faith and observe it piously. [4]

Sufi Brotherhoods


Sufi’s are organised as brotherhoods or “orders” (Tariqas) led by a Sheikh who is considered the most spiritual person among them. These “orders” emerged in the 12th century in the Middle East. The first “orders” appeared in Sudan in the 16th century and was significant by the 18th century. The four main Sufi orders are:
1.  The Chishtiyya.
2.  The Naqshbandiyya.
3.  The Qadiriyya (Quaddiri)
4.  The Mujaddiyya.

5. Others include Mevlevi, Bektashi, Halveti, Jerrahi, Nimatalahi, Rufi, and Noori. The Mawlawis, are famous for their dancing rituals, often describes as the whirling dervishes.

The Naqshbandiya was founded in Bokhara, the Qadiriya founded in Bagdad, and the Cheshtiya located east of Herat. The Cheshtiya order ws founded bt Mawdid al-Cheshti who was born in the 12 century and took his teachings to India.

Many Iraqi Sunni Kurds belong to sufi orders.  The Qadiri and the Naqshbandi orders are the largest and have adherents spreading across the Middle East, Central, and South Asia. The Qadiri Sufi shrine in Baghdad attracts thousands of worldwide pilgrims every year.

Although Iraqi society accept the Sufi orders, Sufi’s are still regarded with a degree of suspicion by the orthodox Sunni theologians because of their mystical components. Shia Muslims on the other hand are hostile towards Sufism considering them heretical. Even Turkey today shows little sympathies towards the Kurds who are sufis.

The Tijaniyah Order of Sufi

Founded in Morocco by Ahmad at-Tijani in 1781, the Tijanniyah order extended towards Senegal and Nigeria and established large kingdoms in West Africa. The Tijaniyah Order is strongly associated with the Muslim Brotherhood  which began in 1920 in Egypt and Hasan al-Banna was the founder of the Brotherhood in 1928. The goal of the Muslim Brotherhood was to establish and Islamic State ruled by Shariah Law in Egypt. After World War II, the Muslim Brotherhood emerged as a radical group prepared to use violence to achieve its religious goals. Today it is using much more subtle and sophisticated methods to achieve its ends. Because of the Muslim Brother’s superior organization and complete loyalty to the shiekh it became a political force much stronger than its numbers may suggest.[5]

Hassan al-Banna (Oct. 14, 1906-Feb 12, 1949) Founder of The Muslim Brotherhood


Hassan was a social and political reformer who founded the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the larges and most influential Muslim rivivalist organizations of the 20th century. as a young lad he was involved with the Sufi order and became a full fledged member in 1922. The Muslim Brotherhood (MB), established branches all over Egypt and within 10 years had 500,000 active members with its headquarters in Cairo in 1932. It was al-Banna’s brilliant ideological and organizational leadership that let to this rapid growth.

Hassan al-Banna founder of Muslim Brotherhood

Because of the assertiveness of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Prime minister Mahmoud an-Nudrashi Pasha disbanded the Brotherhood in December 1948. The Prime Minister was assissinated by a member of the brotherhood. In retaliation, the Egyptian Secret Service assissinated Al-Banna on February 12, 1949 when he was at the height of his career, at 43 years of age. [6] In October, 1954. a member of the Muslim Brotherhood made an attempt on President Nasser’s life, who then ordered the persecution of the Muslim Brotherhood. The Muslim Brotherhood were forced to flee Egypt to Saudi Arabia. where they were given refuge.

Sayyid Qutb 1906-1966

Sayyid Qutb (Oct.9, 1906- Aug 29, 1966) Intellectual, and martyr of the Muslim Brotherhood

Qutb was an Egyptian author, educator, poet, intellectual, martyr and a leading light in the Muslim Brotherhood and his role in the Brotherhood must not be overlooked. As William Cran said, “Qutb is the man whose ideas would shape Al Qaeda.”

Sayid Qutb

After Qutb’s scholarship to America (1948-1950) to study the educational system, he returned returned to Egypt disillisioned with Western values and became more radical. He joined the Muslim Brotherhood in 1950 and soon became editor-in-chief of the weekly, Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin, and later headed the propaganda section and was also appointed a member of the highest committee in the brotherhood, “the Guidance Council.”

However, after the attempted assassination of President Nasser in 1954, Qubt and many others were imprisoned. In the first 3 years, the prison conditions were very bad and Qutb was tortured. However, he was given more freedom in later years when he wrote his most important works, a commentary of “the Quran Fi Zilal al-Quran” (In the Shade of the Quran) and a manifesto, “Ma’alim fi-l-Tariq” (Milestones). This inspired a school of thought referred to as Qutbism, essentially the books states, “anything that was non-Islamic was evil and corrupt, while following Sharia as a complete system extending into all aspects of life, would bring every kind of benefit to humanity, from personnal and social peace, to the “Treasures” of the universe.”

In August 1965, Qutb was tried for treason, with most of the evidence based on “Ma’alim fi-l-Tariq” used against him. With six others, Sayyid Qutb, was found guilty, and executed by hanging on 29th August, 1966. Qutb was one of the most influential Muslim thinkers or activists on modern imes not only for his ideas but for his heroic martyr’s death. [7]

Sufi Syncretism

Among Sufi’s, there is a tendency to associate and interpret Islam to integrate with the customs of the villagers, creating a folk religion. This is a deviation from the orthodox Sunni and Shi’ite who stress on strict religious Quranic texts and Sharia Laws used in formal preachings in the Mosques. Sufi folk religion reflects the Arabic and Kurdish nomadic heritages, emphasizing the symbolic interpretation of the text, and emphasizes on the spiritual sacred forces and worship at shrines rather than mosques. Sufi’s interpret the Quran with allegorical interpretations and organised around a pious saint.

“[The Brotherhood is] a salafiya message, a Sunni way, a sufi truth, a political organization, an athletic group, a scientific and cultural union, an economic enterprise and a social idea.

Hassan al-Banna around 1940

…when words are banned, hands make their move.

Hassan al-Banna in 1948 after the Brotherhood had been banned

History of Sufism

1928: Founded by Hassan al-Banna as a youth club.
1936: The Muslim Brotherhood takes a pro-Arab position following the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty and the start of the Palestinian uprising against Zionist settlements in Palestine.
1939: The Muslim Brotherhood defines itself as a political organization based on the Koran and the Hadith, a system applicable to modern society.
1940: The Brotherhood realizes 500 branches, each with its own centre, mosque, school and club.
1940-45: During World War 2, the Brotherhood experiences fast growth, and is joined by individuals from the lower and middle strata of society.
1946: The Brotherhood claims to have more than 5,000 branches, over 500,000 members and even more sympathizers.
1948: Brothers join the Palestinian side in the war against the Zionists of Palestine. Many Egyptian officers feel the war puts them in touch with their ideology.
— The brothers blame the Egyptian government for passivity in the war against the Zionists. They initiate terrorist attacks within Egypt.
December: The Muslim Brotherhood is banned by the authorities.
December 28: Prime Minister Mahmud Fahmi Nokrashi is assassinated by a brother. This leads to even more repression from the government.
1949 February: Hassan al-Banna is killed by secret agents in Cairo.
1950: The Brotherhood is legalized again, but only as a religious body.
1951: Hassan Islam al-Hudaibi, a moderate, is elected leader of the Brotherhood.
1952 January: The Brotherhood is active during the anti-British riots in Cairo.
July: Unlike political parties, the Brotherhood is not banned following the coup by the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). This happens because the Brotherhood in in cooperation with the revolutionaries.
1954 February: Due to differences about the appropriate governmental system, whether Sharia or secular law, the Brotherhood is banned again.
October 23: A Brotherhood activist, Abdul Munim Abdul Rauf, tries to assassinate President Nasser, but fails. Following this, he and 5 other brothers are executed, 4,000 members are arrested. Thousands flee to Syria, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Lebanon. [10]
1964: A general amnesty is granted to imprisoned brothers. Nasser wants them to join the newly formed government party, the Arab Socialist Union, to ward off the threat of communism. This conditional cooperation policy does not succeed, and Nasser is exposed to 3 more assassination attempts.
1966: The top leaders of the Brotherhood are executed, and many other members imprisoned.
1968 April: Around 1,000 brothers are released from prison by president Nasser.
1970: With the death of Nasser, the new president, Anwar as-Sadat, promises the brothers that Sharia shall be implemented as the law of Egypt. All Brotherhood prisoners are released.
1976: The Muslim Brotherhood is not allowed to participate in the general elections, so many brothers run as independent candidates or as members of the ruling Arab Socialist Party. Altogether they gain 15 seats.
1979: The Brotherhood opposes strongly the peace agreement between Egypt and Israel.
1981 September: About 2,000 dissidents are arrested, of which a majority are brothers.
October 6: President Sadat is assassinated by 4 brothers.
1984: The Muslim Brotherhood cooperates with the Neo-Wafd Party in the general elections. The brothers win 8 seats.
1987: The Brotherhood cooperates with the Socialist Labour Party and the Liberal Socialist Party to form the Labour Islamic Alliance. The alliance wins 60 seats, of which 37 are held by brothers.
1990: The Brotherhood boycotts the elections, protesting government controls at the polls.
2005 The Muslim Brotherhood is prevented from running for parliamentary elections as a political party. But their candidates, running as independents, manage to win 88 seats out of a total 454, making them by far the largest opposition group (other parties win 14 seats).
” [8]

Salafist Views


For Sufi’s to deviate from the rituals of orthodox Islam, they have been ridiculed and discriminated against and even attacked for centuries by Sunnis, and Shi’ahs. Followers of Salafist Islam, like the Wahhabis, opposed all such practices not sanctioned by the Koran. The Wahhabis, a sect following the religious thinker Abdul Wahab, had fought the influence of Sufism in Sunni Islam. Wahhabis rejected all the Sufi deviations from orthodox Islam. Wahhabis also follow the original concept of Jihad, i.e. holy war to convert all infidels, which Sufi’s interpreted as the greater Jihad or personal Jihad.

Chechens adopted Sunni Islam with its mystic Sufi form and so win little sypathy from the Sunni or Shi’a sectas of Islam. In the Caucasus Nakshbandi Sufism was adopted, one that is not favoured  by the wahhabi Saudi Arabia.

Albania is the center of the Bektashi Order which is a leberal form of Shi’a Sufism which was transferred from Turkey to Albania in 1925 after the Ataturk revolution. And ther are many other Orders in other countries. [5]

Wahhabism, The Muslim Brotherhood, & The Arab League-Islamic War against the West


The infusion of all these different Islamic movements into a single cause to bring the Islamic Jihad against the Western civilisation is complex and is a very long story. I will attempt to insert a few pertinent statements, and I hope with some of the links provided will stimulate the reader to read deeper into this complex issue.

1.  In the 18th century, Mohammad Ibn Abdul Al-Wahab revived the strict orthodox Islamic teachings that is identified to his name as Wahhabism [10]. He envisaged an Islamic umma led by holy men, and with no oher law than the puritanical Islam laws of Allah. By 1920, the Mutawa, Wahhabi religious police, reigned terror over Saudi Arabia, banning all non-Islamic places of worship, and any non-Islamic practices. In 1920 Saudi Arabia’s oil reserves make the Saud Royal family immensely rich. The Saud family play the Wahhabi card, always has and still do. Wahhabi extremists revolt against the Saud family(1927) for being friendly and doing business with the decadent west but the rebellion is crushed and the leaders of the Wahhabis seek refuge in Egypt. This is when the Muslim Bortherhood in Egypt becomes home to the Wahhabis. [10]

2.  The Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, founded by Hassan El Banna, was based on Wahhabi Jihadism and eventually was also responsible for “Jihad Islami” and ” Hamas.”

3.  Amin Al-Husseini  becomes a prominent member of the Muslim Brotherhood. He sees Islamic Jihad as the path to an Islamic Umma. In 1944, was one of the co-founders of the Arab League, when he was appointed President of the Fourth Higher Committee of the Arab League, that also included Egypt, Iraq, Joradn, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen.

4.  In 1948, Yasser Arafat, Egyptian born, becomes a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and has worked under Amin Al-Hussein sing he was l7 years of age. Arafat is placed in charge of “The Holy Strugglers” to discupt peace in Palestine. In 1948, the Arab League declares war against the Jewish state. In 1956 The Suez Canal War, 1967 The six Day War, in 1973 Ramadan/Yom Kippur war. In 1974-75 the Oil embargo doubling the price of oil. And 1987 to 2002 the Intifadas.

5.  In 1979, the American CIA reach out to the Wahhabi Muslim Brotherhood (as an ally), and the Egyptian Jihad Islami, to sabotage the Soviet was in Afghanistan and the Shiite Islamic Revolution in Iran. Saudi born OSAMA BIN LADEN was the CIA-appointed intermediary with the Mujahedeen (Holy Warriors.)

Osama bin Laden Charismatic Head of al Qaeda

6.  In 1988, OSAMA BIN LADEN rejects and disassociates himself from the Cia and strengthens his ties with Al-Zahawiri lf Jihad Ialami (Muslim Brotherhood.) Osama creates Al Qaeda (the Base), a netword of ex-Mujahedeen to battle the west with Islamic Jihad. The Saudi Royal family have reached an understanding that they will stay in power so long as they continue to support the Wahhabis and the Arab League, and the Muslim Brotherhood with the wealth from the oil revenues.

7.  Al Qaeda strikes fear in the heart of America on September 11, 2001 with a show of the power of Jihad. 15 of the 19 Martyrs on September 11, were Saudi Arabian Muslims who destroyed over 3500 innocent lives in New York City. Osama bin Laden declares his allegiance to the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) on October 7th, 2001 indicating that Turkey is of the fold of the Arab League. [9]

Al-Ikhwn al-Muslimun (The Muslim Brotherhood)


“The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna (1906-1949), a Sufi revivalist thinker and activist.” [10a]

The Muslim Brotherhood is the oldest and largest Islamic Political Group and is a Sunni trans-national movement. Its ultimate goal is to instil the fundamental tenets of Islam based on the Qur’an and the Sunna as the sole reference point to determine and order the lives of the Muslim family, individual, community, including the state. It is their belief that the Qur’an and Sunna constitute the perfect manner of life for man in his social and political pursuits that Allah has set out for mankind. All Islamic governments must be based on the Islamic system and unified in a Caliphate. The goal of Hassan al-Banna was to spread the Islamic empire from Spain to Indonesia. The Brotherhood preaches that man must strive for social justice, eradicate poverty and corruption, and freedom within the laws of Islam. The Brotherhood is one of the most influential movements in the Muslim World, especially in the Arab world.


Primary Goals of Muslim Brotherhood


1.  Reinstatement of the Caliphate and reunite the “Dar el Islam
2.  Strengthen the internal structure of the Brotherhood 
3.  Establish administration discipline of the Brotherhood.
4.  Recruitment and settlement of the Dawa’a (proselytising)
5.  Energising the organisations work.
6.  Energising the political work fronts(e.g. infiltrate civil and political organisations.

Secondary Goals of Muslim Brotherhood


1.  Building up finances and investments.
2. Establish foreign alliances with other Islamic groups-(influence them)
3.  Revive Women’s interaction with the Brotherhood.
4.  Strengthen political awareness of the movement.
5.  Securing the group (Monitoring members for trustworthiness and conviction and expelling weak members)
6.  Special activity (Jihad activities)
7.  Media (influencing of and controlling the world media, a powerful propaganda tool.)
8.  Taking advantage of human potentials (e.g. infiltration/coerce/lobby educational, civil organisations, foreign government institutions etc.) This has been most effective in Western Governments.[10] [11]

All the aspects above can be observed to be practised today without any opposition from governments under attack. Thus we can see the long term aims of this brotherhood. It is essentially to establish Dar el-Islam, the Muslim Caliphate throughout the universe.

The Arab League


The Arab league is a regional organisation of Arab states in Southwest Asia and North and North East Africa. Formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 initially with Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan(Jordan), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria and later Yemen. Today it has 22 members and 4 observers. Its main goal was to stand together against foreign influence and domination.

Through its institutions such as the “Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League’s “Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs to promote the interests ot the Arab world. And through their forum, The Euro-Arab Dialogue (EAD), they have exerted tremendous pressures on the European Union to toe the Arab line.

The Arab League has also signed a “Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation” on April 13, 1950 committed to the co-ordination of military defence measures.  The Arab League also play an important role in shaping school curricula and preserving Arab cultural heritage and fostering cultural exchanges between themselves and 3rd countries like the European Union. Arab Literacy and cultural campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technology transfers agreed upon with the European Union. The Arab League has fostered and promoted the Arab culture upon the Europeans as their initiative to influence the world. [12]

The Arab Leagues’ influence on the European Union’s attitude toward the Arabs and the Islamic religion has been not gone unnoticed nor has it been insignificant. Although superficially the Arab League’s purpose appeared as a cultural and economic organisation, its political and militant fist has been gloved in kid’s skin.

Wahhabism


The branch of Islam is often referred to as “Wahhabi,”

Members of this form of Islam call themselvesMuwahhidun (“Unitarians”, or “unifiers of Islamic practice”). They use the Salafi Da’wa or Ahlul Sunna wal Jama’a. The teachings of the reformer Abd Al-Wahhab are more oftenreferred to by adherents as Salafi, that is, “following the forefathers of Islam.”

The basic text of this form of Islam is the Kitab at-tawhid (Arabic, “Book of Unity”). Central to Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab’s message was the essential oneness of God (tawhid). The movement is therefore known by its adherents as ad dawa lil tawhid (the call to unity), and those who follow the call are known as ahl at tawhid (the people of unity) or muwahhidun (unitarians). The word Wahhabi was originally used derogatorily by opponents, but has today become commonplace and is even used by some Najdi scholars of the movement. Most Wahhabi people live in Saudi Arabia. Almost all people in Mecca and Medina belong to this school.

The Caliphate was brought into being by the implementation of Islam for about three decades. They called this shortlived experiment Khilafat Rashidah, the rightly-guided Caliphate, implying thereby that the rulers that followed were misguided. Fundamentalists seek the restoration of the Islamic State i.e. the Khilafah, and by electing a Khaleefah and taking a bay’ah on him that he will rule by the Word of Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’Ala) i.e. he will implement Islamic laws in the country where the Khilafah has been established.

Wahhabism [Wahabism] is a reform movement that began 200 years ago to rid Islamic societies of cultural practices and interpretation that had been acquired over the centuries. The followers of Abdul Wahab (1703-1792) began as a movement to cleanse the Arab bedouin from the influence of Sufism.

Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab focused on the Muslim principle that there is only one God, and that God does not share his power with anyone — not Imams, and certainly not trees or rocks.

Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab’s emphasis on the oneness of God was asserted in contradistinction to shirk, or polytheism, defined as the act of associating any person or object with powers that should be attributed only to God. He condemned specific acts that he viewed as leading to shirk, such as votive offerings, praying at saints’ tombs and at graves, and any prayer ritual in which the suppliant appeals to a third party for intercession with God. Particularly objectionable were certain religious festivals, including celebrations of the Prophet’s birthday, Shia mourning ceremonies, and Sufi mysticism. Consequently, the Wahhabis forbid grave markers or tombs in burial sites and the building of any shrines that could become a locus of shirk.

His instructions in the matter of extending his religious teaching by force were strict. All unbelievers (i.e. Moslems who did not accept his teaching, as well as Christians, &c.) were to be put to death. Immediate entrance into Paradise was promised to his soldiers who fell in battle, and it is said that each soldier was provided with a written order from Ibn ‘Abd ul-Wahhab to the gate-keeper of heaven to admit him forthwith. In this way the new teaching was established in the greater part of Arabia

It is clear that the claim of the Wahhabis to have returned to the earliest form of Islam is largely justified. The difference between ul-Wahhab’s sect and others is that the Wahabis rigidly follow the same laws which the others neglect or have ceased altogether to observe.Even orthodox doctors of Islam have confessed that in Ibn ‘Abd ul-Wahhab’s writings there is nothing but what they themselves hold. At the same time the fact that so many of his followers were rough and unthinking Bedouins has led to the over-emphasis of minor points of practice, so that they often appear to observers to be characterized chiefly by a strictness (real or feigned) in such matters as the prohibition of silk for dress, or the use of tobacco, or of the rosary in prayer.
The Wahhabi ulama reject reinterpretation of Quran and sunna in regard to issues clearly settled by the early jurists. 

To the Wahhabis, for example, performance of prayer that is punctual, ritually correct, and communally performed not only is urged but publicly required of men. Consumption of wine is forbidden to the believer because wine is literally forbidden in the Quran. Under the Wahhabis, however, the ban extended to all intoxicating drinks and other stimulants, including tobacco. Modest dress is prescribed for both men and women in accordance with the Quran, but the Wahhabis specify the type of clothing that should be worn, especially by women, and forbid the wearing of silk and gold, although the latter ban has been enforced only sporadically. Music and dancing have also been forbidden by the Wahhabis at times, as have loud laughter and demonstrative weeping, particularly at funerals.

The Wahhabi emphasis on conformity makes of external appearance and behavior a visible expression of inward faith. Therefore, whether one conforms in dress, in prayer, or in a host of other activities becomes a public statement of whether one is a true Muslim. Because adherence to the true faith is demonstrable in tangible ways, the Muslim community can visibly judge the quality of a person’s faith by observing that person’s actions. In this sense, public opinion becomes a regulator of individual behavior. Therefore, within the Wahhabi community, which is striving to be the collective embodiment of God’s laws, it is the responsibility of each Muslim to look after the behavior of his neighbor and to admonish him if he goes astray. [13]


Conclusions:

Now that I have got the tedious historical inter-connections of the various Islamic sects woven in to the tapestry out of the way, let us look further into the significance of the obvious.

The people highlighted here are:
1.  Al-Ghasali (d.111), the father of Sufism.
2. Hassan al-Banna, a Sufi and founder of the Muslim Brotherhood.
3. Sayyid Qutb, an Islamic Scholar, an intellectual, and leading light of the Muslim Brotherhood.
4. Mohammad Abdul al-Wahab, a Sunni and founder of Wahhabism.
5. Amin Al-Husseini, a prominent member of the Muslim League and co-founder of the Arab League.
6. Yasser Arafat, Egyptian born, a member of the Muslim League and protege of Amin Al-Hussein and Head of the Fatah movement in Palestine.
7. Osama bin Laden, Saudi born leader of Al-Qaeda and the most hated Jihadist in the West.

All these names are familiuar to us today because of their stance against Western (Judeo-Christian) ideoloties. What do they have in common, inspite of the fact that they come from different Islamic sects, have not identical ideologies and tiruals in Islam?

All these famous men were devout Muslims who accept that the Prophet Muhammad is the last of the Prophets of Allah, and that there is but ONE ALLAH, and that The Qyr’an is the immutable word of Allah. They are all  highly intelligent and charismatic men and not subjugated/oppressed or poverty stricken men, and who are all well read of the Quran, Hadiths and history of Islam. All of these men were born of Muslim families and were dedicated and pious Muslims, believing that the only way for mankind is through Allah and Islam. All of these men believed and accepted that Jihad was the only force to establish Islam for Allah. These men are not seekers of self aggrandisement, or personal gain but are driven by a belief that Islam is the only way for mankind and were dedicated to the advancement of Islam and the Glory of Allah within the boundaries of Islam. Their religious crusade was for the creation of a perfect Umma, the Dar al Islam, the House of Peace. It was Islamic piety and loyalty to Allah that drove these Muslims in their attempt to lead other Muslims. It was their conviction and belief in the ideals of Islam that caused this blind devotion to convert the world to Islam and Jihad was the tool of Mohammed and so it was theirs as well.

It must be highlighted here that up to today, 1400 years after the death of Mohammed, that there has never been a Muslim leader who has advocated the submission or the peaceful integration of Islam into other cultures. That is because Allah was the only Allah acceptable to Islam and the Muslims.

Ishaq:324 “He said, Fight them (unbelievers) so that there is no more rebellion and all religion, all of it, is for Allah only. Allah must have no rivals.”



Qur’an 20:14 “Verily, I am Allah. No Ilah (God) may be worshiped but I. So serve you Me, and perform regular prostration prayer for My praise. Verily the Hour is coming. I am almost hiding it from Myself.”
The instilling of these basic Islamic tenets has not altered for 1400 years. Children from a very young age, as soon as they are able to understand, at the age of 2 or 3 years are taught these beliefs at home. Later this in reinforced in their schools till they are 16 or 18 years of age. They have no other values to compare with and have been taught never to challenge the word of Allah. The basic tenets of Islam are indelibly imprinted on these fresh and innocent minds. The person they must all emulate is the Prophet Mohammed. So Mohammed’s life is studied in detail through the Qur’an and the Hadiths, and the history of Islam. It is impossible to understand Islam like most Muslims because they have spent 90% of they young lives (15 years normally) learning about Islam to the exclusion or other subjects. Little wonder that the behaviour and reaction of Muslims is so similar under stress conditions.

The Quran, reinforced by the Hadiths, is the basis for the submission of Muslims to the word and will of Allah.  The Qur’an spells out to Muslims how to live their lives according to Allah. The Qur’an guides Muslims how to pray, how to dress, how to eat, how to relate to your wife or husband, how to recognise what is Haram and which is Halal, Islamic Laws, Islamic business and community relationships, and guides a Muslims total life. There is little left to the imagination. There is no room for liberalism, multiculturalism, or intellectual inquiry (challenging the views in the Qur’an,) or any compromise of Islamic tenets. Any deviation from the Qur’an is blasphemous and the punishment is death and total rejection, (as Mirza Ghulam Ahmed-Ahmadis- found out.) This is why there are NO Muslims who dares to advocate integration with non-Muslims and live to speak of it. It has all been decided by Allah who is all knowing and all seeing so no one will ever escape Allah’s judgement.

These strict Islamic tenets and codes of behaviour that applied to Muslims at the time of Mohammed’s life, 1400 years ago, apply today without moderation in today’s 21st century. That is Islam and it has withstood the test of time.

This explains why Muslims fully accept without demur the doctrines of the Muslim Brotherhood, or Wahhabism, or the Taliban, or Jemaah Islamiah, or Al Qaeda. It is because all these Islamic movements do stick within the bounds of the Qur’an and the Hadiths to which all Muslims are familiar and cannot dissent. No matter which sect you belong to, Shia, or Sunni, or sufi, or Kharijis, or Alawi, or Ismaili, or Wahhabi, all follow the teachings of the Qur’an to which they have already been instilled and emotionally accepted as the final word of Allah.

Within Islam there is no liberalism or freedom of the inquiring mind(concerning Allah or Mohammed), or multiculturalism, or tolerance of idol worshippers, or infidels. Allah (through the Qur’an) has all the power and through him the spiritual leaders have power over the people, and the people depend on the spiritual leaders to lead them to victory providing the power back to the spiritual leaders.

The unifying force in Islam is the Qur’an with such verses as”

Qur’an 20:14 “Verily, I am allah. No Ilah (god) may be worshipped by I. So serve you Me, and perform regular prostration prayer for My praist. Verily the Hour is coming. I am almost hiding it from Myself.”

Ishaq: 324 “He said, Fight them (infidels) so that there is o more rebellion, and religion, all of it, is for Allah only. Allah must have not rivals.”

Qur’an: 9:5 “Fight and kill the disbelievers (non-Muslims) wherever you find them, take them captive, harass them lie in wait and ambust them using every stratagem of war.” (Known as The Sword Verse.)

Bukhari: V4B52N220 “Allah’s Apostle (Mohammed) said, ‘I have been made victorious with terror.'” (Remember 9/11 & 7/7)

Qur’an: 2:216 “Jihad (holy war in Allah’s cause) is ordained for you (Muslims,) though you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and like a thing which is bad for you.  But Allah know, and you know not.” [Another translation reads]: “Warfare is ordained for you”

All compassionate Quranic verses have been abrogated by Quran 9:5 and are no longer applicable.

It is this strict adherence to orthodox Islam that has been the powerful driving and uniting force in Islam. It is based on the inalienable, and undeviating words of Allah in the Qur’an.

Summary (for dissemination):

What is Sufism? I am immediately blinded by such a profound and nebulous description as, “Sufism is an ascetic and mystical movement within Islam.”

Sufi Principles:

Sufi attempts to stimulate the spiritual aspects of Islam and stresses on the self discipline for the attainment of a superior spiritual soul through living a life of righteousness, piety, and universal love. The distinguishing thing about Sufism is that a Sufi is required to have implicit faith in his teacher, pir or murshid or Sheikh, and to consider his commands as divine and the path shown by him as the straightest. 

Sufism inculcated fraternity, equality, equity, service to humanity, and did not distinguish between races, communities, castes, creeds or colour.

Sufi’s stressed, “Love for Allah” (Total submission), and the need for mental and spiritual purification through the medium of prayer and meditation. [A slightly different emphasis from orthodox Islam.]

Uniquely, Sufism have incorporated a devotional dance to stir the ecstatic and musical aspects known as Sama.

But what clearly identifies the Sufi’s as of the fold of Islam is their acceptance of the Quran, and that Muhammad was its messenger. The Sufi’s also accept the 5 pillars of Islam as essential to their faith and observe it with piety.
Although Iraqi society accept the Sufi orders, Sufi’s are still regarded with a degree of suspicion by the orthodox Sunni theologians because of their mystical components. Shia Muslims on the other hand are hostile towards Sufism considering them heretical. Even Turkey today shows little sympathies towards the Kurds who are Sufis.

The Tijaniyah Order of Sufi

Founded in Morocco by Ahmad at-Tijani in 1781, the Tijanniyah order extended towards Senegal and Nigeria and established large kingdoms in West Africa. The Tijaniyah Order is strongly associated with the Muslim Brotherhood  which began in 1920 in Egypt and Hasan al-Banna was the founder of the Brotherhood in 1928. The goal of the Muslim Brotherhood was to establish and Islamic State ruled by Shariah Law in Egypt. After World War II, the Muslim Brotherhood emerged as a radical group prepared to use violence to achieve its religious goals. Today it is using much more subtle and sophisticated methods to achieve its ends. Because of the Muslim Brother’s superior organization and complete loyalty to the shiekh it became a political force much stronger than its numbers may suggest.[5]

Hassan al-Banna (Oct. 14, 1906-Feb 12, 1949) Founder of The Muslim Brotherhood

2. The Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, founded by Hassan El Banna, was based on Wahhabi Jihadism and eventually was also responsible for “Jihad Islami” and ” Hamas.”

3.  Amin Al-Husseini  becomes a prominent member of the Muslim Brotherhood. He sees Islamic Jihad as the path to an Islamic Umma. In 1944, was one of the co-founders of the Arab League, when he was appointed President of the Fourth Higher Committee of the Arab League, that also included Egypt, Iraq, Joradn, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen.

4.  In 1948, Yasser Arafat, Egyptian born, becomes a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and has worked under Amin Al-Hussein sing he was l7 years of age. Arafat is placed in charge of “The Holy Strugglers” to discupt peace in Palestine. 





























































































































References:

[1] Sufism: http://www.answers.com/topic/sufism

[2] Ascertics of Islam: http://www.equip.org/articles/sufis-the-mystical-muslims

[3] Origins of sufism: http://www.culturopedia.com/Religions/sufism.html

[4] The 5 Pillars of Islam: http://www.rim.org/muslim/sufism.htm

[5] Sufism and the Muslim Brotherhood: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/islam-sufi.htm

[6] Hassan al-Banna biography: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hassan_al-Banna

[7] Sayyid Qubt-Martyr-The Muslim Brotherhood: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayyid_Qutb

[8] Time line of The Muslim Brotherhood: http://i-cias.com/e.o/mus_br_egypt.htm

[9] Time line of Wahhabism, Arab League, & Muslim Brotherhood:
http://www.tellthechildrenthetruth.com/mbhood_en.html

Additional References:

[1a] Muslim Brotherhood, Fiesal abdul Rauf, Ground Zero Mosque:
[2a]***Sufi Jihad – Andrew G. Bostom: http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/05/sufi_jihad.html

[5a]***Sufi+MuslimBrotherhood+Al-Qaeda: http://www.turntoislam.com/forum/showthread.php?t=57614

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: