Meme-fied Fundamentalist Theists

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Theism

theist – one who believes in the existence of a god or gods

This essay will be mainly about Abrahamic faiths as the main theme. I well approach it as a ‘wild eyed student to theism’ and not as a ‘dyed in the wool 50 year theist.”  Most of us would assume that the origins of the Abrahamic faith arose from the vision of Moses in 1314 BC of the Burning Bushes, the birth of Judaism, for that is, for most, the limits of out visions of our faiths. Jesus was a Jew, a Judaist, and a person who accepted the Torah as his doctrine and the God of Moses as his God. The protestant sect of Christianity only evolved after Jesus rejected and spoke against the ‘Fences’ drawn up by the Pharisees(Rabbis) and and thrown out of the Temple. It was only then when Jesus began preaching on his own and had his own disciples and followers.  So let us look at some of the tenets of Judaism that Jesus accepted and is still common with Christianity and Islam, the father of the Abrahamic faiths.

Judaism is the original of the three Abrahamic faiths, which also includes Christianity and Islam

  • Judaism originated in the Middle East over 3500 years ago (131§4 BC)
  • Judaism was founded by Moses, although Jews trace their history back to Abraham. (Judaism was unknown to Abraham, but was an ancestor of Moses.)
  • Jews believe that there is only one God with whom they have a covenant. (Monotheism.)

The 13 Jewish Principles of faith: “The Judaic MEMES”

It is the custom of many congregations to recite these principles every day after the shacharit (morning) prayers in the synagogue.

  1. God Alone is the Creator
  2. God is Unique and One
  3. God is Incorporeal and Incomparable
  4. God is First and Last
  5. We are to Pray to God Alone
  6. The Words of the (Hebrew) Prophets are true
  7. Moses is the Chief Prophet
  8. The Torah has been Divinely Preserved
  9. Torah Cannot be Changed
  10. God knows All Things
  11. God Rewards the Righteous
  12. The Messiah will Come
  13. The Dead will be Resurrected [1]

Meme: n: a concept of social behaviour passed on through generations in a culture, especially through repetition and imitation.

Looking at these Jewish principles of faith, the principles apply equally as well to Christianity and Islam except for specifics of that religion. Such beliefs are inculcated into the minds of Jews from birth and forms a part of their identity and culture so much so that a Jew is completely brainwashed to accept such principles for granted. Similar principles apply to Christians and Muslims with their own very similar principles. Just look as the memes that we repeat again and again until it is part of that community: (1) Jews – God is First and Last; (2) Christians – In the name of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit; or in (3)  Islam – Alahu Ackbar (Allah is the Greatest and only god.) This is what makes each religion totally ‘exclusive.’

Christian Principles of Faith

Principles of Faith

What does Bethany Christian School believe? As a ministry of the Salisbury Family Church, the school’s declaration of faith is the same as that of the church. The following is a brief summary of the principles of faith held by the church and school.

  1. The Holy Scriptures – their divine inspiration, authority and infallibility
  2. The Godhead – comprised of Father, Son and Holy Spirit
  3. The Lord Jesus Christ, His incarnation, His vicarious death and resurrection for our sanctification and justification, His ascension and His personal return to this earth
  4. The work of the Holy Spirit producing:
    • Salvation through faith in Jesus Christ
    • The fruit of the Holy Spirit which is the manifestation of the character of Christ in the believer
    • The gifts of the Holy Spirit for the fulfilling of the ministry of Christ in, and flowing out from, the church.
  5. The work of the Lord Jesus Christ producing:
    • The Spirit-filled Christian life
    • Divine healing on the basis of of His atoning death and resurrection
    • Delivery from bondage originating in Satan
  6. The observance of the ordinances of baptism by immersion and the Lord’s Supper
  7. The essential spiritual unity of the universal church comprised of all true believers regardless of organisational affiliation
  8. The involvement of every believer in the life and outreach of the church under Scriptural leadership [2]

Islamic Principles of Faith

The Five Pillars of Islam (arkān-al-Islām أركان الإسلام; also arkān ad-dīn أركان الدين “pillars of the religion”) are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.

The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They make up Muslim life, prayer, concern for the needy, self purification and the pilgrimage. They are:

  1. the shahada (Islamic creed). Shahada is the declaration of faith and trust, i.e. the professing that there is only one God (Allah) (monotheism) and that Muhammad is God’s messenger. Kalima is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: ‘La ‘ilaa-ha ‘il-lal-laa-hu mu-ham-ma-dur ra-soo-lul-laah “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.” Reciting this statement is obligatory in daily prayer (salāh) as well as on other occasions; it is also a key part in a person’s conversion to Islam
  2. daily prayers (salah)
  3. almsgiving (zakāt)
  4. fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm)
  5. the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. [3]

Again we observe that memes have been instilled in the foundation of the Christian and Islamic faiths as securely as that in the Jewish faith. Memes appear to be more indelible than the most intense of political brain washing discovered by man. Furthermore, to ensure that the faithful can never be led astray further religious constructs are available to guarantee that not a single soul is ever lost. The two instruments, closing the doors of itjihad and the death penalty are discussed following this.

Most orthodox Muslim Scholars accept that “Ijtihad” is closed.

THE GATE OF IJTIHAD CLOSED in 900 AD

By the end of the third(century of hijra)/ninth century (CE), with the consent of the Muslim Jurists of the

time, the process of “closing the gate of Ijtihad,” (about A.D. 900) hence Islamic

doctrine was unquestioned. [7f]

INTRODUCTION
As conceived by classical Muslim jurists, ijtihad is the exertion of mental
energy in the search for a legal opinion to the extent that the faculties of the jurist
become incapable of further effort. In other words,  ijtihad is the maximum effort
expended by the jurist to master and apply the principles and rules of usuil al-
fiqh (legal theory) for the purpose of discovering God’s law.’ The activity of  ijtihad
 is assumed by many a modern scholar to have ceased about the end of the
third/ninth century, with the consent of the Muslim jurists themselves. This
process, known as ‘closing the gate of  ijtihad’ (in Arabic: ‘insidid bab al- ijtihad’),
was described by Joseph Schacht as follows:
By the beginning of the fourth century of the hijra (about A.D. 900), however, the point
had been reached when the scholars of all schools felt that all essential questions had been
thoroughly discussed and finally settled, and a consensus gradually established itself to
the effect that from that time onwards no one might be deemed to have the necessary
qualifications for independent reasoning in law, and that all future activity would have to
be confined to the explanation, application, and, at the most, interpretation of the doctrine
as it had been laid down once and for all. This ‘closing of the door of  ijtihad’, as it was
called, amounted to the demand for taklid, a term which had originally denoted the kind
of reference to Companions of the Prophet that had been customary in the ancient
schools of law, and which now came to mean the unquestioning acceptance of the doc-
trines of established schools and authorities. A person entitled to  ijtihad is called mujtahid,
and a person bound to practice taklid, mukallid.
J. N. D. Anderson remarked, as did many others, that about the end of the
third/ninth century it was commonly accepted that the gate of  ijtihad had become closed.   And to confirm that this closure was a ‘fait accompli’, H. A. R. Gibb
asserted that the early Muslim scholars held that the gate “was closed, never
again to be reopened.” W. M. Watt seems to be aware of some inaccuracies in
the standard account about this subject but has not formulated an alternative
view. Depending on the particular subject of their discussion, many scholars
would have us believe that the closure of the gate had an impact on, or was
influenced by, this or that element in Islamic history. Some use it to explain the
immunity of the Shari’a against the interference of government, and others to
illustrate the problem of decadence in Islamic institutions and culture. Some
date the closure at the beginning of the fourth Islamic century and others advance. [7f]
Hence, failing proper dispensation, ijtihad must be considered closed for all time. “

Additional Quotes & Discussion on Ijtihad
The significance of “the Gate of Ijtihad is Closed” is crucial in understanding Islamic resistance to any moderating of any of the ideologies of Islam or the interpretations of the Quran or the Hadiths. Hence, the quotes that follow will illustrate the attitudes and sentiments regarding “the Gate of Ijtihad is Closed.”

“The gates of ijtihad are closed.

Ijtihad (اجتهاد) is the process of arriving at a decision on a point of Islamic law through study of the Qur’an and Sunnah. In a recent exchange, a Muslim writer took issue with my assertion that most Muslims consider the gates of ijtihad to be closed — that is, independent study of the Qur’an and Sunnah are discouraged, and Muslims are instead expected to adhere to the rulings of one of the established schools of jurisprudence (madhahib, مذاهب).

So: are they closed? Here is some material from Muslims:

…Therefore it is said that “the door of ijtihad is closed” as of some nine hundred years, and since then the tendency of jurisprudence (fiqh) has been to produce only commentaries upon commentaries and marginalia.

That’s from Cyril Glasse’s New Encyclopedia of Islam. Cyril Glasse is a graduate of Columbia University and a practicing Muslim. His published work includes a translation of Margaret Von Berchen’s study of Islamic Jerusalem, a Guide to Saudi Arabia (Berlitz, 1981) and The Pilgrim’s Guide to Mecca written for the Hajj Research Centre, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah.

Then there’s this from ”Muslim-Canada.org:”

Thus the schools of the four Imams remain intact after a thousand years have passed, and so the ‘Ulama’ recognize since the time of these Imams no Mujtahid of the first degree. Ibn Hanbal was the last….Since their Imam Qazi Khan died (A.H. 592), no one has been recognized by the Sunnis as a Mujtahid even of the third class.

So: are they closed? Here is some material from Muslims:

…Therefore it is said that “the door of ijtihad is closed” as of some nine hundred years, and since then the tendency of jurisprudence (fiqh) has been to produce only commentaries upon commentaries and marginalia.

That’s from Cyril Glasse’s New Encyclopedia of Islam. Cyril Glasse is a graduate of Columbia University and a practicing Muslim. His published work includes a translation of Margaret Von Berchen’s study of Islamic Jerusalem, a Guide to Saudi Arabia (Berlitz, 1981) and The Pilgrim’s Guide to Mecca written for the Hajj Research Centre, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah.

Then there’s this from ”Muslim-Canada.org:”

Thus the schools of the four Imams remain intact after a thousand years have passed, and so the ‘Ulama’ recognize since the time of these Imams no Mujtahid of the first degree. Ibn Hanbal was the last….Since their Imam Qazi Khan died (A.H. 592), no one has been recognized by the Sunnis as a Mujtahid even of the third class.

Then there’s this from a ”U.S. Institute of Peace report on ijtihad,” referring to Imam Hassan Qazwini, director of the Islamic Center of America:

One of the gravest mistakes Muslims have committed, according to Qazwini, is closing the doors of ijtihad. They have limited legal interpretation to only four prominent scholars: Malik Ibn Anas, Abu Hanifa al-No’man, Muhammad Ibn Idris al-Shafi’i, and Ahmad Ibn Hambal—the heads of the Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi’i, and Hambali schools of thought. The motivation for this was political. During the Abbasid Dynasty (750–1258 CE), the Abbasids decided to outlaw all other sects in order to strictly control religion and worship, as well as political matters.Closing the

has had extremely detrimental ramifications for the Muslim world. According to Qazwini, this decision has resulted in “chronic intellectual stagnation, as thousands of potential mujtahids and scholars have been prohibited from offering workable solutions to newly emerging problems. Muslim thinkers have become captive to rules that were made long ago, leaving little scope for liberal or innovative thought.” [7g]

Significance of Ijtihad

The importance and significance of the decision of Islamic scholars  about the end of the
third/ninth century to agree and accept “that the gate of  ijtihad had become closed” has resulted in the intellectual and spiritual stagnation of the philosophy of Islam. It meant that all further interpretations of the Quran were sealed for all time.

The Quran Abhors Questioning Allah’s Words

Allah has hated you for asking too many questions about religion

Qur’an 5:101 “Believers, ask not questions about things which if made plain to you may cause you trouble when the Qur’an is revealed. Some people before you asked questions, and on that account lost their faith.”

Maududi, in his commentary, The Meaning of the Qur’an, explains: “The Prophet forbade people to ask questions or to pry into such things.”

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 555:
Narrated Ash-sha’bi:
The clerk of Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba narrated, “Muawiya wrote to Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba:

Write to me something which you have heard from the Prophet (p.b.u.h) .”

So Al-Mughira wrote:

I heard the Prophet saying, “Allah has hated for you three things:
1. Vain talks, (useless talk) that you talk too much or about others.
2. Wasting of wealth (by extravagance)
3. And asking too many questions (in disputed religious matters) or asking others for something (except in great need).[4]

THE PENALTY FOR APOSTASY IN ISLAM IS DEATH


Most Muslims will  tell us that there is no command in the Koran regarding the punishment for apostasy in their earthly life. One verse in the Qur’an that refutes this is:

Qur’an:4.89 “They desire that you should disbelieve (in Islam, become apostates) as they have disbelieved (infidels), so that you might be (all) alike; therefore take not from among them (apostates) friends until they fly (their homes) in Allah’s way; but if they (apostates) turn back, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them, and take not from among them a friend or a helper.”However, the Qur’an is supplemented by the Hadiths and therein lies many of Mohammed’s personal views and statements on apostasy.

Christians heretics were burned at the stake up to the 19th century.

Comments:

As a non-Muslim we can see why fundamentalist Muslims are so rigid inflexible and uncompromising. Muslims are bound by their Islamic doctrines. (1) The Quran is the literal word of Allah and no one has the authority to alter Allah’s pronouncements.  (2) Any room for a different or alternative interpretation of any ambiguous text is silenced by “The Gates of Ijtihad was closed” as far back as 900 AD. Hence Islamic doctrines and ideologies are locked into  7th Century values and perception and cannot adjust to 21st century values and concepts.  [Muslim extremists or Christian extremists or Judaism extremists are misnomers. If these people follow their religious Holy books, they can at best, be described as fundamentalists.] Such fundamentalist behaviour is demanded of Islam of all devout Muslims. The penalty of heresy is death.  Some Christians may think that such ideologies are primitive and barbaric yet not so long ago Christians were burning witches and heretics at the stake:

Amazingly, the Spanish Inquisition remained intact for 354 years! It wasn’t deactivated until 1834, when the Queen Mother Cristina announced “It is declared that the Tribunal of the Inquisition is definitely suppressed.” [Roth, The Spanish Inquisition, p. 267] The last recorded death attributed to the Inquisition was in 1826 (!) when a poor schoolmaster, Cayetano Ripoll, was garroted to death for allegedly teaching Deist principles. [5]

In as much as many Christians may be critical and contemptuous of Islamic inflexibilities and consider their culture archaic, primitive and inflexible, therein lies the strength of conviction of faith of Muslims in their faith in Islam. The proof of the pudding is the growth of Islam and the continual supply of hundreds of thousands of Jihadist Martyrs who are so devout and filled with faith that they are prepared to lay down their lives for their convictions.

On the other hand the liberalised, all encompassing, free-thinking Christians, are forsaking their faith by the millions for the lack of leadership and enthusiasm of their convictions. Strangely enough where Christian fellowship has the greatest followings are found in relatively primitive and backward fundamentalist Christian Africa, the West Indies, South America, and pockets of Christians in China. But there are still many Christian fundamentalists in Europe who will quote the Bible at every turn and will condemn others who may deviate from their fundamentalist viewpoint to the point that they drive others away from the Church for their rigid, intransigent, inflexible interpretations of the Holy Bible. There are many (even reading this) who will have boasted that they have studied the Bible for the past 50 years and have warned others that they had better beware to take them on. Yet, such fundamentalist Christians are so in-bred, with a good knowledge of Biblical text and the arguments that support it, but have not ventured beyond the boundaries of their tiny ecclesiastical island. Hence, you get fundamentalist who not many years ago  (1826) would burn witches and heretics at the stake. Even today, I am certain if they could have their wish, I too would be such an offering to the fires of Hell. This at a stroke destroys all the hypocritical teachings of love and compassion that Christians preach. For I see little difference in the exclusive, inflexible, intolerant attitudes of Fundamentalist Christians from that of the inflexible Islamists or Hindus or Jews.

Fundamentalist Christians will insist that what is in the Bible is the inspired word from God. As fundamentalist Muslims will insist that the Quran is the literal word of Allah, or the Jews will insist that the ‘tablets brought down from the mountains by Moses was God given.” And on that basis, like with the Islamic, “the Gates of Ijtihad is Closed,” they will look no further for answers. Christians mostly will not look outside the box (The Bible) and ask questions like are the stories in the Bible allegorical stories written by literary authors? Or is the description of Jesus an allegorical description of a saint to be followed, or is there a historical Jesus? Or are the Gospels real people or literary authors who expanded on the allegorical stories of Jesus? Are all the stories in the Bible allegorical stories, old folks tales, and mythology? What proof is there that they are not allegorical folk tales and nothing more? We glibly accuse the Muslims of blind faith, when we Christians are even just as blind and continue to allow the blind priests to lead the blind people on myths that can never be proven. A religion founded on myths should surely be looked at more closely and critically. But fundamentalists will certain condemn such attitudes as heretical. Who are heretical, the deceived or the deceivers?

The following are a few books that lie outside the boundaries of the Bible that should be read:

1. The Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia by Archibald H. Sayce

2. The Religion of Ancient Egypt by Sir W.M. Petrie

3. Christ in Egypt by D.M.Murdock

4. Christianity: An Ancient Egyptian Religion by Ahmed Osman

At least the ambience of Egyptian and Judaic cultures can be felt by the reader through those books.

[3297 words approx]

The Holy Text

I will restrict discussions to Genesis to contain the discussion.

Genesis Chapter 1

1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

2. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

3. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

4. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

26. And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

27. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

Genesis Chapter 2

Genesis 2

2. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.

3. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.

7. And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

20. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.

21. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;

22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

23. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.

24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.

25. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.

Comments

Old Testament Genesis, the corner stone of Judaism, Christianity and Islam is normally taken as the literal word of Moses inspired of God. According to the Jewish Calendar, Moses received the Holy Tablets from God in 1314 BC. Adam was created 3760  and the universe was created just before that in 7 days.

The creation of the universe and of mankind by God could never have been questioned by man for lack of credible evidence before the the 19th century, because such concepts were beyond the comprehension of or the wisdom of man. That is why early man accepted the mythologies of priests who led the blind but were themselves speculative but also totally blind. To impress and to make acceptable, the introduction of miracles meant that it was only within the omniscience of a god that it was possible to perform such miracles.  There is little wonder that God, who created the world and man has always been accepted as omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent.  An all powerful God who  who knows all things and sees all things.  Victor J. Stenger  in “God The Failed Hypothesis” discusses the attempts of man to defend the God of infinite goodness, power and wisdom in spite of the undeniable existence of terrible pain and suffering in the world as theodicy. So far any attempts to associate God’s infinite omniscience with his ability to lessen sufferings has failed. It has also been proven experimentally that ‘Christian prayers for the sick or dying’ has no effect in altering the condition of such patients, destroying the myth of the benefits of prayer begging for God’s intervention.  Stenger conceded that any faith in God’s ability to respond to the prayers and pleas of his people is confined to an act of faith, and faith alone. Christopher Hitchens in “God is Not Great” goes further in suggesting that if God possessed such attributes as omniscience, and omnipotence, and omnibenevolence, but for some reason:

God is willing to prevent evil and suffering but is not able? (Thus he is impotent.)

God is able to prevent evil and suffering but not willing? (The he is malevolent.)

God is both able and willing but does nothing. (Whence he is then evil or Satanic.)

Both Stenger and Hitchens clearly define the fallacy of the God of omniscience, omnipotence, and omnibenevolence.

Creation

Obviously, within the limitations of knowledge of man when the Bible was written it is conceivable that humanity would have accepted the story of Genesis as  literal. But with the passage of time and the evolution of the intelligence and knowledge of man we can see that early man was limited with his perception of the world around him. When the Bible was written, there was no knowledge of biological (reproduction) or medical science, nor of history, or archaeology, or anthropology or chemistry, or physics, or cosmology, or genetics or DNA, or the concept of evolution, or the age of the earth. [But there is no excuse or explanation why omniscient God would not have known such information nor should he have permitted erroneous information to have  been transmitted down the generations without pointing man in the right direction.] It has also been  scientifically shown that the DNA protein and its mutations is the determining element in the evolution of all life forms and is entirely independent of the design by God, otherwise our agricultural and animal stock could not have had the diversity we, man, has managed to alter and benefit from. All this and more, in the recent development of science and physics and cosmology, has provided us the knowledge and the gradual evolution of our intellectual understanding of the world around us, all this  stemming from the curiosity of man and not from the myths of the Holy Books.

The Old Testament (Jewish calendar)infers that the Man (Adam) and the Universe date from 3760 BC, yet cosmologists have calculated that the Universe is approximately 15 billion years old. Obviously both cannot be right. The only conclusion is that the Bible was written by ignorant scribes and Pharisees, and not guided or inspired by God.

The Age of the Universe: 15 Billion Years
The equation generally used to show the age of the Universe is shown here:
(distance of a particular galaxy)/(that Galaxy’s velocity) = (time)  or
4.6 x 10^26 cm/1×10^9 cm/sec = 4.6 x 10^ 17 sec
This equation, equalling 4.6 x 10^ 17 seconds =
“approximately fifteen billion years.”
This calculation is almost exactly the same for every galaxy that can be studied. However, because of the uncertainties of the measurements produced by these equations, only a rough estimate of the true age of the universe can be fashioned. While finding the age of the universe is a complicated process, the achievements of this knowledge represents a critical step in our understanding.

It is difficult to see the hand of God in the composition of the Bible even if modern apologists attempt to mitigate such glaring errors by suggesting that the Bible stories were meant metaphorically, or allegorically. With Genesis discredited as literal. above, but but could possible be only allegorical, the rest of the Bible cannot be supported as the literal word inspired of God. The Bible is, at best, man written myths and legends, who also created God in his own image.

Richard Dawkins, in his “The Greatest Show on Earth” said, “Evolution is a fact. Beyond reasonable doubt, beyond serious doubt, beyond sane, informed, intelligent doubt, beyond doubt evolution is a fact.” And he goes on to prove his point.  And he is convincing. If he is correct, that makes a total mockery of Genesis and the authenticity of all subsequent texts. The books is certainly worth an proper examination.

Thus Christian fundamentalists who constantly seek refuge in Biblical text for protection and authorisation are no better off than Muslim Jihadists who swear by the word of Allah in the Quran, which of course has its foundations and origins also based on Genesis, as Judaism is also based on the Old Testament.

Suggested readings for this section:

1. The Greatest Show on Earth by Richard Dawkins

2. Got is Not Great. How Religion Poisons Everything by Christopher Hitchens

3. The End of Faith by Sam Harris

4. God: The Failed Hypothesis by Victor J. Stenger

[1426 Words approx)

References

[1] Jewish Principles of Faith: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/ataglance/glance.shtml

[2] Christian Principles of Faith: http://www.bethany.sa.edu.au/about_bethany/principles_of_faith

[3] Islamic Principles of Faith: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Pillars_of_Islam

[4] Closing the Gates of Ijihad: https://mbplee.wordpress.com/2012/01/04/why-islam-cannot-change/

[5] Inquisition: https://mbplee.wordpress.com/?p=1052&preview=true

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