The Ottoman Empire and the Armenian Genocide

· Genocide, History, Islam, Racism, Turkey
Authors

The Great Islamic Empires

The Ottoman Empire which was formed in the early 14th century, was the first of the three Great Islamic Empires. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak by 1600, after which time it fell into a gradual decline, as a result of both internal disorganisation and pressure from its external foes in Europe and Asia. Nevertheless, the Ottoman Empire survived through the First World War, and it was disbanded only in 1918. Out of the core of the Empire, in Asia Minor, came the present-day country of Turkey, basically a Sunni Islamic nation.

The Mughal Empire was formed in 1526 in India but it struggled for supremacy against the majority Hindu masses. But with the benefit of strong  Mughal rulers in the 16th and 17th centuries it survived by appeasing and manipulating the local population. The Mughal rulers eventually declined in power and was absorbed into the then expanding British Empire in India in the 19th Century ( Mughal ruled for 324 years.)

The Safavid Empire was a Shi’te empire which was founded as a political dynasty in 1501 due to religious sectarian antagonism between the Safavids and their Sunni neighbours. The Safavid Empire collapsed at the hands of invading Afghans in 1722, lasting a period of 221 years. The Safavid Empire influenced Persian nationalism and has evolved as today’s Iran,  which is still at odds with the Sunni sect.

The Ottoman Empire-Asia Minor (early 14th century to 1918-617yrs)

As the Islamic Ottoman Empire had the greatest impact on Europe since the 14th century we will attempt to examine some of the reasons for the rise and fall of that empire.

One legacy of the Islamic Ottoman Empire is the robust secularism of modern Turkey. (Ataturk’s visions of secularism is, however, now evidenced by the return rise of Islamic orthodoxy  in the 20th/21st century. Sunni orthodoxy now is the prevailing sentiment in Turkey today even though Turks are clamouring for the glories of Ottoman Empire of old and insist that they are European and secular. Recent evidence does not support this view.)

At its peak the Ottoman Empire encompassed:

Turkey
Egypt
Greece
Bulgaria
Romania
Macedonia
Hungary
Palestine
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria
Parts of Arabia
Much of the coastal strip of North Africa

The Recipe for the Ottoman Success:

There were many reasons why the Ottoman Empire was so successful:

The Ottomans were highly centralised (good central control)
Power was always transferred to a single person, and not split between rival princes (autocratic)
The Ottoman Empire was successfully ruled by a single family for 7 centuries.
State-run education system (control of carriculae)
Religion was incorporated in the state structure, and the Sultan was regarded as “the protector of Islam”.
State-run judicial system
Ruthless in dealing with local leaders (ruthless suppression of dissent)
Promotion to positions of power largely depended on merit (meritocracy rather than favouritism)
Created alliances across political and racial groups (diplomatic skills)
United by Islamic ideology (Strong Islamic base)
United by Islamic warrior code with ideal of increasing Muslim territory through Jihad (Jihadists)
United by Islamic organisational and administrative structures (organised)
Highly pragmatic, taking the best ideas from other cultures and making them their own(adopting foreign ideas)
Encouraged loyalty from other faith groups(practiced dhimmi-ism)
Private power and wealth were controlled (state controlled)
Very strong military (militant)
Strong slave-based army (exploited slaves)
Expert in developing gunpowder as a military tool (skilled with gunpowder)
Military ethos pervaded whole administration (Militant or Jihadist ethos) [2]

AN ANALYSIS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FUTURE

“The Ottoman (Islamic) Empire was the one of the largest and longest lasting Empires in history. (It lasted from the early 14th Century, peaked in 1600 and ended in 1918 and was mostly in Asia Minor, i.e. 600 year empire.)

1301 Uthman, a Uzbek of the Ottoman clan overthrew Seljuk and installed himself as The Sultan of Asia Minor. Uthman did not trust his personal safety to his army, and set about to build up an indoctrinated body guard and loyal troop to serve him. He formed the Janissaries.

It was an empire inspired and sustained by Islam, and Islamic institutions. (It was inspired by the zeal of Islamic Jihad as Islam was instilled and Islamic laws practised in the territories the Turks ruled.)

It replaced the Byzantine Empire (324 AD till 14 Century, 1000 year Empire) as the major (Christian) power in the Eastern Mediterranean. (But Byzantine Empire was by then too corrupt and complacent and was ripe for defeat. They no longer saw the signs of the emerging Turkish armies and their Jihadist intentions.)

The Ottomans inflicted a series of defeats on the declining Christian Byzantine Empire and then quickly expanded westward.

CONSTANTINOPLE was the heart of the Byzantine Empire, but it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire when it was conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II.*

Mehmet slaughtered many of the population and forced the rest into exile or conversion to Islam, later repopulating the city by importing people from elsewhere in Ottoman territory.

MEHMET renamed Constantinople, ISTANBUL – the ‘city of Islam’ – and set about rebuilding it, both physically and politically, as his capital. *

After Mehmet
Mehmet II died in 1481, and he nominated his eldest son Bayezid as the new Sultan. The Shi’a Muslims in the Ottoman Empire revolted in favour of Bayezid’s brother Jem. The Janissaries were used to suppress the revolt and from then on the role of the janissaries became part of Ottoman politics.

With Janissary supporting Bayezid’s son, Selim laid the foundations for a world Ottoman Empire based  on the military ruthlessness and military skills of the Janissaries. The Shi’as were ruthlessly suppressed and they retreated to Persia, joining up with the local Persian Shi’a. They eventually formed their own state under the Safavid Shahs.

Fratricide
Because of the rivalry illustrated by the treachery of Bayezid’s brother and the Shi’a Muslims, Sultan Selim introduced a policy of fratricide (the murder of rival siblings) to end such rivalry ever again.

The Ottoman Empire reached its height under Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520-66), when it expanded to cover the Balkans and Hungary, and reached the gates of Vienna.” [2]

The LIFE OF AN OTTOMAN SULTAN

Although the Ottoman empire was  inspired and sustained by Islam it also succumbed to the weaknesses and desires of man.

It was in the Harem that the Sultan spent most of his life. Every inhabitant of the 230 small dark rooms in the Topkapi palace was his to command. The number of concubines often exceeded a thousand and came from all over the world. The only permanent male staff consisted of eunuchs who tended to organisation and discipline of the Harem .

Access to the Sultan meant power. But no one was to be trusted by the Sultan. The Sultan moved to a new bed every night to avoid assassination. Favoured males were promoted to rule far away places like Syria; males not who were suspect of plotting would be locked up or executed.

The  numerous women in the harem which was  a feature of the Ottoman Empire (and other Islamic states) was permissible in Islamic ideology if the women were considered  captured enemies or slaves but not Muslim women.  The Quran states that a Muslim man may do with captured enemy women and children,  and slaves as he wishes.  They were but chattel. The harem was extravagant, decadent, and vulgar. The concentration of wealth, suffering and injustice toward women was the norm for Islamic behaviour and still within the bounds of the Koran.

Despite this, the harem could bring benefits to a family who had a woman in the harem. It meant patronage, wealth and power; it meant access to the most powerful man in the Empire – the Sultan. This were signposts to corruption.

Influences and Structure
Although the Ottoman Empire was widely influenced by the faiths and customs of the peoples it incorporated, the most significant influences came from Islam.

The ruling elite worked their way up the hierarchy beginning with the state madrassahs (religious schools) and the palace schools. They were trained to be concerned with the needs of government and to be mindful of the restrictions of Islamic law, the SHARIAH LAW. A madrassah level education was/is considered confined to learning about the Quran and the Hadiths and the traditions of Islam and little about a more comprehensive education. This is one of the most serious limitations of Islamic education. The Islamic lay, the Shariah Law, is also very confined to 7th century codes and ethics and is very narrow and restrictive, hardly progressive. Both these essential attributes spell the limitations to the intellect of the ruling elite. It is a very parochial outlook, a totally entrapped 7th century Islamic perception of the world.

In its structure the ruling elite reflected a world of order and hierarchy in which promotion and status were rewarded on merit but as mentioned above, patronage was another instrument of success. Thus birth and genealogy, aristocracy or tribe became almost irrelevant to success in the system. Only one post, that of the Sultan, was determined by birth. But reflecting on the patronage practiced by the Sultan, and his key Imams, a ruling class controlled by patronage and Shariah Laws must be stiffling.

Thus, it can be seen that the Ottoman Empire had a limited shelf life because of the constraints mention above.

Short-termism
Ottoman rulers had a very short-term policy. They rejected the idea of developing territory and investing in it for gain at some time in the future; land and peoples were exploited to the point of exhaustion and then more or less abandoned in favour of new ground.

This policy meant that the Ottoman Empire relied on continuous expansion for stability. If it did not grow, it was likely to collapse.

THE DECLINE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

The power of the empire was waning by 1683 when the second and last attempt was made to conquer Vienna. It failed. Without the conquest of Europe and the acquisition of significant new wealth the Empire lost momentum and went into a slow decline.

Several other factors contributed to the Empire’s decline:

The European powers wanted to expand
Economic problems (lack of entrepreneurship?)
Competition from trade from the Americas (lack of competitiveness?)
Competition from cheap products from India and the Far East
Development of other trade routes
Rising unemployment within the Empire
Ottoman Empire became less centralised, and central control weakened
Sultans being less severe in maintaining rigorous standards of integrity in the administration of the Empire (this means corruption rears its head.)
Sultans becoming less sensitive to public opinion (Dictatorial)
The low quality Sultans of the 17th and 18th centuries
The ending of the execution of Sultan’s sons and brothers, imprisoning them instead
This apparently humane process led to men becoming Sultan after spending years in prison – not the best training for absolute power

Kemal Ataturk created a new modern identity  *
Soon the very word Turk became synonymous with treachery and cruelty. This led Turks like Kemal Ataturk, who was born late in the nineteenth century, to be repelled by the Ottoman Turkish political system and the culture it had evolved. Seeing little but decay and corruption, he led the Turks to create a new modern identity.

The empire officially ended on the 1st November 1922, when the Ottoman sultanate was abolished and Turkey was declared a republic. The Ottoman caliphate continued as an institution, with greatly reduced authority, until it too was abolished on the 3rd March 1924.

The Ottoman Janissaries

Turkish: yeniceri: means “new troops.” It was first concieved by bey Murad 1 at the end of the 14th Century and lasting 450 years till 1826. They were so named as the New Troops, the alternative to the regular army. The main reason for the forming of the Janissary was because Murad could not trust the allegiance of the regular army made up of free men (orthodox Muslim/Turks-bearded Muslims) whose first allegiance was to their own tribal leaders, leaders who often opposed the power of the sultan and sided with the enemies of the Sultan.

Initially, Janissaries were formed by prisoners/slaves gained from conflicts/wars and were normally non-Muslims. Janissaries were severely disciplined and received hard training, even hard labour. They lived an isolated and practically monastic life in “acemi oglen” (“rookie” or “cadet”) training schools. They led a celibate life with no contact with their families or normal civilians while while they were trained and schooled to convert to Islam and to accept the Sultan as their de facto head of family. Jannisaries belonged to the Sultan and were affectionately known as “kapikulu” (the Sultan’s ‘door slave,’) showing the bond with the Sultan. Unlike orthodox Muslime who wore beards, the Sultan commanded that they only wore mustaches and not beards. The fit and younger prisoners were given the choice of taking up the offer of being a Janissary or death, as these were they conditions of war in those days. Most accepted being a Janissary. But this could not satisfy the requirements of the sultan and from 1420 onwards, young non-Muslim men were taken from their parents at an early age, and taken to secluded institutions and trained as janisaries, losing all further contact with their past or even with open society. This system of recruitment was known as “devsirme.”  It was an enforcement of a very harsh regime to conscript young children to meet the needs of the Sultan’s army. Basically it was a “Army of Slaves” and it was so considered by the Muslim Sultans, a slave army to serve the needs of the Sultan.

Janissarries followed the teachings and commands of the Islamic dervish Hajji Bektash Wali,  who had blessed the first Janissary troops. Bektashi served as Islamic chaplain for Janissaries. In this and in their secluded life, Janissaries resembled Christian military orders like the Johannites of Rhodes.

The Janissaries were a successful force because they were handsomely rewarded for their loyalty to the Sultan and military prowess, they became one of the strongest power institutions in the Ottoman Empire. As was the Islamic custom of that era, the conquering Janissaries were allowed the rape, pillage, and looting of their conquests and this was a great incentive. The Janissaries were also paid a cash salary, and could keep their booty in accordance with Islamic rules. They enjoyed a very high standard of living and had a respected social status. Although they were initially forced to be celibate, they were eventually allowed to marry and even enroll their children in the corps and even branch out to become administrators and scholars. But of course by this stage, most were already second generation Muslims. But this evolution, was the cause of the system’s demise.

The Janissaries had grown from 20,000 in 1574 to 135, 000 at the end of 1826. Now they were able to influence state policy and to defend their own interests. From the 17th century on, they even staged many palace coups to make their demands, and finally there was a show down, and the Janissaries were defeated by the Sultan’s regular troops and the Janissaries were either slaughtered or banished. [13] [14] [15] [16]

Observation

Janissaries were created by the Ottoman Sultans out of Christian slaves and  kidnapped innocent Christian children. They were well trained and were converted to Islam, so they were Muslims. They fought well and won an Empire for the Sultan. Eventually, the Sultan decided to eliminate them because the Janissaries began demanding more rights and started Palace coups to get their rights. Without a second thought, the Sultan declared war against the Janissaries, executed them and banished them as he would common kafirs. There was no compassion. The Janissaries was in effect slaves from Christian families, used to fight wars for the Ottomans.

History (condensed)
1380’s: Bey Murad 1 forms the first devsirme system, from which the Janissary army could be formed.
15th century: The Janissaries grow into becoming a powerful political force within the Ottoman state.
16th century: It has become standard for Janissary troops to marry, and they even manage to get the privilege that their sons should be allowed to enter their army, even if these were born Muslims.
17th century: More and more, the Janissary troops engage in palace coups. This would continue right onto their end.
1648: Janissary troops discharge and kills sultan Ibrahim 1.
17th century: The traditional devsirme system of conscription is abandoned, and they had many free men applying, among them many from Muslim families too.
1820’s: The Janissaries fails to crush the Greek fight for independence. By this, they proved that they were no longer the near-infallible army as they had been before.
1826 June: The Janissary corps find out that Sultan Mahmud 2 is forming new European-style armies, and revolts. The sultan declares war on them, and it ends with cannons shooting at the Janissary barracks in Constantinople and the provincial capitals, killing most of the troops. Many of the survivors were executed, others were banished. This ended the period of the Janissaries. [14]

Kemal Ataturk created a new modern identity

THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

It would be impossible to discuss the ISLAMIC Ottoman Empire without examining the causes and the details of the Armenian Genocide, unparalleled in the history of man till then. Although most Turks would like to sweep this merciless Islamic genocide under the carpet, it would be impossible to understand the psyche of Islam without an open minded discussion of the historical facts. The Ottoman Empire is a part of the chain of events that when viewed chronologically, within Islamic history, illustrates the aims and goals of orthodox Islam, a never altering ideology since its founding in the 7th century. Yet it cannot be understood with just a sentence or two and hence the more intimate analysis is attempted here.

Turkey vs. Armenia

Turkey shares a long border with Armenia. Armenia was/is a Christian nation surrounded by Islamic Turkey on her west and Islamic Azerbaijan on her east and south and  Russia’s Christian Georgia in the north. Thus, for centuries these peoples mingled and lived freely among one another.
But, Turkey, after establishing a successful Islamic Empire, beginning in the 14th Century, and after 3 centuries of success, the vigour of the Ottoman Empire began to decline in the late 17th Century. The Europeans also began to awaken to a sense of European nationalism with more nations  wanting self-determination. This nationalism spread into Anatolia and awakened the Armenian political identity. Naturally this was seen as a threat to the Islamic Ottoman ummah and a threat to Islamic Dar al Islam, and had to be dealt with. [17]

Russia sensing the rise of nationalism in Russia as well as the Balkans, she decided to take advantage of the situation to assert herself in the Black Sea region. This resulted in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 in which Romania, Serbia and Montenegro were able to declare independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Bulgaria state was re-established and so was Romania. Berlin took control of Austria-Hungary and occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom took over Cyprus. Russia annexed Southern Bessarabia and the Kars region. This was ratified by the Treaty of San Stefano. [18] The Treaty of Berlin (1878) also provided legal protection to the Christian Armenians, but in effect this was never implemented.

As was/is the Islamic custom, all non-Muslims in a Muslim ruled kingdom are treated as dhimmis and thus the Islamic Sharia Laws are applied, laws favouring Muslims over non-Muslims. The Armenians were thereby treated as “dhimmis” (second class citizens), and began demanding “fair treatment” as promised them by the Treaty of Berlin. Riots broke out at Marsovan in 1892 and at Tokat in 1893, when Armenians demanded the right to vote and fair treatment. But typically Sultan Abdul Hamid II, considered and was convinced that the Christian Armenian demonstrations were an assault on his Islamic government and thus an assualt on Islam and were an enemy of the Kingdom and an enemy of Islam. Sultan Hamid decided in 1894 to crack down on the Armenians and “strike terror into their hearts” so that they would know their role as dhimmis in an Islamic Nation. This would amount to declaring a Jihad, a Holy War, against the Armenians.

In response to the Sasun Resistance (Uprising) in 1984, when double taxes were imposed on dhimmis, the Muslim population were incited against the Armenians, like when the governor of Mus in 1984 told Muslims that the Christian Armenians intended to “strike against Islam.”  This infuriated the Muslims who then took up the “JIHAD against the ARMENIANS.” Sultan Hamid sent in the Ottoman army accompanied by armed groups of armed Kurdish insurrectionists to loot, pillage, rape and enslave the Armenians.

THE SULTAN HAMID massacres of 1894, 1895 1896, and 1909 were merciless, and was a genocide of the Armenians:

“In the following months, systematic pogroms swept over every district of Turkish Armenia. The slaughter of between 100,000 and 200,000 Armenians, forced conversion of scores of villages, the looting and burning of hundreds of settlements, and the coerced flight into exile of thousands of Armenians became Abdul-Hamid’s actual response to European meddling.” These descriptions bore all the hallmarks of Jihadism as described in the Islamic history of the 7th century.

Qur’an:8:12 “I shall terrorize the infidels. So wound their bodies and incapacitate them because they oppose Allah and His Apostle.”

Sultan Hamid’s massacres was genocide because there was no mercy shown in spite of what is written in the Qur’an:
9.5] So when the sacred months have passed away, then slay the idolaters wherever you find them, and take them captives and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush, then if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, leave their way free to them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
[9.6] And if one of the idolaters seek protection from you, grant him protection till he hears the word of Allah, then make him attain his place of safety; this is because they are a people who do not know.
The Turks accepted no repentance or screams of mercy or protection to learn of the word of Allah from the Armenians. It was a simply genocide to remove the scourge forever.
One of the most inhumane tragedies occured at the Cathedral of Urfa, where 3000 Armenian refugees sought refuge. The people, men, women and children, were blocked inside and the cathedral burned to the ground. such was the intensity of the hate and anger. [19]

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Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians

Sultan Abdul Hamid II

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Sultan Abdul Hamid II

Although what happened between 1894-1896 was considered atrocious, Sultan Hamid was only acting strictly in accordance with Quranic customs, eliminating the enemies of Islam as condoned in the Qur’an.

Sultan Hamid’s Private first secretary wrote of Sultan Hamid,
” he decided to pursue a policy of severity and terror against the Armenian (infidels)……The Sultan ordered that Muslims absolutely avoid negotiating or discussing anything with the Armenians and to inflict upon them a decisive strike to settle scores.” This massacre extended to the Assyrians as well.

After all Armenian revolutionaries had either been slaughtered or had escaped into Russia in 1987, Sultan Hamid declared that the Armenian question was closed. Yet it was far from closed, as Yehuda Bauer observed, it was just the pre-cursor to the final Armenian Genocide of 1915. [19]

Sultan Abdul Hamid II’s harsh autocratic Islamic rule using the strict codes of the Shariah Law, was also corrupt and controlled by patronage and personal favours and was resented by Turks. Eventually, in 1908 the Sultan was over thrown by the Young Turk Revolution. The Young Turks promised equal rights for all including the minorities, and the eliminating corruption. Unfortunatelfy within 5 years, an Islamic fundamentalist group took power from the moderates. These fundamentalists believed in creating a new Turkish State that excluded all non-Muslims, and non-Turkish minorities. In other words they wanted to create a Islamic state that complied strictly with the Quranic ideologies, namely that there is only one Allah and no other. And that all Kafirs were to be put to death as the Quran has commanded.

Three of the men who formulated this vision were Edward Poshen the Minister of War; Talat Pasha the Minister of Interior Affairs; and Jamal Pasha the Minister of the Navy. These men forged alliances with Germany who agreed to train Turkish armed forces and supplied Turkey with the armaments they needed. In 1914, the Ottoman Empire aligned herself with the Nazis. As the Turkish army where fighting the Russians in Christian Georgia they created the fear that the Christian Armenians living in the Turkish Empire would rise up and fight them from within. The Islamic Young Turk leadership decided to eliminate the Christian Armenian population once and for all time.

Details of THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE OF 1915

On 24th April, 1915, in  Istanbul (Constantinople) the army rounded up 250 Armenian community leaders and intellectuals to deprive the Armenians of leadership. This was followed with the deportation of all Armenians from the Ottoman empire. Thousands of elderly, women, and children were forced to leave their home and force into the deportation “death march”  of hundreds of miles on foot from Istanbul to Syria, with insufficient food or water. Stragglers or those who got sick were shot. The government even organised gangs of criminals and murderers to harass these deportees with no interference from the army. The deportees were robbed, beaten up, raped or even kidnapped to be sold as slaves to the wealthy Turks. The Armenian homes and churches were looted and destroyed. The death march took many lives, numbering in the thousands. Those who survived the death march and reached Syrian concentration camps were rounded up from their thread bare camps, and forced into the deserts to die. It was planned genocide. There has been nothing like this until the Japanese Death March in Thailand in WW II in 1942. [20]  [21]

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The Armenian Death March to Syria

As far as the Turks were concerned, the Chistian Armenians were enemies of Islam, and of Allah, and had to be slaughtered/eliminated as directed in the Quran. There was nothing that was un-Islamic with what happened to the Armenians.

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Execution of Armenians

Qur’an:8:39 “So fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief [non-Muslims]) and all submit to the religion of Allah alone (in the whole world).”

Bukhari:V4B52N220 “Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I have been made victorious with terror.'”
Qur’an:8:12 “I shall terrorize the infidels. So wound their bodies and incapacitate them because they oppose Allah and His Apostle.”

Qur’an:2:216 “Jihad (holy fighting in Allah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims), though you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and like a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knows, and you know not.” [Another translation reads:] “Warfare is ordained for you.”

The above Islamic verses provides all the legitimacy for Sultan Abdul Hamid II or the fundamentalist Young Turks to act with the full approval of Allah.

How many died in the 1915 Genocide?

There were no records of numbers but it was something between 300,000 to 1,500,000 people were massacred in the 1915 death march alone.

“Modern Turkey admits that thousands of Turks and up to 300,000 Armenians were killed in widespread clashes between 1915 and 1917.

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Armenians celebrate getting their message onto the international agenda.

But Armenians insist the number was far higher. They believe 1.5 million of their ancestors were killed in an organised campaign of genocide, designed to wipe out an entire race. Many died on a long march into exile in the Syrian desert.
Both sides produce stacks of documents to back up their arguments, and the Turks say the issue should be left to the historians.” [22]

The Turkish Denial of the 1915 Armenian Genocide

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk began a series of military campaigns between 1920 and 1923 decimating the remaining Armenians in the Turkish Empire. This fact has been totally buried in denials but it is essential to write on this aspect of Kemal Ataturk.

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Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

“The outstanding study, SMYRNA 1922: THE DESTRUCTION OF A CITY, authored by Professor Marjorie Housepian Dobkin.

“SMYRNA 1922: THE DESTRUCTION OF A CITY”

was first published in 1971.  Based on a thorough research of historical archives, it provides captivating factual documentation with vivid accounts about the destruction of the City of Smyrna , as well as the slaughter and deportation of its Christian inhabitants. Until 1922, Smyrna had been a remarkably prosperous city in Asia Minor and was rightly considered the jewel of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Professor M. H. Dobkin brings to light suppressed and very little known facts about the annihilation and deportation of the Christian citizens of Smyrna, whose roots there went far back thousands of years.

“In September 1922, Mustpha Kemal, the revolutionary ruler of Turkey, led his troops into Symyrna (now Izmir), which at that time was a predominantly Christian city. While a flotilla of twenty-seven Allied warships – including three American destroyers – looked on, the turks indulged in an orgy of pillage, rape and slaughter; which the Western powers condoned – eager to protect their oil and trade interests in Turkey – through their silence and by their refusal to intervene. Turkish forces then set fire to thelegendary city and totally destroyed it. A massive cover-up followed, by tacit agreement of the Western Allies, who had defeated Turkey and Germany during World War 1. By 1923, Smyrna’s demise was all but expunged from histyorical memory.”[24]

Soon after,
The new Turkish Republic was founded in 1923 and the official policy was to deny the genocide ever took place. This denial continues to this day and some countries go along with the political correctness for the sake of peace.

It took 49 years for Professor Dobkin, a researcher, to divulge this Islamic Kitman/Taqiyya. This sort of denial can be observed over and over again in dealing with the Islamic world. There will not be many Turks who would have any knowledge of this event at Symyrna nor will accept it ever happened. To Turks, Ataturk was the father of Secular Turkey, and commited no atrocities or crimes. Such is the denial of all Turks today.

Armenian Genocide Timeline

•          Between the years 1894 and 1896, Sultan Abdul Hamid II encouraged the series of massacres that killed between 200 and 500,000 Armenians.
•          In 1908, the Sultan was overthrown during the Young Turk Revolution.
•          In 1914, the Ottoman Empire aligned itself with Germany and the central powers.
•          On April 24, 1915, hundreds of Armenian community leaders were rounded up and later executed by the Turkish government.
•          Also in 1915, the Turkish government began disarming all Armenians who served in the military.
•          Between the years 1915 and 1918 an estimated 1 million Armenians were killed as part of the barbaric campaign of extermination directed by Turkish authorities.
•          Between 1920 and 1923 a military operation resulted in the annihilation of the remaining Armenians in the state.
•          In 1921, Talat Pasha was assassinated.
•          In 1923, the new Turkish republic was founded and they began an authorized procedure of denying the genocide.
•          On September 21, 1991 the Armenians voted to declare their independence from the former Soviet Union and were successful.
Another Armenian Genocide Timeline is provided here. [23]
Photographs of the Armenian genocide: [23a]

Conclusions:

An Islamic Empire will be ruled in accordance with Islamic principles, Quranic ideology, and Islamic laws and mimicking Islamic traditions of the Prophet Muhammad. What has been observed in the Ottoman Empire is a reflection of all the Islamic traditions and ideologies from the 7th century. The Ottoman Empire rule is a window of an Islamic rule no matter the timescale because, the ideologies of Islam has not changed since its founding in the 7th century.

Why have the west gone along with the Turkish Armenian Genocide denial and kept silent? It is for economic, and political self-interests. The West sees Islamic Turkey as a buffer against Russian Communist expansion in the Balkans and into Asia Minor and access to control of Oil reserves. The west feels that through westernised Turkey, they could influence the Islamic nations. The west also see that Turkey wants to be part of Europe and the European economy,  and thus can be manipulated, and could also help to modernise orthordox Islam in the Middle East. America, too, believes that access to Turkey will be fundamental to neutralising and containing Russian Communism and has been advocating for Turkey to be admitted to the European Union.  It is all wishful thinking, without understanding the exclusivity of the Islamic ideology.

References

[2] A brief sketch of the Ottoman Empire: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml

[13] Janissary: http://everything2.com/title/Janissary

[14] Janissary: http://looklex.com/e.o/janissaries.htm

[15] Janissary: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Janissary

[16] Constantinople Invasion: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Constantinople,_Fall_of

[17] Map of Ottoman Empire: http://www.ottomansouvenir.com/img/Maps/Ottoman_Empire_Map_1359-1856.jpg

[18] Russo-Turkish War: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Turkish_War,_1877-78

[19] Sultan Abdul Hamid II massacring the Armenians:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamidian_massacres

[20] Armenian Genocide 1915: http://www.encyclomedia.com/armenian_genocide.html

[21]  Armenian Genocide 1915:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Genocide

[22] Numbers who died 1915-1917: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1132336.stm

[23] Armenian Persecution Timeline: http://www.littlearmenia.com/html/genocide/genocide_timeline.asp

[23a] Documentary photos of Armenian genocide: http://www.marchforhumanity.org/marchforhumanity-genocidepictures.php

[24] ***Ataturk’s role in the Armenian Genocide: http://www.greece.org/Genocide/smyrna1922.htm

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