JIHAD: THE FORGOTTEN OBLIGATION
What is wrong with the Muslim Ummah today? When the Kuffar lay their hands on their daughters the Muslims do not raise even a finger to help them!! Insha-Allah the following virtues of the obligatory act, which we have forgotten, will awaken those Muslim youth in which the sweetness of Iman flows.
No deed equivalent to Jihad
Narrated Abu Huraira RadhiAllahu anhu, A man came to Allah’s Apostle Salallahu-alaihiwasallam and said “Instruct me as to such a deed as equals Jihad (in reward).” He Salallahu-alaihiwasallam replied, “I do not find such a deed.” Then he added, “Can you, while the Muslim fighter is in the battlefield, enter your Masjid to perform prayers without cease and fast and never break your fast?” The man said, “But who can do that?” Abu Huraira RadhiAllahu anhu added, “The Mujahid (i.e. Muslim fighter) is rewarded even for the footsteps of his horse while it wanders about (for grazing) tied on a long rope”.
(Sahih Bukhari, p391, v.1).
The explanation of an action is based upon its importance and its high status. Taking this into account the aim of Jihad is the elevation of Allah’s word and this cannot be achieved without Jihad. For this reason the most virtuous deeds stated in this Hadith is Jihad. To comprehend this virtuous deed by the human mind may prove difficult, but only Allah’s grace and mercy can enlighten us in this respect. When we examine the religious laws in providing the reasons for Jihad being the most virtuous deed, we can present the view that Jihad is actually the protector of all other deeds. It is on account of Jihad that Muslims can be at ease and able to lead their way of life, fulfilling all obligations without the fear of the enemy. When Jihad is neglected, it is inevitable that the Kuffar (unbelievers) will empower the Muslims resulting in a breakdown of the Islamic way of life.
Another reason for Jihad being the most virtuous deed is that a person sacrifices his two beloved things which are, his life and his wealth unlike other deeds. It can easily be concluded by this explanation why other deeds cannot compete with Jihad. In reference to some Ahadith in which other deeds have been given priority, the focus has been on a specific aspect and this has-been considered acceptable. Generally, the scholars of Hadith have given priority to Jihad by analysing the details of the above Hadith.
A great scholar of Hadith, Qazi Azad Maliki states, one realises the great status of Jihad by this Hadith and no deed is equivalent to Jihad.
Fathul Bari, (p5, vol.6)
Mujahid The Most Superior:
Narrated Abu Said Khudri RadhiAllahu anhu, somebody asked, “O Allah’s Messenger Salallahu-alaihiwasallam! Who is the best among the people?” Allah’s Messenger Salallahu-alaihiwasallam replied, “A believer who performs Jihad with his life and wealth.” They asked, “Who is next?” He replied, “A believer who stays in one of the mountain paths worshipping Allah and leaving the people safe from his mischief.”
Sahih Bukhari, (p391, vol.1).
It is clear from this Hadith that the person who does Jihad in Allah’s path is more superior than other Muslims. This has also been clearly stated in the Quran:
“Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward.”
(The Noble Quraan, 4 : 95.
It is regarding the great virtue and importance of Jihad that the Prophet Salallahu-alaihiwasallam participated in Jihad personally and urged his companions RadhiAllahu anhu upon this deed so much so that there was no deed more beloved and virtuous in the eyes of the Sahaba as much as Jihad.
Some examples of the love for Jihad amongst the Sahabah:-
Hazrat Umar RadhiAllahu anhu said, “Perform Haj as this is a good deed, Allah has ordained us to perform Haj and Jihad is even better.”
Kanzul Ummal, (p258, vol.2).
Hazrat Abu Huraira RadhiAllahu anhu said: “Safeguarding the Muslim borders in the path of Allah (Jihad) is more beloved to me, than my worshipping Allah in the night of Qadr (Lailatul Qadr) in front of Hajera Aswad (the black stone in the corner of the Kaabah).
When the time of Hazrat Khalid RadhiAllahu anhu came to depart from the world, he said, “I reached every possible place for Shahadah, but it was written in my fate that I should die on my bed. In my opinion there is no deed more dearer than my waiting with my horse and shield in the darkness of night, the sky to be glittering due to the rain, waiting for the onset of dawn, so that I can attack the enemy.”
Al Jihad by Ibne Mubarak, (p88).
Artat Bin Munzir reports that Umar RadhiAllahu anhu asked the people in his gathering, “Which person would attain the most virtue and reward?”. The people suggested Zakat and Salah and agreed the highest rank is for the Ameer ul Mu,mineen (Umar RadhiAllahu anhu himself) and started naming other individuals. Hazrat Umar RadhiAllahu anhu then advised, “Shall I tell you the best person in terms of virtue who is even higher than the Ameer ul Mu,mineen (the leader of the Muslims)? The people replied, “Please do tell us.” He said, “That small person who is holding the reins of his horse in Syria safeguarding the Muslim army, he is unaware if a wild animal will rip him apart or an insect will bite him or the enemy will attack. This person is higher in rank than those people whom you have mentioned and he is higher than the Ameer ul Mu,mineen in virtue.”
Kanzul Ummal, (p289, vol.2).
Hazrat Abu Bakr RadhiAllahu anhu used to walk with the Mujahideen (Islamic army) and accompany them to the outskirts of Madinah.
Sunani Kubra Baihaqi, (p173, vol.9).
It is stated in a narration of Kanzul Ummal that a person came to Umar RadhiAllahu anhu and asked for a horse. Hazrat Umar RadhiAllahu anhu set the saddle on the horse and when that person started to ride off, Hazrat Umar RadhiAllahu anhu followed that person requesting he would supplicate for him. When Umar RadhiAllahu anhu departed from him, that person said, “O Allah give Umar RadhiAllahu anhu the best reward.”
Kanzul Ummal, (p289, vol.2).
May Allah give us the ability to follow the footsteps of the Sahabah RadhiAllahu anhu in their love for Jihad. Ameen.
The Palace for the ShaheedNarrated Samura, the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said, “Last night two men came to me (in a dream) and made me ascend a tree and then admitted me into a better and superior house better of which I have never seen. One of them said, this house is the house of the Shuhadah.” Sahih Bukhari, (p185, vol.1).
Explanation: The great status of the Shaheed is stated clearly in this Hadith. The Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam was shown the beautiful palace of the Shuhadah in Paradise on the night of Meraj (when he ascended to the Heavens). The Shaheed has sacrificed his life by fighting in the path of Allah and this sacrifice is his most beloved and worthy possession. Allah therefore, honours and blesses him with these high grades and status and Allah’s Forgiveness and Mercy surrounds him. Allah says in the Holy Quraan:
“And if you are killed or die in the Way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass (of worldly wealths, etc.).” Holy Quraan, (Surah Aal Imran : Verse 157).
It is because of this honour from Allah that the Shaheed’s deeds are forever lasting as Allah says:
“But those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.” Holy Quraan, (Surah Mohammad : Verse 4).
The respect and honour of the Shaheed is such that the Muslims have been prohibited from calling the Shuhadah dead because they are alive as Allah Subhanahuwa Ta`ala says:
“And say not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah, “They are dead,” Nay, they are living, but you perceive (it) not.” Holy Quraan, (Surah Baqarah : Verse 154).
The Muslims are not only prohibited from calling the Shuhadah dead but further prohibited from even thinking of them as dead, because the Shaheed has sacrificed his life for such a great cause, as Allah says:
“Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah as dead, Nay they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.” “They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty,….” Holy Quran, (Surah Aal Imran : Verse 169-170).
Another reason for these great virtues and grades for the Shaheed, is beacause he has performed the best Jihad. The best Jihad is described in the following Hadith:-
Hazrat Jabir Radhiallahu-anhu narrates that a person asked, “O Prophet of Allah, which is the best Jihad?” The Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said, “The best Jihad is that the legs of your horse be cut off and your blood be spilt (Shahadah).” Ibn Hibban, Ibne Maja, At Targheeb Wat Targheeb, (p438, vol.2)
Therefore, the Jihad is the best deed and the best grade of Jihad is Shahadah which the Shaheed has achieved. May Allah Subhanahuwa Ta`ala grant all the Muslims the desire for Shahadah. Ameen. The virtues of the Shaheed are numerous and have been recorded in many Hadith books. The following is a list of some of these Ahadith:-
Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullah Radhiallahu-anhu says that when Abdullah bin Amr Ibn Haram was Shaheed, the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said, “O Jabir! Shall I inform you of how Allah honoured your father?” He answered, “Please do.” The Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said, “Allah does not talk to anybody but behind the veil but he talked to your father directly (without the veil). Tirmizi At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p437, vol.2).
Hazrat Obada Bin Samit Radhiallahu-anhu narrates, that the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said,
“The Shaheed is granted seven gifts from Allah Subhanahuwa Ta`ala :-
1. He is forgiven at the first drop of his blood.
2. He sees his status in Jannah.
3. He is dressed in the clothes of Iman.
4. He is safe from the punishment of the grave.
5. He will be safe from the great fear of the day of Judgement.
6. A crown of honour will be placed on his head.
7. He will intercede on behalf of 70 members of his family.
(Musnadi Ahmed Tabrani, At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, p43, vol.2).
Anas Bin Malik Radhiallahu-anhu narrates, that the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said, ”
There are three types of Shuhadah:
1.The first one is a person who went forth in the path of Allah (Jihad). His intention was not to fight or to be Shaheed, he joined solely to increase the number of the Muslims. If this person dies or is killed (in the path of Allah) all his sins will be forgiven, he will be safe from the punishment of the grave, he will be safe from the fear of the day of Judgement and he will be wed to hoorain (women of Jannah), he will wear the clothes of honour, and a crown symbolising honour and eternal life in Jannah will be placed on his head.
2.The second type of Shaheed is a man who set out for Jihaad, with his wealth and life with the intention of reward. His intention was to kill the unbelievers and not to be killed. If he is killed or dies he will be in the grade of Ibraheem Alaihissalam, which is the honoured grade, in front of the King (Allah) who has power over all.
3.The third type of Shaheed is he who set out for Jihaad, with his life and wealth intending reward and he is determined to kill or to be killed. If he is killed or dies he will come on the Day of Judgement with his sword on his shoulders when the people will be crawling on their knees. He will ask them, “Will you not make way for us as we have sacrificed our blood and wealth for Allah Ta`ala.” The Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam continued, “I swear by the One in whose hands is my life, if this person was to say this to Ibraheem Alayhis-salaam or any other Prophet they would make way for him recognising their duty. These Shuhadah will walk up to the pulpits of noor, beneath the Throne of Allah and they will sit there and observe the judgment of the people taking place. The sorrow of death will not reach them, nor the difficulty of the grave, nor will the blowing of the trumpet make them fear. They will not worry about their judgment, nor the crossing of the bridge (Pul Siraat). They will observe the judgement being carried out and whatever they will ask will be given to them. Their intercession on behalf of anybody will be accepted. Whatever they request from Jannah will be given to them and whatever place they will choose in Jannah will be their abode. Bazzaz, Baihaqi.
Hadhrat Abu Darda Radhiallahu -anhu narrates that I heard the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam saying that the Shaheed will intercede on behalf of 70 members of his family. Abu Dawood, At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb
Mujahid said, that Yazid Bin Shajara was amongst those whose deeds would testify his sayings. He stated the following during a Khutba (speech), “When the skies are opened and when the rows of unbelievers and believers are facing each other, the doors of Heaven and Hell are opened and the Hur’ain (woman of Jannah) who have big beautiful eyes and are well dressed, peer from the sky. When a Muslim moves forward they say, “O Allah, help him”. And when he turns his back towards the enemy the Hur’ain cover their veil from him and say, “O Allah, forgive him.” O people make an effort for this, may my parents be sacrificed for you, do not disgrace the hur of Jannah. When a person is Shaheed, as the first drop of blood falls on the ground his sins fall down like the withering of leaves from trees and the Hur’ain come down towards him and clean the soil from his face. He will then be presented with a gift of a hundred pairs of clothes, which will not be human made, but will be the creation of Jannah”. He stated further that, “I have been informed that the keys to Paradise are swords”. Ibne Mubarak, (p72). At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p444, vol.2).
Hayan Bin Abi Habla narrates that the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said, “When a person is Shaheed, Allah Subhanahu-wa-Ta`ala creates a beautiful body for him. Then Allah orders his soul to enter this body. So it enters in the body. Then the person looks at his previous body as to what is being done to it, then he looks at the people around him who are grieving, he thinks that the people are listening and looking at him, he then goes towards his wives. Ibne Mubarak, (p93).
Na`eem bin Hamar Radhiallahu-anhu narrates that a person asked the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam, “Which Shaheed is superior?” The Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam answered, “Those who are in the rows of battle and do not turn their face till they are killed. They will roam around the highest rooms in Jannah and their Lord will laugh at them. This is an indication that, when Allah laughs at somebody, there is no accounting of his deeds on the day of Judgement. Musnad Ahmed, At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p442, Vol.2).
Imaam Nawawi Radhiallahu-anhu has narrated seven different views in association with the Shaheed from the commentary of Saheeh Muslim.
1. He is called Shaheed because he is alive and his soul is present in Darus-Salam (a grade of Jannah) and his soul will be present in Jannah on the day of Judgement. So the meaning of Shaheed is present. 2. Allah and His angels bear witness to him for Jannah. So Shaheed is in the meaning of witness. 3. When a Shaheed’s soul comes out he sees those grades and gifts that Allah has made ready for him. So Shaheed is in the meaning of observing Allah’s gifts. 4. The Angels of blessings come down to place his soul at its rank. So Shaheed is in the meaning of the presence of Angels. 5. His obvious state (at the time of death) has testified his Iman and a good death (Islamic death), so Shaheed is in the meaning of testifying his death on Iman. 6. The evidence to his Shahadah is the presence of blood and this is why he is given the rank of Shaheed. 7. He will be appointed as a testifier for the Prophets that they conveyed their messages to their nations. So Shaheed is in the meaning of testifier. It is on account of these great virtues that the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam and the Sahabah Radhiallahu-anhu used to wish for Shahadah and used to love the death in Allah’s path, and from whom even death used to run far away and fear them. May Allah Subhanahu-wa-Ta`ala grant all Muslims the desire for Shahadah. Ameen.
One Morning Or Evening In Jihaad.
Narrated Abu Huraira Radhi-allahu anho, the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said, “A single endeavour (of fighting) in Allah’s cause in the afternoon or forenoon is better than all that, on which the sun rises and sets.” (Saheeh Bukhari, p392, Vol.1)
In the explanation of this Hadeeth, Allama Ibne Dakikul `Eid Rahmattullahu-alaih, says that the meaning of,
“A single expedition in the afternoon or forenoon is better than all that is on the Earth and which is in it,”
is: that if a person was to be given the whole world and own all the wealth and needs of the world and then he spends all this in a good cause, the reward of this cannot be compared to one noon or forenoon spent by the Mujahid in the battlefield, in fact, spending one morning or afternoon in the battlefield is more virtuous than spending all the world in Allah’s cause.
Allama Ibne Hajar Rahmattullahu-alaih says that this explanation is more understandable as it is supported by a Mursul Hadeeth narrated by Ibne Mubarak Rahmattullahu-alaih in Kitabul Jihaad.
The Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam sent an army in which `Abdullah bin Rawaha Radhiallahu-anho participated. When the army set out, `Abdullah bin Rawaha stayed behind so that he could perform Jumu`ah Salaat behind the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam and then he intended to join the army straight after. The Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam said to him, “I swear by the One in whose power lies my life, if you were to spend everything on the earth you could not attain the virtue of their one morning.” (Fath ul Bari, p91, Vol.6)
If the whole world was to be given to you and you spent it all and wished to attain the virtue of those Mujahideen who have spent one morning in Jihaad you cannot do so. Hadhrat `Abdullah bin Rawaha Radhiallahu-anhu only stayed behind because he had been assured about his Shahadah by some words of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam. So his desire was to perform Jumu`ah Salaat behind the Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam and listen to his Imaan affecting khutab (speech) and spend some more minutes in the blessed gathering of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam and then planned to reach his companions on his fast horse. But the Holy Prophet disliked this action and admonished him, that if he was to spend all the wealth of this world, he would not attain the reward of one morning in Jihaad which he had delayed.
We find out from this saying that the journey of Jihaad is also of the same category of reward as Jihaad, similarly, the reward of the journey coming back from the expedition has been narrated in a Hadeeth as:
“Returning from an expedition of Jihaad is like going for Jihaad.” (Abu Dawood)
A further reason for this great virtue of spending time in Jihaad is that Allah Ta`ala has bought the Muslim lives and wealth in exchange for Jannah. This business transaction can only be fulfilled in the battlefield. Clearly a Muslim is so happy and pleased with transaction that he offers his life to Allah in the battlefield of Jihaad to become the buyer of Jannah. A Mujahid leaves everything behind in reaching the battlefield, where he continually faces death. He has given himself to Allah Ta`ala, in his march forth to the battlefield and this is the place where his chance of the acceptance of death is available. Taking all this into account it is as though he has given his life and he belongs to Allah Ta`ala. This clearly demonstrates the greatness of participating in Jihaad.
Furthermore some commentators of Hadeeth have mentioned, that the measure of the highness of grades of a human is the love of Allah Ta`ala and sincerity and the measure of decreasing of reward is the love of the world and deeply indulging in it.
Although the Jews claimed to love Allah Ta`ala, they were ready to sell their faith for the love of the world and they ran far from death . Had they loved Allah Ta`ala they would have loved death, as death is the door to meeting the beloved Allah Ta`ala and becoming His special guests, but a Jew even fears from the name of death and wishes to live forever. These contradictions regarding what they say and do have clearly been mentioned in the Holy Quraan.
The Mujahid is completely opposite to the character of a Jew, he marches forth in the battlefield leaving worldly luxuries for the love of Allah Ta`ala and to gain His pleasure, in removing Allah Ta`ala’s enemies from the surface of the earth. He protects his friends and he loves death and seeks Shahadah. His greatest pleasure is to shed blood for his beloved Allah. It is precisely for this reason that his time in Jihaad, is of great virtue and his supplication is accepted like the Prophet’s.
The Sahaba Radhi-allahu anhum understood the significance of the time spent in Jihaad. Therefore, they readily sacrificed all beloved things for Jihaad to the extent that the person whom their hearts accepted the most and whom they loved more than their own lives, on his wish they were proud to sacrifice thousands of lives. On his behalf they were ready to all their worldly wealth. For the cause of Jihaad, they even accepted parting from their beloved Prophet Sallallahu-alaihi wasallam and there was no shortage in fulfilling their duty of Jihaad
The Prophet’s Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam’s Wish To Be Shaheed.
Narrated Abu Huraira Radhi-allahu anho, the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam said, “By him in whose hands my life is! Were it not for some men amongst the believers who dislike to be left behind me, and whom I cannot provide with means of conveyance, I would certainly never remain behind any Sareeyah (army unit) setting out in Allah’s cause. By Him in whose hands my life is! I would love to be Shaheed in Allah’s cause and then be resurrected again, and then become Shaheed and then be resurrected again and then become Shaheed and then be resurrected again, and then become Shaheed.” (Saheeh Bukhari, English version, p42-3:Vol.4)
Explanation. In the first part the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam has comforted those who wished to participate in Jihaad but did not possess the means to participate, and their grief is stated in the Quraan:
“They turned back, while their eyes are overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend (for Jihaad).” (Surah Taubah: Verse 92)
The Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam comforted them by saying,
“My heart wishes that I march forth with every group for Jihaad but to comfort the hearts of these poor people who love Jihaad, I send an army and do not go forth myself.”
This is why the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam participated in twenty-seven battles himself and sent his companions more than fifty times in which he did not participate himself. This was to comfort those who were eager to participate in Jihaad and were saddened for not being able to participate.
The second part of the hadith was to comfort those who went forth into the battlefield but were saddened because the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam was not present with them, they thought they were deprived from his blessed company, and so he comforted them by saying;
“What I am wishing for is Shahadah and be given life after Shahadah, so that I can fulfil the duty of Jihaad and be Shaheed for this cause again, you are lucky to be given this chance for Jihaad so you should not grieve the parting of my company as you will be receiving the reward of such a deed (Jihaad) for which I am asking for life again and again to offer for Shahadah.”
Another point in this hadith is that the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam had wished to be Shaheed and be given life again, so as to be Shaheed again numerous times, and in another hadith of Bukhari, it is stated that,
” No person will wish to come back to the world after seeing the bounties of Jannah, except for the Shaheed who will wish to be sent to the world again in order to be Shaheed in Allah’s cause.”
To understand the reason why the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam made this desire in this world, when the Shuhada will make it in the hereafter; One answer presented by Islamic Scholars is that the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam had been informed in the world, through revelation and had full faith that, the only way to the greatness of Islam is Jihaad. His diviine mission was to prevail Islam over all religions and the only way to achieve this was through Jihaad. This is the reason why the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam made this desire in the worl whereas the Shuhada will make this desire in the Hereafter after experiencing this personally. Futthermore, the sweetness of Shahadah will persuade them to desire coming back to the world to attain it again so that they have the noble opportunity to sacrifice their blood for their beloved and true owner (Allah), as this high grade of worship is only bestowed upon special devotees. This is why not every person is chosen for this great status.
Allama Ibne Teen writes:
The Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam was in formed through revelation:
“Allah will protect you from mankind.” (Quraan, Ma,idah:67)
For the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam to persist on asking for Shahadah is to confirm the greatness of Jihaad and to encourage the Muslims upon this deed. Allama Ibne Hajar endorses tthis veiw of Ibne Teen. (Fathul Baari, p.1: Vol.6)
Allama Nawawi States:
We learn from this Hadeeth, that to desire Shahadah and to ask for it, is a desirable act as it is beloved by Allah.
Hadhrat Sahl bin Hanif narrates:
The Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever desired Shahadah with the true intention, Allah will ascend him to the grade of the Shuhada even if he dies on his death bed.”
This is the reason the scholars used to wish for Shahadah from the depth of their hearts and they dislikened the death of the death bed.
May Allah Ta`ala grant us all the great status of Shahadah. Ameen.
Little work but great reward
Narrated Al-Bara Radhiallahu-`anhu, a man whose face was covered with an iron armour (i.e. clad in armour) came to the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam and said, “O Allah’s messenger! shall I fight or embrace Islam first?” The Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam replied, “Embrace Islam first and then fight.” so he embraced Islam and was Shaheed. Allah’s messenger Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam said, “A little work, but a great reward.” (He did very little after embracing Islam but he was rewarded in abundance.) (Saheeh Bukhari, Vol.1, p394)
Ibne Ishaq has recorded in Magazi (an authentic tradition of Hadhrat Abu Huraira Radiallahu-`anhu that the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam said:
“Tell me about a person who never prayed one Salaat but entered Jannah.” Then he answered himself that this lucky person was Amr ibne Thabit (may Allah be pleased with him.)(Fathul Bari, Vol.6, p105)
Taking this narration into consideration, the scholars of Hadeeth have agreed that the person mentioned in Bukhari is Amr ibne Thabit Radiallahu-`anhu.
Hasin bin Muhaamad says, I asked Mahmood bin Labid that what is his story. He answered, “This person denied Islam till the day of Uhad, when he understood Islam. He lifted his sword and participated in the fierce battle with the Shahabah Radiallahu-`anhu till he was wounded. When the people saw him wounded, they asked him what had brought him here for Jihaad. Was it the love of the nation or the love of Islam? He answered, ‘The love of Islam, I have fought besides the Prophet Sallallahu-alyhi wasallam till I had been wouded.’ Upon this the Holy Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam said, ‘There is no doubt he is from amongst the dwellers of Jannah.'”
The narration of Bukhari and the above narration are recording the same incident but this person first came to the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam and then participated in Jihaad, but the Sahabah Radiallahu-anhu had been unaware that he had embraced Islam at the hands of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam. This is why they asked him what had brought him to the battlefield and he answered by saying that it was for the cause of Islam he had entered Jihaad. We understand from this Hadeeth, that to bring Iman is a requirement before Jihaad and that if a person is Shaheed straight after accepting Islam he is Jannati (dwellers of jannah) even though he has performed no other deeds.
In the highest grade of Jannah (Firdaus)
Narrated Anas bin Malik Radhiallahu-`Anhu, Ummar Rubai bint Al-Bara, (the mother of Haritha bin Suraqa) came to the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam and said,
“O Allah’s Prophet! Will you tell me about Haritha? Haritha has been killed (i.e. Shaheed) on the day of Badr with an arrow fired by an unidentified person.” She added, “If he is in Paradise I will be patient; otherwise I will weep bitterly for him.” He said, “O mother of Haritha! There are gardens in Paradise and your son got the Firdaus Al-`Ala (i.e. the best place in Paradise).” (Saheeh Bukhari, Vol.1, p394)
In this Hadeeth an unidentified arrow is mentioned, which has been given several meanings:
The first meaning is that it came from an unidentified direction.
The second meaning is that the archer fired the arrow and accidentally hit him.
The third meaning is that an unidentified person fired the arrow.
The true explanation regarding this incident is that the archer aimed at the enemy but the arrow misfired and hit him.
The various explanations stated above have been mentioned by Allama Ibne Hajar in Fathul Bari.
This is the special aspect of Jihaad, that however the death occurs, the Muslim is granted the high grades of Jannah.
In the battle of Khaybar, a Sahabee was Shaheed by his own sword by accident. When the people started gossiping about this incident the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam said, he will be given double reward than the normal Shahadah and the second due to the people gossiping about him.
It has been stated in another narration that whoever set out for Jihaad and is killed by falling from his mount or from a bite of a poisonous insect or for any other reason, he will enter Paradise.
The blessed dust of Jihaad
Hadhrat Abu Abbas `Abdur -Rahman Radiallahu-`anhu narrates that the Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallam said, “Whosoever’s feet were covered with the dust in the path of Jihaad, the fire of Hell will not touch him.” (Saheeh Bukhari, Vol.1, p394)
The virtue of the dust in the path of Jihaad has been mentioned in this Hadeeth as it is through the blessed deed of Jihaad that Haqq (truth) is given superiority over Batil (falsehood).
This is why every thing relating to this cause and every practice of the Mujahid is beloved to Allah. The purpose being that, sitting, stading, walking, attaking and riding the horse is al for the evelvation of Allah’s word and to attain His pleasure. Therefore, the Mujahid gifted with numerous great bounties as this hadith indicates, that even the dust at the feet of the Mujahid (Islamic Fighter) who is walking in the cause of Jihad will save him from the deadful punishment of Hell. For this sole reason the Sahaba and the eminent figuers of teh Ummah have tried their utmost to attain this dust.
Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri RahmattulLahu-alayh has written in a book written by himself:
“Sultan Bayazid Khan Yaladran participated in seventy-two battles and all these battels were fought against Europe. It was teh habit of the Sultan to only wear one clothing called teh Quba (large cloak) and he never used to chang e it. After a battle he used to collect the dust which was on this cloak. When the time of his death approached, he left a will requesting to be buried in the grave consisting of this dust which he had accumulated.” (Faidhul Bari, Vol.2 : p425)
Allah is the greatest! This is making the saying of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam practicle, so much so as to collect the dustt of Jihaad to make it a cause of one’s salvation. Blessed is tthe person whose grave will bear witness to his Jihaad. We wish that Allah Subhanuhu-Wata`ala grant us this eagerness and emotion for Jihaad. Ameen.
The following story illustrates the Sahaba’s eagerness to follow the above Hadeeth:
“Abul Misbah Makrai RahmattulLahu-alayh says that we were in a group travelling in Rome. The leader of the group was Malik bin Kaham. Malik bin `Abdullah passed Jabir bin `Abdullah who was walking holding the rope of his donkey. Hadhrat Malik said,’O Abu `Abdullah! Please take a seat on the donkey as Allah has gifted you with it.’ Hadhrat Jabir RadhialLahu-anho understood what Malik was trying to doso he answered by saying, ‘I am letting my donkey rest and I am self sufficient from the needs of people and I habe heard the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam saying that a person whose feet have become dusty in the path of Allah, his body is made Haraam upon Hell (he will never enter Hell).’ Upon hearing this the people jumped down from their rides. The narrator ststes that I had never seen so much people walking as much as this day.”
Allama Ibne Hajar RahmatulLahu-‘alayh states that: “If the virtue of the dust of the path of Jihaad is so great, then what would be the rank of one who spends his utmost effort in this cause…it is difficult even to imagine this status.”
Hadhrat Abu Darda RadhialLahu-`anhu narrates that the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said: “Whosoever’s feet were covered with the dust in the path of Jihaad, Allah moves Hell one thousand years away from this person.” (Tabrani. Fathul Bari, p111)
The desire for coming back to the world
Narrated Hadhrat Anas bin Malik RadhialLahu-`anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said, “Nobody who enters Paradise likes to go to the world even if he got everything in the earth, except a Mujahid who wishes to return to the world so that he may be Shaheed ten times, because of the dignity he recieves, (from Allah)” (Saheeh Bukhari, Vol.1, p395)
The Shaheed will only be able to taste and see the virtue of Jihaad and dignity of Shahadah in Jannah. Therefore he will wish to return to offer his life again. The Messanger of Allah SallalLahu-alayhi wasallamwas informed of this virtue through revelation, so he made his wish for it in this world.
A scholar by the name of Ibne Battal RahmatulLahu-alayh states: amongst all the Ahadeeth which have been narrated on the virtue of Shahadah, this Hadeeth is the most interesting one. Further more he says: There is no good deed in which one sacrifices his soul except Jihaad, therefore its reward is equally significant. (Fathul Bari, Vol.6, p115)
In Nasai, narrated by Hadhrat Anas RadhialLahu-‘anhu, the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam has said, “A person from the people of Paradise will be called in front of Allah. Allah Ta`ala will ask him, “O son of Adam, how did you find your place of stay?” He will reply, “It is the best place”. Then Allah will say, “Ask and wish for something.” He will say, “I ask that you return me to the world, so that I may be Shaheed, in your path, ten more times.” , (He will ask for this), because he has seen the virtue of Shahadah.
Hadhrat Jabir RadhialLahu-`anhu says, the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam asked me, “Shall I not tell you what Allah Ta`ala had said to your father? Allah Ta`ala said to him, ‘O my servant! Make a wish for something, I will give ti to you’. He replied, ‘O my Lord! Give me life again so that I may be slain again in your cause.’ Allah will say the desision has been made that they, (the Shuhadah) will not return to the world again.” (Tirmizi)
These Ahadeeth confirm that Jihaad is the best of all deeds. Therefore, a Mujahid will be the only one who will ‘make a wish’ to return to the world, to fight and become Shaheed, no one else will wish as such. Although the Shaheed had gained the top rank and best place in Jannah, he would plea to Allah for his return to the world so he could enjoy the dignity of Shahadah once again. Leaving the pleasures and enjoyments of Paradise.
Today the Muslims have the opportunity to choose the path of Jihaad and gain the sweet death of Shahadah by sacrificing the very basic joy of this world, or at least take the path of Shahadah and make firm intention of Shahadah.
Moreover, ask from Allah from the core of the heart for Shahadah, so that we may attain this beloved status. We may then be able to express ourselves in Paradise infront of Allah Ta`ala in this manner, “Oh Allah! Return us back to the world so we may be Shaheed in your in your path a hundred times.” Thereby increasing our ranks in Paradise and gain the opportunity of seeing Allah.
It is understood from one Hadeeth that the Shuhadah will be able to see Allah before the coming of the last hour.
It is reported by Hadhrat Jabir RadialLahu-‘anhu that the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam asked him, “Shall I not tell you what Allah had said to your father?” He says, I replied “Yes, O Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam.” The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alahi wasallam said, “Allah does not talk to anyone but from behind the veils*, but to your father He spoke face to face without the veils.(These are the veils of light. No one can pass these veils but those whom Allah wishes.)” (At Tagheeb wat Tarheeb, Vol.2, p436)
Hie father was a Shaheed, so we understand from this that the Shaheed, if Allah wills, can see Allah before Qiyamah.
Jannah, In the Shade of the Sword
The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam has said, “Know surely Jannah is in the shades of swords.” (Paradise is under the shades of swords) (Saheeh Bukhari, Vol.1, p395)
The scholar Qurtubi RahamatulLahu-alayh states, it is remarkable that in such a short statement, the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam has put such great emphasis in the path of Jihaad and with such eloquence.
In tthis Hadeeth, the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam has incited towards Jihaad and also mentioned the reward and virtue of Jihaad, inflaming the desire to use the sword in tthe face on the enemies and to fight such a fierce battle that the swords shade over the fighters. Under this shade lies the Paradise. (Fathul Bari, Vol.6, p110)
A scholar, Allama Ibne Jawzi states, the understanding of this Hadeeth is that, Jannah is achieved by doing Jihaad.
One companion asked the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam, ‘O Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam, what is the reason that every Muslim has to face a trial of the grave, except the Shaheed?” The Holy Prophet SallalLahu alayhi wasallam answered,
Jannah, In the Shade of the Sword
The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam has said, “Know surely Jannah is in the shades of swords.” (Paradise is under the shades of swords) (Saheeh Bukhari, Vol.1, p395)
The scholar Qurtubi RahamatulLahu-alayh states, it is remarkable that in such a short statement, the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam has put such great emphasis in the path of Jihaad and with such eloquence.
In this Hadeeth, the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam has incited towards Jihaad and also mentioned the reward and virtue of Jihaad, inflaming the desire to use the sword in the face on the enemies and to fight such a fierce battle that the swords shade over the fighters. Under this shade lies the Paradise. (Fathul Bari, Vol.6, p110) A scholar, Allama Ibne Jawzi states, the understanding of this Hadeeth is that, Jannah is achieved by doing Jihaad.
One companion asked the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam, ‘O Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam, what is the reason that every Muslim has to face a trial of the grave, except the Shaheed?” The Holy Prophet SallalLahu alayhi wasallam answered, “The sword over his head was enough as a trial.” (Meaning, now he would not be put in any trial or torment.) (Kanzul Ummal, Vol.4, p596)
Ibne Mardayah has narrated from Abu Hurairah, “Whoever drew out his sword in the path of Allah has made an oath with Allah.” (Kanzul Ummal. Vol.4, p338)
Khatib has narrated that Hadhrat Ali Radhiallahu-`anhu has said, “The Salaat offered with the sword around one’s self is seventy times better than Salaat offered without it.” (Kanzul Ummal, Vol.4, p338 (Authentic tradition))
Hadhrat Anas RadhialLahu-`anhu reports, that the hilt of the sword of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam was of silver. (Shamaile Tirmizi, p7)
A scholar, Allama Banjuri RahamatulLahu-alayh explains the above description of the sword of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam was called ‘Zulfikaar’, the one that was in the hand of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam at the time of the invasion of Makkah. (Kasaile Nabawi, p101)
The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam had owned many swords and each had different names. The first one was called ‘Al-Mathur’, the one he SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam inherited from his father. One was called ‘Qasib’ and another named ‘Qalki, one ‘Tyyar’ and one called ‘Zulfikaar’ etc. (Kasaile Nabawi, p101)
Ibne Sireen RahmatulLahu-alayh says, “I have made my sword the same as the sword of Samura RadhialLahu-`anhu, because he claimed that his sword was made the same as the sword of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam.” It was in the style of the swords of the tribe of Banu Hanifa. (Shamaile Tirmizi, p7)
Banu Hanifa was renowned tribe of Arabia. They were well known and famous for making the best swords. Those adopting the style of the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam’s sword, copied the style of this tribe. (Kasaile Nabawi, p103)
These few traditions certainly signify the importance and virtue of the sword. The importance attached to the sword is because it is a weapon used in Jihaad.
May Allah give us the ability towards understanding the importance and significance of weapons and instill in our hearts the love of protecting this religion, and creating an interest in weapons.
The protection of our religion enables us to love the weapons.
May Allah create the love of weapons in our hearts for the sole purpose of protecting our religion of Islam, Ameen.
The wish for children for Jihaad
Narrated Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu-`anhu, Allah’s messenger SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said, “Once Sulayman Alayhissalaam said ‘(By Allah) tonight I will have sexual intercourse with one-hundred (or ninety-nine) women, of whom will give birth to a knightt who will fight in Allah’s cause.’ On that a companion of his said, ‘Say Allah willing’, but he did not say Allah willing. Therefore only one of those women concieved and gave birth to a part of man. By him in whose hands Muhammad’s life is, if he had said, ‘Allah willing’ (he would have begotten sons) all of whom would have been knights, striving in Allah’s cause.” (Saheeh Bukhari, Vol.1, p395)
We learn from this Hadeeth that every Muslim should make the intention that they would offer their children to be soldiers to safeguard this religion, as was the intention of Hadhrat Sulayman Alayhissalaam.
A great scholar, Allama Ibne Hajar RahmatulLahu-alayh says, “If a person holds this intention, while having sexual intercourse with his wife, that if he is given a male child he would make him Mujahid, he would gain the reward for his inttention even if it does not occur.” Either he does not have a boy or he is a boy butt he could not become a Mujahid. (Fathul Bari)
This tradition should be a reminder for those who have the opposite intention, and bring their children up to be the ‘slaves of this world’. They are carefully nurtured in luxury and sheltered from knowing anything about Jihaad.
When these parents hear about Jihaad; they are filled with awe and fear that their child might run to Jihaad. If Allah Ta`ala bestows his Mercy upon the child and he stands for the path of Jihaad, the parents feel that doomsday has come over them. They try every means possible in preventing these young Muslim boys from the path of Jannah and indulge them in the wordly affairs. It happens that sometimes they, the parents, go to `Ulema for a Fatwa , ”Is it right for our child to go to Jihaad without our permission? Can they do this . Is it permissible for them?
The `Ulema respond according to the Sharee`ah’s principles, but these parents use these Fataawa against Jihaad. Even if the `Ulema were given full details of the situation and are aware of the intentions of the parents, they would confirm that the obedience of Allah is a requirement even if the creation feel unhappy (No matter who becomes angry). To attain the pleasure of the creation and displeasure of Allah Ta`ala would be the work of stupidity.
As a Muslim, one should have consideration and feelings for the plight of fellow Muslimeen and contemplate over the Ayaat and Ahadeeth with a view to changing his own behaviour, and encouraging others to join this blessed work. We hold the belief that death has its fixed time, it will not come any earlier. It is better to die in Allah’s cause than lead a sinful life. This world is to disintegrate and our everlasting place is in the hereafter. The wives of the Sahabah Radhiallahu-`anhum used to encourage and urge their young sons and husbands to join the Jihaad.
Hadhrat Khansa Radhiallahu-`anha’s sons and near relative had attained the Shahadah in the battle of Uhud, but this brave Muslim lady was more concerned and asked, “What is the state of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam, is the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam well?”.
Hadhrat Sufiyah Radhiallahu-`anha had seen the mutilated body of her brother, Hadhrat Hamza Radhiallahu-`Anhu, but this did not stop her sending her son Hadhrat Zubair Radhiallahu-`anhu in the path of Jihaad. She urged him towards this path.
Alas the Muslim of today bring up their children as a hen brings up her chicks, when they grow big and fat they are roasted and eaten by the people. Muslimeen in these days bring up their children unprepared and unprotected against their enemy, the Kuffar. These children don’t have the heart to fight back. The consequence is that the Kuffar are free to assault the Muslimeen, brutally shed their blood and mercilessly rape the Muslim women. They continue to destroy our Masaajid and Madaaris, determined to wipe out the name of Islam.
The Muslimeen should hold on to the path of Jihaad, to save themselves from this humiliation. Make firm intentions, before the child is born, that if Allah willing, I will make them Mujahideen, and bring them up in the true environment of Islam and Jihaad. Fill their hearts with the love of Islam and the Muslimeen and the dislike of the Kuffar. Teach them to swim and other exercises. Tell them about the bravery and courage of our ancestors. In their soft and tender hearts fill the zeal of Jihaad and the love of Shahadah. If you bring your children up in accordance with the above mentioned advice, Insha-Allah, in the near future they will become Ghazee of Islam. They will be the protectors of their mothers and sisters and Islamic values. The strongest of enemy will not gaze at them with evil intentions (with the will of Allah).
To seek refuge from Allah from cowardliness
Narrated Hadhrat Amar bin Maimun Al Audi sad used to teach his sons the following words, as a teacher teaches his students the skill of writing and used to say that: Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam used to seek refuge of Allah from them, (i.e. the evils) at the end of every prayer. The words are: “O Allah! I seek refuge of You from cowardice, and seek refuge of You from being brought back to a bad stage of old life, and seek refuge of You from the afflictions of the world and seek refuge of You from the punishment in the grave.”(Saheeh Bukhari, p396: Vol.1)
The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam proclaimed in the Masjid, “If any one has any doubt about anything they should ask for Du`a. “It is stated in the tradition that, a person stood up and said, “Oh Messenger of Allah! I am a coward and a patient of abundance of sleep.” The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam made Du`a for him. Hadhrat Fadal RadhialLah-`anhu says, “We saw him afterwards, and no one was as brave as him.” (Kasaile Nabawi, p134)
This tradition explains that the Holy prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam and the companions disliked and hated being cowards. They sought refuge in Allah from this as they would do so from Kuffar, polytheism, hypocrisy and from the love of this world. Allah had sent him SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam, to wipe out Kuffar and polytheism from this world and therefore had bestowed him with courage and bravery.
The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam had said, “And I am the wiper, by me Allah will wipe out the Kuffar.” (Shamile Tirmizi, p25).
Hadhrat Ali RadhialLah-`anhu says, “When the battle was at it’s peak and the battlefield was intense with fighting, we would take his side and no one had gone nearer to enemy than the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam. I had seen him in the day of Badr, whin we were shielding ourselves behind the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam and he himself was the nearest to the enemy line. That day he had fought the fiercest battle of all.” (Norul Yakin, p277)
Abu Ishaq RadhialLah-`anhu says, I have heard from Bara Ibne Azib RadhialLah-`anhu, someone asked, “O Abu Amara RadhialLah-`anhu, did you all flee the battlefield in the battle of Hunain?” Bara RadhialLah-`anhu answered, “No by Allah, the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam had never turned his back.” (At the end of this Hadeeth it is mentioned), The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam (in the rain of arrows) would recite these couplets, and stand firm,”I am a Prophet not a liar, I am the son of `Abdul Muttalib.”(Saheeh Bukhari, p410:Vol.1)
These Ahadeeth criticize cowardliness and justify bravery. Cowardliness is criticized when it stops a person going to Jihaad and so he also keeps others away from it and always fears confronting others. If a person is born a coward, but despite this, he forces himself into the battlefield, he shall gain more reward than a brave strong Mujahid. He will be rewarded more because his soul was not keen on it, he had struggled with his soul and placed it in such a place where death is all around, up and down ,left and right. He surely, will feel fear and have to go through trouble, but to please Allah he stands firm in the field, he will gain more reward than that brave Mujahid who does not feel the fear in the battlefields. As it is mentioned in a Hadeeth,
“The brave fights and also the coward, but the coward person gains more reward than the brave person.”
It is important to know that, the easy way to build up bravery is to go into the battlefield, because the environment in which we live would turn a lion into a fox. The disease of cowardice has become so common that it is no more considered as a disease, instead it has become good nature. If on hearing a loud and sharp noise, the heart starts beating fast, considering it to be of soft nature will be grateful.
My Muslim brothers! There was a time when the whole world was under your hands, and you had the desire and love of Shahadah so much, as a Kafir loves alcohol. Therefore the Muslims all over the East and West were safe and had their dignity protected. Today because of cowardice, we are deprived of a peaceful life and even death. All around, we are in the state of darkness and humiliation and slavery, every day our lives and wealth, dignity and culture are endangered. Still there is an opportunity we can choose the path of Jihaad and throw away the chain of slavery of the Kuffar and gain the life of dignity and freedom and Shahadah.
but was also killed. Then the unbeliever asked the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam, “What is the aim of your fighting?” The Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam answered, “It is part of our Religion that we fight till they bear witness that, ‘their is no God but Allah and the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam is Allah’s servant and messenger’, and we fulfill the rights of Allah.” The mushrik (polytheist) said, “This is a beautiful ideology and I bring Iman on Allah.” Then he switched towards the Muslims and attacked the kuffar (unbelievers) and kept on fighting till he was Shaheed. The Muslims placed him with the two Muslims whom he had killed. The Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said, “They will love each other a lot in Jannah” (Baz’zaz, Jamul Fawa’id, p6 : Vol.2)
It is stated in a hadith that the meaning of Allah laughing is pleasure and blessing. Some experts of hadith have stated that the explanation of Allah laughing is giving reward. We can conclude from this hadith the greatness of Jihad and the merit of Shahadah and that accepting Iman is the condition for Jihad. There is no other prerequisite or attainment of a certain level of Iman for fulfilling the duty of Jihad. We undrrstand from the above hadith that this person dad killed Muslims and when he accepted Islam and fought alongside the Muslims and was subsequently Shaheed, he received glad tidings from the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam. The main issue is that when one prepares himself for this noble cause, the rivers of blessings from Allah are showered upon him but the human’s main enemy, the nafs (soul) does not let one prepare for Jihad and somehow raiss unacceptable excuses, because Jihad is the way to death for the Nafs and humiliation for Shaitan. The Nafs and Shaitan are determined to distance the Muslim from Jihad. It is therefore a very fortunate person who selects the path of Jihad, thereby exposing himself to the showers of blessings from Allah. It is important to note bowever, that the Mujahid’s sole intention in participating in the Jihad, is to fight for the pleasure of Allah.
The Fast Of A Mujahid
Narrated Abu Saeed RadhiaLLah-`anhu, I heard the Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam saying, “Whosoever observes saum (fast) for one day for Allah’s cause, Allah will keep his face away from the fire of Hell.” (A distance covered by a journey of seventy years). (Saheeh Bukhari,P: 80 Vol.2)
Allama Ibne Jawzi RahmattulLahu-`alayh says that when the term ‘Fi-SabillilLah’ (in Allah’s path) is used itself, Jihad is meant. (Footnote from Saheeh Bukhari)
In the view of Imam Bukari RahmattulLahu-`alayh, Jihad is meant when the term ‘Fi SabillilLah’ , is used in the Quran and hadith. (Tafheemul Bukhari, P80 : Vol.2)
For the respect and honour of the Mujahid all the merits of his deeds are doubled. The Mujahid has been given a choice of keeping the fast or leaving it, infat, it is stated in a narration of Bukhari that during an expedition of Jihad, some people observed the fast and some didn’t. After reaching their destination the people who had observed the fast were late whereas the people who hadn’t observed the fast did a lot of work.
The Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi Wasallm said, “Those who were not observing saum took all the reward.” (Saheeh Bukhari, p.404 : vol.1)
Similarly for the tilawat (recitation of the Holy Quran), the Dhikr (remembrance of Allah), his salah and his spending in the cause of Allah, the reward is doubled.
Hazrat Sahal Bin Muaz Al Jahani RadhialLahu-`anho narrates from his father that the Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever recited one thousand verses of the Holy Quraan in the path of Allah (Jihaad), Allah Ta`ala assigns him with the grade of the Prophets, the Siddiqeen (a high rank for those who are obedient to Allah), the Shuhadah and the pious people.” (Sunani Kubra Baihaqi, p172 : vol.9)
It is stated in another narration that the Prophet SallalLahu- Alayhi Wasallam said that the Salaah, Fast and Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) is upgraded up to 700 times in comparison to spending in the path of Allah. (Sunani Kubra Baihaqi, p172 : vol.9).
A Call From All The Doors Of Heaven.
Narrated Abu Huraira RadhiaLLahu-`anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam said,“Whoever spends two things in Allah’s cause will be called by all the gate keepers of Paradise, who will be saying, ‘O so and so! come here’.” Abu Bakr RadhialLahu-`anhu said,” O Allah’s Apostle! such persons will never be destroyed.” The prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam said, “I hope you will be one of them.” (Shaheeh Bukhari, p398 : vol 1)
The Reward Of Helping A Mujahid.
Narrated Zaid Bin Khalid RadhialLahu-`anhu,Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam said, “He who prepares a Ghazi (Islamic Warrior), going in Allah’s cause, is given a reward equal to that of a Ghazi, and he who looks after the dependents of a Ghazi going Allah’s cause properly, is given a reward equal to that of a Ghazi, (Islamic fighter). (Bukhari, p399 : vol.1)
The virtues of spending in the cause of Jihaad and the warning of not spending in the cause of Jihaad have been clearly stated in the Holy Quran in various ways. We bring forth one Quranic Ayah (verse) with brief explanation, followed by some Ahadith.
Allah Ta`ala says in the Holy Quran:
“And spend in the cause of Allah i.e. Jihaad and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the cause of Allah) and do good. Truly, Allah loves Al Muhsineen (the good doers).” (Al-Quran, 2 : 195).
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi states in the explanation of this Ayah that: “You should also spend your wealth with your lives in the path of Allah (Jihaad) and do not throw yourselves into destruction by not spending and being miserly at such occasions (which will result in your weakness and the enemy’s power which is clearly our destruction).” ( Ma’ariful Quraan, p472 : vol1).
The author of Tafseer-e-Mazhari, Qazi ThanaulLah Pani Pati RahmatulLahi-`alayhi comments in his tafseer states: The term ‘Fi SabillilLah’ (in Allah’s path), this is referring to Jihaad. Tafseer-e-Mazhari, p367 : vol.1)
He further states, “I say that the meaning of this Ayah (verse) is that , O! Muslimeen, if you will leave Jihaad, your enemy will overpower you then you will perish.”
Allama Bagawi RahmatulLahi-`alayhi says “After the revelation of this verse, Hadhrat Abu Ayoob Ansari RadhialLaho-`anhu carried on by fulfilling the duty of Jihaad till he was Shaheed in Costantonia, where hi is buried in the defence line. The Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever died and he never did Jihaad nor thought about Jihaad, died upon a part of hypocrisy.” (Tafseer-e-Mazhari, p348 : vol.1)
Imam Bukhari RahmatulLahi-`alayhi states in the explanation of this Ayah states: It was revealed regarding spending in the path of Jihaad. (Saheeh Bukhari, p648 : vol.1)
The commentator in the footnote of Bukhari states upon this explanation of Imam Bukhari RadhialLaho-`anhu that , “The meaning of spending is spending in Jihaad because if wealth is not spent in Jihaad, the unbelievers will overpower the Muslimeen and will destroy the Muslimeen. (Foot note of Bukhari, Arabic version, p648 : vol.1)
The Cause Of Revelation Of This Verse:
Aslam Abi Imran says, “We set out from Madinah towards Constantonia. Our leader at that time was `Abdur-Rahman Bin Khalid Bin Waleed RadhialLahu-`anhu . A huge army from the Romans advanced towards us. We were also in a large number, so we positioned ourselves into rows. Suddenly, a Muslim attacked the Romans and entered their army. People started shouting that he had thrown himself into destruction by his own self (suicide). Hadhrat Abu Ayoob Ansari RadhialLahu-`anhu said, ‘O people! You are misusing the verse of the Quraan. This was revealed concerning us (Ansar). The story behind it was that when Allah Ta`ala gave victory to Islam and the supporters of Islam were enough, some of us gossiped amongst each other that Allah has given victory to Islam, (So there is no need for Jihaad). A lot of our wealth was destroyed in the fighting days so lets start investing again and look after it. Allah Ta`ala revealed this verse against this thinking.'” (Tafseer ibne Katheer, p172,
The Cause Of Revelation Of This Verse
Aslam Abi Imran says, “We set out from Madinah towards Constantonia. Our leader at that time was `Abdur-Rahman Bin Khalid Bin Waleed RadhialLahu-`anhu . A huge army from the Romans advanced towards us. We were also in a large number, so we positioned ourselves into rows. Suddenly, a Muslim attacked the Romans and entered their army. People started shouting that he had thrown himself into destruction by his own self (suicide). Hadhrat Abu Ayoob Ansari RadhialLahu-`anhu said, ‘O people! You are misusing the verse of the Quraan. This was revealed concerning us (Ansar). The story behind it was that when Allah Ta`ala gave victory to Islam and the supporters of Islam were enough, some of us gossiped amongst each other that Allah has given victory to Islam, (So there is no need for Jihaad). A lot of our wealth was destroyed in the fighting days so lets start investing again and look after it. Allah Ta`ala revealed this verse against this thinking.'” (Tafseer ibne Katheer, p172, V.1. Kash Shaf, p237, V.1. Mazhari, p368, V.1)
The explanation of the word, ‘Tahlukah’ (destruction) is investing the money and regaining the loss and leaving the Jihad. (Mazhari, p474: vol.1).
Mufti Shafi RahmatulLah Alayh writes, “It has been clearly proven that he abandoning of Jihad is the cause of destruction for Muslims.” (Maariful quran, p474:vol.1).
Not To Spend For The Cause Of Jihad Is Destruction
When the wealthy will not spend their wealth on the Mujahideen (Islamic fighters), to strengthen them, and they will not buy weapons for the Mujahideen from their wealth, then the Mujahideen will become inevitably weak and the enemy will become powerful and suppress the Muslims. The properties and wealth of the Muslims is then vulnerable and the people are oppressed and expected to comply with Kufr laws (unIslamic). When this occurs, there will be nothing but shame and sorrow, particularly for the wealthy Muslims, who refused to equip the Mujahideen.
The Needs Of Jihad Is Also Wealth
The need of wealth sometimes exceeds the need of men in Jihad as Jihad connot take place without war equipment. This is why numerous virtues have been stated in the Islamic Shariah for wealth given in the cause of Jihad as wealth plays a fundamental role in Jihad.
When the Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam used to make the call for Jihad even the poor people (in terms of wealth) used to present themselves but because of the shortage of mounts e.t.c. they had to turn back crying.
The Quran clearly states their sorrow and grief for not being able to participate in Jihad in this verse:
“Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said, ‘I can find no mounts for you’ they turned back, while their eyes are overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything (to spend).”
This is why it is wajib (compulsory) upon the believers whom Allah has gifted with wealth to use it for the elevation of Allah’s word and for safeguarding Iman and Islam and not to be miserly as this could become the reason for a mass destruction.
Allama Abi Saud states, that keeping wealth and loving it is the reason of an ever lasting destruction. This is why ‘bukhl’ has been stated as destruction. Let us take a view of some ahadith.
The prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam was questioned that, “O Prophet of Allah! who is the most virtuous amongst people?” The Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi Wasallam replied, “The one who does Jihad with his self and his wealth in Allah’s cause.” (Sahih Bukhari)
The Quran also clearly announces this superiority and it is crystal clear that, how can those who do not sacrifice, compete with whose who sacrifice their lives and wealth for Allah? Allah’s love and blessing is with those who demonstrate their commitment by sacrificing their lives and wealth for Allah. No difficulty stops them from their mission of elevating Allah’s word by sacrificing their family, lives and wealth.
A Magnificent Reward
Hazrat Ali RadhialLahu-`anhu and Abu Darda RadhialLahu-`anhu narrated from the Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi wasallam that he said, “Whoever sent wealth to be spent in the path of Allah and stayed behind himself he will be rewarded for every dirham, the reward of 700 dirhams, and whoever fought himself for Allah’s pleasure and also spent his wealth in this cause, he will be rewarded for every dirham the reward of 700,000 dirhams.” Then the Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi wasallam recited this ayah (verse):
“Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wishes.” (Al-Quraan, 2 : 261).
An important point to note. Allama Alusi RadhiAllahu-`anhu writes that the increasing of reward is only for wealth spent in Jihad whereas the wealth spent in any other cause only multiplies by ten. (Rohul Ma-Ani, P78)
Hazrat Thawban RadhiAllahu-`anhu says that the Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi wasallam said, “The best Dinar is that which is spent on one’s household and that Dinar which is spent on the horse for Jihad and the Dinar which is spent on friends in the path of Jihad.” (Ibne Majah, P 198)
The Prophet SallalLahu-Alayhi wasallam said, “Whoever provides the needs of a Mujahid, he will receive the reward of a Mujahid and the reward of the Ghazi (Islamic fighter), will not be decreased.” (Ibne Majah, P198)
Hazrat Huraim Bin Fatih RahamatulLahu-alayh says that the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said, “The Ghazi(Islamic fighter) receives the reward of repaying and Jihad.” (Abu Dawood)
The virtues outlined above relate to circumstances when Jihad is Fardh-e-Kifaya and there is a group fulfilling this duty on behalf of the Muslims and the other Muslims are aiding them financially and looking after their household. When the unbelievers attach a Muslim country, then it becomes a requirement upon every Muslim to do Jihad with his self and wealth.
Hadhrat Abu Zar RadhialLahu-`anhu says the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said, “Any Muslim whose three children die, Allah will enter them into Jannah by His grace and whoever spends two pairs from his wealth in Allah’s cause, the guards of Jannah run towards them (they stand in honour for them and call them towards Jannah)”. (Sunani Kubra Baihaqi, p179 : Vol 9).
Hazrat Abu Ummamah RadhialLahu-`anhu says that the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said, “The best charity is to provide the shade for the tent in the path of Allah, or to give a slave in the path of Allah, or to give a young camel in the path of Allah.” (Tirmizi, Kanzul Ummal, P 283: Vol.4)
The reason for it being the best charity is because all three things mentioned above are a necessity for the Mujahideen. The Mujahideen need the tents to live in and they need men to aid them and mounts to ride upon. Another reason for this great reward is that the above mentioned things are very precious, therefore the reward is also great.
Hazrat Umar Bin Khattab RAdhialLahu-`anhu says that I heard the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam saying, “Whoever provided a shade to a Mujahid, Allah will shade him with His shade on the day of Judgment.” (Sunani Kubra, Baihaqi, P172, Vol.2)
The reason for Allah proving a shade to such a person is that the Mujahid has set out for the sole purpose of elevating Allah’s word and whoever does an act of kindness for him, allah will repay that kindness Himself.
The Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallam said, “The person with the most Iman is he who does Jihad with his self and wealth and that person who worships Allah in a valley keeping people away from his mischief.” (Abu Dawood, Kanzul Ummal p287 ) The virtue of one spending his wealth with his life has been mentioned in this hadith and it has been stated as full Iman. The reason being, that a man loves his life and wealth considerably and when he sacrifices both of these things, then he is granted the sweetness of Iman and the high status of full Iman.
Hazrat Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu-`anhu narrates that in the night of Isra, the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi wasallm passed some people who used to sow seeds one day and cut it the next day. After cutting it he field used to grow again. The Prophet Sallallahu-alayhi wasallm said, ” O Jibrael! who are these people?” Hazrat Jibrael RadialLahu-`anhu answered, “They are the Mujahideen, the reward of their deeds are multiplied up to 700, whatever they spend they are repaid for it.” At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb
The reason for the multiplying of reward is that, it is through Jihad that Allah’s word is elevated, falsehood is wiped out, the truth is powefull, the obligation of ordaining good and forbidding evil is revived, the practical system of Islamic laws comes into existence and people enter into Islam in troops by seeing the greatness of Islam. Also the reward of spending for the cause is multiplied because the work of good deeds is positioned high and piety is well spread. The reward for all this is given to the Mujahideen (Islamic fighters) and to the wealthy people who equip them. In addition, Allah Himself repays such a person both in this world and the hereafter.
The Reward Of Spying In Jihaad:
Narrated Jabir RadhiAllahu-`anhu the Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi Wasallam said, Who will bring me the information about the enemy on the day (of the battle) of Al Ahzab (the confederates)?” Az Zubair RadhiAllahu-`anhu said, “I will” The Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi Wasallam said again, “Who will bring the information about the enemy?” Az Zubair RadhiAllahu-`anhu said, “I will”. The Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi Wasallam said, “Every Prophet had a Hawari (disciple) and my Hawari (disciple) is Az Zubair.” (Saheeh Bukhari, p399, Vol.1)
The Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam was a successful commander. One of the names of the Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam was the Prophet of wars. The Prophet SallalLahu-alayhi Wasallam was quoted as saying, “I am Muhammad and Ahmad and the Prophet of mercy and the Prophet of repentance and the last Prophet and the Hashir (the person who will gather everyone on the day of judgment) and the Prophet of wars.” (Shamail Tirmidhi, p25)
Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya RahimahulLahu-Ta`ala states that Malahim is the plural of Mulhamah. Mulhumah is that war wherein fierce battle takes place. The reason for tthis title is clear as the number of wars that took place in the time of Nabi SallalLahu`Alayhi Wasallam and after him with this Ummah, did not take place durig the times of the previous Ummahs. It will always remain so with this Ummah. Sayyidina Rasullalah SallalLahu`Alayhi Wasallam had prophesied that jihad will alwasy continu in my Ummah till the day of judgment. The last among the Ummah will go to war against the dajja.
The Prophet SallalLahu`Alayhi Wasallam was well acquainted with the tactics and weapons of war. With reference to the books of Seerah, we learn that the Prophet SallalLahu`Alayhi Wasallam was an exceptional commander and displayed remarkable knowledge of war strategy. The Prophet SallalLahu`Alayhi Wasallam developed the Sahabas (companions) accordingly and used to say: “War is strategy (to deceive the enemy)”, thereby expressing that strategy plays a vital role in wars.
We learn from the narration of Bukhari that the Prophet SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam used to use double meaning words in war affairs, so that the battle tactics would stay a secret.
The Prophet SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam kept his plans of war very secretive at the time of the victory of Makkah and kept a close eye at all incidents on this occasion. Wwhen one Sahabi made a mistake and tried to inform the polytheists of Makkah about the plans, the Prophet SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam changed this effort into failure and kept the plans so secretive to the extent that the unbelievers were only informed when the fierce army of the Muslim had reached them. The benefit of this was that Makkah was conquered without bloodshed, with the exception of one or two fronts there was no confronation. This was a great war strategey.
The Prophet SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam used to fight in the front line in the elevation of Allah’s word and this enabled him to be aware of the plans of the unbelievers. The Prophet SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam was always mindful that the unbelievers were looking for any opportunity to attack him; and due to his understanding of war tactics and general awarencess, many schemes of the unbelievers turned into failures. There were the schemes of people such as, Khalid Bin Sufyan Hozali, Kab Bin Ashraf and the scheme of Masjid-e-Dharar.
Khalid Bin Sufyan was preparing an army against the Prophet SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam . The SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam sent a Sahabi (companion) to kill him. Kab Bin Ashraf who was a Jew, planned to wage the last final war by uniting with the mushrikeen (polytheists). The Prophet SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam appointed Muhammad Bin Muslim, who killed him.
Whereas the Masjid-e-Dharar was a well planned scheme of the mushrikeen and the Jews which was demolished.
One main aspect of war is spying on the enemy’s army, and this was requested by the Prophet SallalLahu` alayhi Wasallam in the earlier mentioned hadith. Hazrat Zubair RadhiAllahu`anhu complied with this request and for this he received the noble status of Hawari (disciple). The Prophet’s SallalLahu`alayhi Wasallam keen interest in war tactics was due to Allah’s commandments.
The Reward Of Spying In Jihaad
One main aspect of war is spying on the enemy’s army, and this was requested by the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam in the earlier mentioned Hadeeth. Hadhrat Zubair RadhialLahu `Anhu complied with this request and for this he received the noble status of Hawari (disciple). The Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam keen interest in war tactics was due to Allah’s commandments.
The Muslims have the opportunity to revive Allah’s commandments and the way of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam and by doing this they can overpower the enemy and the era of Islamic glory can become a reality once again.
Goodness In The Horse’s Forelocks
Narrated `AbdulLah Bin `Umar RadhialLahu `Anhuma that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “Good will remain (as a permanent quality) in the forelocks of horses (for Jihaad) till the day of judgement. Saheeh Bukhari (p399, Vol.1)
Note: The explanation of goodness has been stated in another Hadeeth of Bukhari as reward and booty. Saheeh Bukhari (p400, Vol.1)
This Hadeeth is from those Ahadeeth in which it has been proven that Jihaad will continue till the day of judgement.
The Reward Of Keeping A Horse For Jihaad
Narrated Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu `Anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “If somebody keeps a horse (for Jihaad) in Allah’s cause, motivated by his faith in Allah and his belief in His promise, then he will be rewarded on the day of resurrection for what the horse has eaten or drank and for it’s dung and urine.” Saheeh Bukhari (p406, Vol.1)
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam On An Unsaddled Horse With A Sword Around His Neck
Narrated Anas Bin Malik RadhialLahu `Anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was the best and the bravest amongst the people. Once the people of Madinah got terrified at night, they went in the direction of the noise that had terrified them. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam met them (on his way back) after he had found out the truth. He was riding an unsaddled horse belonging to Abu Talhah RadhialLahu `Anhu and a sword was round his neck, he was saying, “Don’t be afraid! Don’t be afraid!” He further said, “I found it (i.e. the horse) very fast”, or “The horse is very fast.” Saheeh Bukhari (p101, Vol.4)
The Muslims have been instructed to provide all things which is used for the purpose of Jihaad and a reward has been promised for providing these things because, the existence and honour of Islam lies in Jihaad. Jihaad is necessary for the honour and elevation of Allah’s word and in order for Jihaad to take place there is the need for provision. So on account of Jihaad, reward is also confirmed for the provision for Jihaad.
The horse has a special rank within the Jihaad. Allah Ta`ala has instructed the Muslims to train the horse, in the Holy Quraan. Allah says:
“And make ready against them all you can of power including tethered horses to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy.” Holy Quraan (Surah Anfaal: Verse 60)
It is stated in the Hadeeth of Muslim that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was gently placing his fingers on his horse’s forelocks and saying, “Goodness has been placed in the horse’s forelock till the day of judgement.”
It is stated in a narration of Nasai that Anas Bin Malik RadhialLahu `Anhu narrated that there was nothing more beloved to the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam than horses. Fathul Bari (p66, Vol.7)
`Allama Ibne Hajar RahimahulLahu Ta`ala states that there is glad tidings in this Hadeeth, for the preservation of Islam and Muslims till the day of Judgement. The reason being that the goodness being in the forelocks of the horses is an indication that Jihaad will continue till the day of judgement and when Jihaad will take place the Mujahideen will also exist and obviously the Mujahideen will be Muslims. So we learn that the Religion of Islam and it’s followers will remain till the day of Judgement. Fathul Bari (p67, Vol.6)
Ibne Mardawe has stated the following words from the hadith of Ibne Abbas RahimahulLahu Ta`ala in his Tafseer, “Shaitan cannot come on the forelocks of horses”.
Hadhrat Tamemi Dari RadhiaiLahu`anhu says that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever tied a horse in the path of Allah Ta`ala and prepared the food for the horse, he will be rewarded for every grain”. Ibne Majah, Fathul Bari, (p67, Vol.6)
Narrated Abu Hauraira RadhialLahu `anhu, Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam sad, “Horses ore kept for one of three purposes:
For some people they are a source of reward, for some others they are a means of shelter and for some others they are a source of sins.
The one for whom they are a source of reward is he who keeps a horse for Allah`s cause (Jihad), tying it with a long tether on a meadow or in a garden, with the result that whatever it cuts from the area of the meadow or garden where it is tied, will be counted as good deeds for his benefit, and if it should break it’s foot marks will be written as good deeds for him, and if it passes by a river and drinks water from it, even though he had no intention of watering it, even then he will get the reward for it’s drinking.
As for the man for whom the horses are a source of sins, he is the one who keeps a horse for the sake of pride and pretense and showing enmity for Muslims, such a horse will be a source of sins for him.” Sahih Baukhari, (p400,vol.1)
The Prophet SallalLahu `alayhi Wasallam used to ride horses and used to advice the Sahabas (companions) to do the same. It is stated that mounting an unsaddled horse was beloved to the early Muslims and there is a chapter in Bukhari relating to riding on an unmanageable horse or a stallion.
Rashid Bin Sad RadhiaiLahu `anhu “The early Muslims preferred to ride stallions, for they were faster and more daring (than mares)”. Sahih Bukhari, english version, (p77,vol.4)
The Prophet SallalLahu `alayhi Wasallam mounted on the unsaddled back of the horse of Abu Ta`ala and praised the horse. Sahih Bukhari, English version, (p77, vol4)
This is a very long topic, a lot can be written on this subject, however, the conclusion is that the reason for these great virtues attributed to riding a horse and tethering it, is because the horse was the best provision for Jihad in that period. We have to understand that whatever articles of weapons are used for Jihad in any particular period in time, there will be a reward for learning about them and maintaining them . Following these Islamic laws, The Muslims should remain experienced in the war tactics and weapons of war. They should keep all sorts of arms and weapons ready in order to benefit from the reward and subsequently would not feel ashamed and inadequate when it is require.
The Guarantee of Jannah
Narrated Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu `Anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “Allah Ta`ala assigns for a person who participates (in the holy battles) in Allah’s cause, and nothing causes him to do so except belief in Allah and His Messengers, that he will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives), or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a Shaheed).” The SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam added, “Had I not found if difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any Sariyyah (an army unit) going for Jihaad and I would have loved to be Shaheed in Allah’s Path (Jihaad) and then made alive, and then Shaheed and then made alive, and then again Shaheed.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p 10, Vol.1)
He will either return as a Ghazi (Islamic fighter) with his reward or he will enter Jannah on the high status of Shahadah. The conclusion is, there is always blessing and victory for a Mujahid. If he stays alive he is a Ghazi (Islamic fighter), if he is killed then he is a Shaheed. It doesn’t matter whether he fights in the face of the enemy or stays behind helping the Mujahideen. It doesn’t matter whether he is killed by the enemy’s bullet or if a bullet of a Muslim pierces him by mistake, or he is killed by the bite of an animal, he is always victorious.
There is only one way the effort of the Mujahid can be ruined; that is, if his intention is not correct and he is fighting for personal fame. With the exception of above, when the intention of the Mujahid is solely for elevating Allah’s word and Allah’s pleasure then his effort can never be a failure, on the contrary Allah has guaranteed him victory. Who can be more fortunate than that person for whom Allah has guaranteed Jannah. Imaam Bukhari RahimahulLahu Ta`ala has chosen the title of, ‘Jihaad is a part of Imaan (faith)’ for this Hadeeth. He is trying to emphasize the great status of Jihaad in a special manner. May Allah Ta`ala grant us the ability to fulfil this part of Imaan.
The Inheritance Of The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam
Narrated `Amr Bin Al Harith RadhialLahu `Anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam did not leave anything behind him after his death except a white mule, his arms and a piece of land which he left to be given to charity. Saheeh Bukhari, (p 403, Vol.1)
The mule mentioned was for the use of Jihaad as stated in Hadeeth of Bara Bin `Azib RadhialLahu `Anhu.
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam did not hoard worldly items, nor did he leave behind him anything after his death, except for some weapons of Jihaad and a mule which used to come in use for Jihaad as it is stated in a Hadeeth of Bukhari narrated by Bara Bin `Azib RadhialLahu `Anhu.
Jihaad is an act of worship from which one can achieve the closeness of Allah and by which Islam is given glory. This is why the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam used to love the arms of Jihaad and he used to buy them. This is why the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam only left these war articles behind. May Allah Ta`ala grant us the ability to truly follow the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam in his footsteps.
Guarding The Leader Of Jihaad
Narrated `Aishah RadhialLahu `Anha, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was vigilant one night and when he reached Madinah, he said, “Would that a pious man from my companions guard me tonight!” Suddenly we heard the clatter of arms. He said, “Who is that?” He, (the newcomer replied, “I am S`ad Bin Abi Waqqas and have come to guard you”. So the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam slept (that night). Saheeh Bukhari, (p 404, Vol.1)
It has been stated in a narration of Tirmizi that, `Aishah RadhialLahu `Anha narrated that guarding used to take place outside the house of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam until the verse:
“Allah will protect you from people” Holy Quraan, (Surah Maidah: Verse 67)
was revealed. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam moved the guards away.
Imaam Bukhari RahimahulLahu Ta`ala has named this chapter ‘Vigilance during the Holy battles in Allah’s cause’.
To arrange security methods for protection is not against Tawakkul (perfect reliance on Allah) as Tawakkul lies in the heart and these sources of protection are used for the physical protection.
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam used to confront the enemy in a very close distance but on one occasion he wore two chain armours.
It is clear from the above Hadeeth, that those who fear assassination attempts from the Kuffaar (unbelievers) have to use security to protect themselves, so that the enemy cannot make them an open target. If the security is not implemented and eminent Muslim personalities are attacked and killed, inevitably the Muslim’s strength would become weak and the unbeliever’s terror would be cast in the hearts of the Muslims and the eminent figures amongst the Muslims would not remain safe. It is quite remarkable that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam used the Sahabah (companions) to guard him with weapons but the Muslim scholars, pious people and eminent figures of today dislike weapons.
A further point which can be taken from this Hadeeth is that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said “I wish a pious Sahabi (companion) would come and guard me”. It is clear from this statement that one should choose pious and reliable people for security. There can be no trust in a disobedient person (sinner), he can easily change and can cause harm himself. Therefore, those who do not fear from the disobedience of Allah and cannot be trusted in their worldly duties, should not be selected to undertake the security. This is why obedient pious Muslims should be appointed for this duty who would fulfil this duty as an act of reward and an act of worship and not a worldly job. They should also be adequately capable of protecting them from the enemy.
Another point which we learn from this Hadeeth is that those who have the capability of fulfilling this duty should place themselves forward, as this is good and will make the person being protected happy.
Glad Tidings For The Mujahid
Narrated Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu `Anhu, the Holy Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “Let the slave of Dinar and Dirhams, of Khatifah and Khamisah, (i.e. money and luxurious clothes), perish for he is pleased if these things are given to him and if not he is displeased. Let such a person perish and relapse, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anybody to take it out for him. Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse to strive in Allah’s cause, with hair unkempt and feet covered with dust, if he is appointed in the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rear guard, he accepts his post with satisfaction, (he is so simple and unambitious that if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes his intercession is not accepted).” Saheeh Bukhari, (p 404, Vol.1) It is fact that there is no value of a Mujahid (Islamic fighter) in the world nor does he hold a rank. How can the worshippers of wealth and beauty ask this poor Mujahid covered in dust?, but his status in Allah’s sight is so great that eminent figures cannot reach this status, infect they cannot even reach the dust of this rank. The difference between the deeds of the Mujahideen and the non Mujahideen have been mentioned in some narrations. The value of the Mujahid’s deeds is very high in Allah’s sight. There is a lot of information concerning the Islah (rectification) of the Mujahideen. Every Mujahid wishes from his heart that he confronts the enemy in the front line and that he be given a chance of attacking the enemy’s position and confront them face to face. The Mujahideen have to follow a strict discipline and comply fully with the decisions of the Amir (Leader) and whatever the Amir appoints him, he should undertake the duty responsibly and contentedly. The reward will be given according to the intention and obedience, as the reward of Jihaad is not placed in a special part or a specified unit of Jihaad. If a person is appointed to look after the goods of the Mujahideen from the orders of the Amir, has reward is not less than the person who is on the front line slaughtering kafirs (unbelievers). But if the Mujahid has assumed a position disobeying the Amir or not with his sole pleasure, then there is no reward for him, infect it will be a cause of sin. This is why it is a requirement for the Mujahideen to be obedient to the Amir and not to be sinners by doing what they wish.
The Virtue of Safe Guarding The Islamic Borders
Narrated Sahi bin Sad RadhialLahu `Anhu Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said; “To guard Muslims from infidels in Allah’s cause for one day is better than the World and whatever is on it’s surface, and a place in Paradise as small as that occupied by the whip of one of you is better than the World and whatever is on it’s surface; and a morning’s or an evening’s journey which a slave (person) travels in Allah’s cause is better than the World and whatever is on it’s surface.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p404, Vol.1)
To guard the frontier and secure the borders of the Muslims lands and offer protection to the Muslim soldiers; this act is amongst the most pleasing `Ibadah (worship) in the sight of Allah. It is revealed in the Qur’an:
“O you who believe! Endure and be more patient (than your enemy) and guard your territory by stationing army units permanently at the places from where the enemy can attack you and fear Allah, so that you may be successful.” (Holy Qur’an, Surah Aal `Imran: Verse 200)
‘Raabitoo’ means, if from any direction you fear that the enemy may attack, then stand firmly and obstruct their path like a metal wall.
In Muslim Shareef a Hadeeth narrated by Hadhrat Salman Farsi RadhialLahu Anhu, that the Holy Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam had said; “To guard the Muslim territory for a day and night is much better than a months night praying and fasting.” If he dies his deeds will continue increasing in reward, his sustenance will be provided and he will be saved from the trials of the grave.
Hadhrat Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu Anhu narrated : Every person who dies will have fully completed his action except the deeds of the one who is on the frontier, he receives the reward of his deed until the day of resurrection, and he is saved from the questioning of the Munkar and Nakir, (in the grave). Hakim Wa Ibne Mardawe Wa Muktasar Ibne Kathir, (P35, vol.1).
It is reported in Ibne Majah that Hadhrat Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu Anhu narrated that the Holy Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever dies while guarding the territory, in the cause of Allah, his good deeds will continue and his sustenance will continue and he will be saved from the questioning by the Munkar and Nakir and Allah will raise him on the day of Qiyamah protected from the immense adversity of that day.”
It is reported in Ibne Majah that Hadhrat Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu Anhu narrated that the Holy Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever dies while guarding the territory, in the cause of Allah, his good deeds will continue and his sustenance will continue and he will be saved from the questioning by the Munkar Nakir and Allah will raise him in the day of Qiyamah protected from the immense adversity of that day.”
Hadhrat Ibne Abbas RadhialLahu Anhu has said : I have heard the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu alayhi Wasallam say, “Two eyes will not be touched by the Hell fire, one is that eye which has shed tears in the fear of Allah and second that eye which stayed awake guarding in the path of Allah.” Tirmizi
Abu Dawood has reported that, at the time of Gazwa Hunain, (the battle of Hunain) the messenger of Allah SallalLahu alayhi Wasallam said, “Who will be on guard tonight? Anas ibn Abu Marthad al-Ghanawi said : I shall ‘Apostle of Allah. He said: Then mount your horse. He then mounted his horse, and came to the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu-`alyhi Wasallam. The Apostle of Allah said to him: Go forward to this ravine till you get to the top of it. We should not be exposed to danger from your side. In the morning the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam came out to his place of prayer, and offered two rak’ahs. He then said: Have you seen any sign of your horseman? They said: We have not, Apostle of Allah. The announcement of the time for prayer was then made, and while the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam was saying the prayer, he began to glance towards the ravine. When he finished his prayer and uttered salutation, he said: Cheer up, for your horseman has come. We therefore began to look between the trees in the ravine, and sure enough he had come. He stood beside the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam, saluted him and said: I contimued till I reached the top of this ravine where the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam commanded me, and in the morning I looked down into both ravines but saw no one. The Apostle of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam asked him: Did you dismount during the night? He replied: No, except to pray or to relieve myself. The Apostle of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam said: You have ensured your entry to Paradise. No blame will be attached to you supposing you do not work after it. Abu Dawood, (P693,vol2)
Hazrat Ubai Ibne Kaab RadhialLahu-`anhu narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “The protection of the weakest part along the Muslim territory with sincerty for one day other than the days of Ramadan is more rewarding and virtuous than keeping fast for a 100 years and night praying. In Ramadan, one day of guarding the territory is more virtuous than a thousand years of fasting and night praying, (the narrator had doubt in the words fasting and night praying).” Furthermore he said, “If he returns to his position safe and well, by the will of Allah, then no sin will be written to his account and only blessings will be written and the reward for a thousand years for guarding the territory will continue until Qiyamah.” Qurtubi,Mariful Quran
Abu Daud reports that Hazrat Fudalah Bin Ubaid RadhialLahu-`anhu narrated the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam has said, “Everyone who dies will have completed his action except the one who is in the frontier (in Allah’s path) for his deeds will be made to continue until Qiyamah and he will be safe from questioning in the grave.” The above mentioned Ahadith and many others confirm that the action of guarding (in the path of Allah) is more virtuous than any other Sadaqah Jaria (ever lasting reward of a deed) because the reward for these deeds is only to be attained until people stop benefiting from the specific deed, (e.g. well, book, e.t.c.), or it is not used then the reward also stops, but the deeds of the person who guards the territory will not end until the day of Qiyamah. The main reason being the Musloms have the opportunity to do good actions more freely when they are secure from the attacks of the enemy. So the work of the Murabit enables all other Muslims to do good and virtuous deeds. Therefore the reward of his work will continue until the day of Qiyamah, apart from this, all other virtuous actions which he used to be engaged in; their rewards will continue as it is quoted in many traditions. Hazrat Abu Darda RadhialLahu `Anhu has narrated that the Mesenger of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam has said, “One month of being on the frontier (in Allah’s path) is better than fasting for life and whoever dies on the frontier (in the path of Allah) he will be saved from the fear and hardship of Qiyamah. His sustenance will have increased in Jannah and he will be receiving his deeds until the day of Resurrection.” This Hadith has been reported by Tabrani and its reports are all trustworthy.”
Tabrani has reported in his ‘Awsat’, (a book’s name) from Hazrat Abu Huraira RadhialLahu `Anhu : The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam has said, “If the Murabit dies while he is on the frontier, the virtue of his work will be written until Qiyamah. He will be given in matrimony to seventy ladies of Jannah. He will be requested to stand up and made to intercede for the people until the accounting ends.” Hazrat Anas RadhialLahu `Anhu narrates that the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam was asked about the reward of Ribatt, he replied, “Whoever keeps watch for the security of the Muslims for a night, he will receive the reward of all those who offer Salah and Fast.” It means those who had offered their Salah and kept Fast with composure, the Murabit will have a part in their reward because, he has been the reason for their composure whilst fulfilling his duties.
It is understood from these Ahadith that the Mujahid and Murabit will gain the reward for the knowledge which the Ulamahs are gaining during the time of peace, because if the Kaffirs take over the country, all the Religious works and science will be brought to halt as it happened in the Balkan States. (Maa Waraa Un Nahr). These works continue due to the sacrifice of the Mujahid and by halting the enemies, the Mujahid receives the full share of the reward.
The Virtue of Safe Guarding The Islamic Borders (Part 3)
Hazrat Jabir RadhialLahu `anhu says: I have heard the Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam saying, “Whoever kept watch in the path of Allah for a day, Allah makes seventy trenches between him and the Hell and each trench is the length of the seven skies and the seven earths. Tabrani.At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb,(p368,Vol.2).
Hadhrat Umamah RadhialLahu `anhu narrated that the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam had said, “The Murabit’s Salah is as five hundred Salah (in reward), and his spending of one dinar or dirham (in the path of Allah) is much better than one spending seven hundred dinars in something else. Baihaqi. At Targheeb, (p369,Vol.2).
Mujahid reports that: Once Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu `anhu was in Ribatt; the people started running towards the beach, they were informed that nothing had happened, (nothing to fear). The people returned but Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu `anhu stayed there. One passer by asked him, “What made you stand here, Oh Abu Hurairah? ” He replied, “I have heard from the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-`alyhi Wasallm, “To stand in Allah’s path (Jihad) for one moment is better than standing in front of the black stone, (Hajare Aswad), on the night of Qadr, (laylatul Qadr).’ ” Ibne Hibban. At Targheeb, (p369,Vol.2).
Hazrat Ibne Umar RadhialLahu `anhu narrated: The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam had said, “Shall I not tell you of the night which is better than the night of Qadr?.” He then himself said, “The one who is keeping watch in such a fearsome place where it is doubted he would return home.” Baihaqi,(p149,Vol.9).
He is keeping watch over the enemy and the situation is such that the enemy may attack at night. This was a xommon occurrence with the Mujahideen of Afghanistan when on guard duty at night. Fortunate is he who has gained and received all those virtues.
Hazrat Abu Rayhana RadhialLahu `anhu says: Once we went out to battle with the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam. The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam took us to a high place (at night), where we felt very cold so we made trenches and went into them and covered ourselves with our shields. When the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam saw this state, he said, “Who will keep watch tonight? I will make such supplication for him, he will reach his status.” A companion from the Ansaars, stood up and said, ” I will keep watch, Oh messenger of Allah.” The Holy Prophet SallalLahu “alayhi Wasallam gave him the glad tidings. Hazrat Abu Rayhana RadhialLahu `anhu says: I then said, ” I would also do it.” So the Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam gave glad tidings to me too but less than the first time. Later the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam said, “The Hell fire is prohibited (Haraam) upon those eyes which (cry) shed tears of the fear of Allah and the Hell fire is Haraam on those eyes which keeps awake in the path of Allah, (Jihad).” Baihaqi,(p149, Vol.9).
The books of Ahadith contain much more about the virtues of Ribatt. To end the subject an Iman enlightening incident is mentioned.
Hafiz Ibne Asakir RadhialLahu `anhu has related this incident in the biography of Hazrat AbdulLah Ibne Mubarak RadhialLahu `anhu. Muhammad Ibne Ibrahim Bin Abi Sakina RadhialLahu `anhu says: AbdulLah Ibne Mubarak RadhialLahu `anhu made me write these few couplets in Tarsus.
The Virtue of Safe Guarding The Islamic Borders (Part 4)
Hafiz Ibne Asakir RahmatulLah `Alayh has related this incident in the biography of Hazrat AbdulLah Ibne Mubarak RahmatulLah `Alayh. Muhammad Ibne Ibrahim Bin Abi Sakina RahmatulLah `Alayh says: AbdulLah Ibne Mubarak RahmatulLah `Alayh made me write these few couplets in Tarsus. (Hazrat AbdulLah Ibne Mubarak RahmatulLah `Alayh was in Tarsus doing the work of Ribatt). These couplests he wrote to Fudhail Ibne Iyaz in 170 Hijri, who was known as the ‘Worshipper at both the Harams’. (He was always in the Haram, either in Mukkah or Madinah.)
“Oh the devotee for the Harams, (both the Harams) If only you had seen us, You would have known that, You are merely playing with worship. You, whose cheeks are wet with tears, But our necks are drenched in our blood. Or, he exhausts his horse in futility, But our horses are overcome with exhaustion in the battle fields. May the fragrance of Amber be good for you, Our fragrance is the sparkle of scourge, And the pure dust of Jihad. We produce an authentic and true tradition, Which cannot be denied. The tradition is, That the dust of the path of Allah, And the smoke of the blazing fire Cannot be breathed through one nose. (Both cannot come together). This is the book of Allah, Which proclaims the Shaheed is not dead.”
This means, if we are Shaheed, we will not be called the dead, there is no need for a bath or cloth, nor any questioning in the grave and on the day of Judgment we will be given permission to intercede.
The narrator says, I met Fudail Bin Iyaz RahmatulLah `Alayh in the Masjide Haram and gave him the letter. As he finished reading the letter his eyes were flowing with tears and he exclaimed, “Abu Abdur Rahman, (AbdulLah Ibne Mubarak) has said the truth,” and then he gave some advice. He then asked me, “Do you collect Ahadith?” I replied, “Yes”. He said, “I will read a hadith to you as a price for bringing this letter of AbdulLah Bin Mubarak RahmatulLah `Alayh to me.” Then he, (Fudail Bin Iyaz), made me write this hadith giving his chain (Sanad) of narrators.
Hazrat Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu `Anhu narrated: One companion asked, “Oh Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam, tell me of an action by doing which I can attain the reward of the fighters in the path of Allah.” The Holy Prophet SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam said to him, “Do you have the strength to continuously offer Salah and get tired and observe fast and not break it?” The person replied, “Oh Messenger of Allah! SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam, I am weak, I do not have the strength.” Then the Messenger of Allah SallalLahu-`alayhi Wasallam said, “If you were to be given the strength (to continuously offer Salah and observe Fast) yet you would not have achieved the status of the fighter in the path of Allah. Do you not know that the horse of a Mujahid, tied to a rope, when it treads forth in length for grazing, even for this the Mujahid gains reward.” Tafseer Ibne Kathir, Wa Tafseer Surah Kahf.
Allah the Glorious! give us the ability to do Ribatt in the path of Allah, and glorify and protect His Religion.
O Bani Ismael! Practice Archery
Narrated Salama Bin Al Akwa RadhialLahu-`anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam passed by some people of the tribe of Bani Aslam who were practising archery. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “O Bani Ismael! Practice archery as your father Ismael was a great archer. Keep on throwing arrows and I am with Bani so and so”. So one of the parties ceased throwing. Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Why do you not throw?” They replied, “How can we throw while you are with them?” (i.e. on their side). At this the Holy Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Throw, and I am with all of you.” Sahih Bukhari, (p406, Vol.1).
O Saad! Throw Arrows
Narrated Ali RadhialLahu-`anhu, I never saw the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, “Let my parents sacrifice their lives for you”, to any man after Sad, (i.e. Sad Bin Malik Abi Waqqas). I heard him saying to (him), “Throw the arrows, let my parents sacrifice their lives for you.” Sahih Bukhari, (p407, Vol.1).
The Prophet’s SallalLahu- Alayhi Wasallam interest and enthusiasm for archery can clearly be seen from the above Ahadeeth. Archery was indeed an advantage in the wars in that period and as such Allah has mentioned in the Quran as follows: “Make ready for them all you can of power, tethered horses, (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy.” Holy Quran, (Surah Anfaal : Verse 60).
The explanation of power has been narrated from the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam. Hazrat Qattada RadhialLahu-`anhu narrates that he heard the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying on the pulpit, “Be aware! Power is archery (throwing). Be aware! Power is archery. Be aware! Power is archery.” Muslim, (p143, Vol.2).
The fundamental point being raised in the above Ahadeeth is that the main power in the battle field is the power of throwing. The Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying can be compared to the modern time where the main power of the armies is the power of throwing. The missile has the longest range of hit and is most powerful in terms of destructiveness. In modern times arm to arm combat has become rare and only takes place occasionally. The main aspects of wars today is of throwing.
Talking all this into consideration, the Holy Quran ordered the Muslims 1400 yrs. ago that according to your ability make ready the war weaponry, so that the enemy fears you and cannot harm you. There was considerable importance of archery in the era of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam.
Narrated Abu Usaid RadhialLahu-`anhu, on the day (of the battle) of Badr when we stood in rows against the army of Quraish and they stood in rows against us, the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “When they do come near to you throw arrows at them.” Sahih Bukhari, (p406, Vol.1).
Narrated Anas Bin Malik RadhialLahu-`anhu, Abu Talha RadhialLahu-`anhu and the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam used to shield themselves with one shield. Abu Talha RadhialLahu-`anhu was a good archer, and when he threw (his arrows) the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam would look at the target of his arrows. Sahih Bukhari, (406, Vol.1)
Hazrat Ukba Bin Amir Radhiallahu-`anhu syas, that I heard the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, “Allah will enter three people into Jannah by one arrow. The first one is the maker who makes it with the intention of reward and the archer and the person who stands by, (passing it to the archer).. Do archery and horse riding. To practice archery is more beloved to me that horse riding, and whoever forgot archery, disliking it after learning it, surely he has left a great bounty, (or he said), he has been ungrateful to a bounty.” At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p100, Vol.2). Abu Dawood, (p347,Vol.1).
Fakim Al Lukami said to Ukba Bin Amir, “You are coming in the way of these two targets, you are old and this work is very difficult for you, (meaning that why do you need to practice archery and targeting in this old age)?” Hazrat Ukba Bin Amir Radhiallahu-`anhu said, “If I had not heard a Hadith from the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam I would not take this difficulty.” Harith says, I asked Ibn Shamasa, “Which hadith is this?” He replied, “The Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said, ‘whoever learnt archery and then forget it he is not from us’ “, (or the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallamsaid), “He has done an act of sin”. Sahih Muslim, (p143, Vol.2).
Hazrat Uqba Bin Amir Radhiallahu-`anhu says, that I heard the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, “In the near time you will gain land, Allah’s help will be enough, in that time and age none of you should stop practicing archery”. Sahih Muslim,(p143, Vol.2).
Hazrat Sad Bin Abi Waqas RadhialLahu-`anhu narrated that theProphet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, “Hold on tight to archery as this is better for you.” Or he said, “It is the best from your games.” At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb,(p401,Vol.2).
Ata Bin Abi Rabag says, that I saw Jabir Bin Abdullah and Jabir Bin Umar Al Ansar doing archery. One of them got tired and sat down, so the other Sahabi (companion) said to him, “You have become lazy. I heard tha Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, ‘Everything which does not consist of Allah’s Zikr (remembrance) is sport or pastime, except for four things, the walking of a person between the targets of the arrows (meaning practicing archery), the training of the horse by a man, amusing one’s wife, and learning archery.” At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p402,Vol.2).
Hazrat Amar Bin Abasa RadhialLahu-`anhu says that I heard the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, “Whoever hit an arrow correctly, (it reached the enemy), it will be one grade for him in Jannah”, that day I aimed sixteen arrows correcly, (reaching the enemy). Nasai, p58, Vol.2). At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p402, Vol.2).
Hazrat Amar Bin Abasa RadhialLahu-`anhu says that I heard the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, “Whoever threw one arrow in the path of Allah, he will receive the reward of freeing a slave.” Nasai, (p58, Vol.2). At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (402, Vol.2).
Shurahbeel Bin Assam, said to Kab Bin Murra RadhialLahu-`anhu that, “Narrate a hadith of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam with precaution (correctly), not less nor more, or with any mistakes.” He said, “I heard the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam, he said, “Whoever aimed an arrow at the enemy, reaching him, Allah will raise one grade in Jannah in exchange for this deed”. Ibn Nuham asked, ‘O Prophet of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam! How much distance is that grade?’ The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam answered, ‘The distance of grades in Jannah is not similar to the distance of your houses, infect the distance between two grades is a hundred years”. Nasai, (p58, Vol.2). At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p403, Vol.2).
Hazrat Amar Bin Abasa RadhialLahu-`anhu says, I heard the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, “Whoever threw an arrow in Allah’s path; reaching it’s target or not reaching it’s target, will receive the reward of freeing a slave. The reward of freeing a Muslim slave is that it will be a source of saving every part of one’s body from the fire of Hell.” Nasai, (p58, Vol.2).
Akbr Bin Abdus Salami RadhialLahu-`anhu narrated that the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam commanded his Sahabas (companions) on one occasion to get up and fight. Upon hearing his this one person threw an arrow towards the enemy. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “He has made Jannah (Heaven) compulsory upon himself, (meaning that Jannah is compulsory for him).” At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p404, Vol.2.
Hazrat Abu Huraira RadhialLahu-`anhu narrates that the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever threw one arrow in the path of Allah, there will be Noor, (a gifted light from Allah), for him on the day of Judgment.” At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p404, Vol.2).
It has been narrated from Muhammad Bin Hanafi RahmatulLah Alayh, that he said, “I saw Abu Amar Ansari. Abu Amar Ansari RadhialLahu-`anhu is known amongst those Sahabas (companions of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam) who participated in the battle of Badr and Uhad and he had also given an oath to the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam in Akaba.” He further states, “I saw him in the battlefield, he was fasting and was in a critical condition of thirst. He told his slave, ‘Give me a shield’ The slave did so. He aimed three arrows at the enemy in a state of weakness, then he said, ‘I heard the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saying, ‘whoever threw an arrow at the enemy, irrespective of it reaching the enemy or not, there will be a noor (special light) for him on the day of Judgment.’ Abu Amar Ansari was Shaheed before Maghrib. At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, (p405, Vol.2).
SubhanalLah! (Allah is most Glorified). This person is in the battlefield in a state of weakness and old age, observing a fast and showering arrows at the enemy and he reached the high status of Shahadah before Maghrib.
The Sahabas had such faith on the sayings of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, that they endured all hardships, participating in the deeds shown by the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, thereby receiving the glad tidings of such great virtues.
Here is a great opportunity for the Muslims to participate in Jihaad and receive these virtues by shooting at the enemy, with guns, tanks and missiles etc. Muslim youths should learn how to use weapons, to enable them to shoot at the enemy with a good target and receive these great virtues which the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam has informed us about, concerning firing at the enemy.
Practicing Spear Throwing In The Mosque
Narrated Abu Huraira RadhialLahu-`anhu, while some Ethiopians were playing in the presence of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam with spear, `Umar RadhialLahu-`anhu came in, picked a stone and hit them with it. Upon that the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “O `Umar! allow them to play.” Ma`mar, (the sub narrator added that they were playing in the Mosque). Sahih Bukhari, (p406, Vol.1).
Imam Bukhari RahmatulLah `Alayh has placed this Hadeeth in the chapter of Jihaad which is obvious that, because spear throwing is a part of Jihaad and Jihaad is an act of worship, so this is why it was permitted in the Mosque.
It is probable that `Umar RadhialLahu-`anhu did not see the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, so he tried to stop them playing with spears in the Mosque, or he saw the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam but thought that the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam was maybe feeling uncomfortable to stop them. So he tried to stop them himself, but the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam advised `Umar RadhialLahu-`anhu to allow them to play with the spears. If only the Muslims today would have gatherings involving spears and do war training together like in the time of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, so that every person from the Muslims would be a Mujahid and would be able to protect himself, his Religion and defend his Muslim Brothers.
Purchasing Of Weapons For Jihaad
Narrated `Umar RadhialLahu-`anhu, the prophets of Bani An Nadir, which Allah had transferred to his Apostle SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam Fai, booty were not gained by the Muslims with their horses and camels. The properties therefore, belonged especially to Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, who used to give his family their yearly expenditure and spend what remained thereof on arms and horses, to be used in Allah’s path (Jihaad). Sahih Bukhari, (p406, Vol.1).
The Usage Of A War Helmet In Jihaad
Narrated Sahi RadhialLahu-`anhu that he was asked about the wound of the Prophet SallalLahu alayhi Wasallam on the day (of the battle) of Uhud. He said, “The face of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam was wounded and one of his front teeth was broken and the helmet over his head was smashed. Fatima RadhialLahu-`anha washed off the blood while Ali RadhialLahu-`anhu held the water. When she saw that the bleeding was increasing continuously, she burnt a mat (of dated palm leaves) till it turned into ashes, which she then put over the wound and thus the bleeding ceased.” Sahih Bukhari, (p408, Vol.1).
The Usage Of Armour In Jihad
Narrated Ibne Abbas RadhialLahu-`anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, while in a tent (on the battle of Badr) said, “O Allah! I ask You the fulfilment of Your covenant and promise. O Allah! If You wish to destroy the believers You will never be worshipped after today.” Abu Bakr RadhialLhau-`anhu held him by the hand and said, “This is sufficient, O Allah’s Apostle! you have asked Allah pressingly.” The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam was clad in armour at that time. He went out saying to me:
“Their multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs. Nay, but the hour is their appointed time (for their full recompense) and that hour will be more grievous and more bitter (than their worldly failure).” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Qamr: Verses 45-46).
The Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam love and desire for Jihaad can clearly be seen by these Ahadeeth. Allah Ta`ala ordered the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam to fulfil two duties, as Allah says:
“Fight in the path of Allah, you are not held responsible but for yourself and urge the believers (upon fighting).” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Nisa: Verse 84.)
The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam had been given two commandments with respect to fighting, which were to fight himself and urge the believers to fight. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam fulfilled both obligations completely. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam participated in 2 battles himself and bore severe wounds. On some occasions where the Islamic army became divided and were forced to move back, the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam stood firm and steadfast in his position.
We relate some aspects of the Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam steadfastness:-
1- The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam travelled to Tabuk (where the battle was going to take place), this journey was a very difficult journey and the Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam age at that time was 62 yrs.
2- When the Mushrikeen (polytheists) surrounded the Muslims from all sides and the battle of the trenches was going to take place, the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam digging the trench with his own hands and had tied two stones on his stomach. (This was done to suppress hunger).
3- When this difficult test and war had just been completed, the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam was ordered to fight with the Jews. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam advanced towards Banu Qurayza and surrounded the enemy for 15 days.
4- The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam held the command of the long lasting war of Khaybar and the difficult front of Taif.
5- The victory of Hawazin and Bani Thakif occurred under the command of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam shared out the booty with his own hands.
6- The Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam everlasting wish was fulfilled and the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam conquered Makkah under his command.
In all these wars the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam faced the enemy on the frontline and kept his companion’s morals high, showing them the way to Jannah.
The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam witnessed the mutilation of his beloved uncle in Jihaad and he also saw the seventy beloved bodies of his Sahabas (companions). He informed the Sahabas of the Shahadah of his uncle’s son, crying, but never moved one step back from Jihaad. There were never any two months in Madinah where the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam had not participated in a battle or sent and army unit out.
When the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam used to go forth in battle himself, he used to participate in all aspects of war, from actual fighting to helping the Mujahideen. When he dispatched an army unit, he used to bade farewell to them and he remained concerned until their return. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam was so experienced in war affairs that great plots failed against him. His love was not only for Jihaad but also for Shahadah, for which he expressed his desire at numerous occasions. He SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam used to spend all his money on purchasing weapons and mounts for Jihaad except for the money he allocated to his wives. This is the reason that in only a matter of a few years the strength of the Muslims which was very weak at the beginning reached it’s height. The flag of Islam was raised high amongst the Arabs and the non-Arabs. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam prepared his Sahabah psychologically, for the war against the big enemies, (such as Rome, Persia), in his lifetime and predicted the glad tidings of conquering these countries.
The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam laid the foundation of an army unit crossing the sea (marines) by some of his sayings which proved to be a great power for Islam. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam gave the glad tidings of Jannah for the first Islamic unit on the sea. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam sent his companions to train in war tactics, such as the two Sahabas who went to learn how to operate the Minjanik (a sort of great caterpillar) from the Kuffar. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam created such a desire in the hearts of his Sahabas with his sayings, that they continuously remained active and did not sit back from Jihaad. It was the Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam effort on urging Jihaad so much, that Jihaad was the most beloved deed to the Sahabas, to such an extent that Shahadah was more beloved to them than dying on a bed.
The latter was considered as a matter of great shame and disgust to them. They became the conquerors of Syria, Palestine, Kaiser, (Persia), and Kisra (Rome). The super powers crumbled from their attacks and the brave men of the Islamic army advanced forward and fought until their souls remained in their bodies and blood remained in their veins, in-fact, some had even written a will that their funeral move forth with the Jihaad and that they be buried at reaching their destination.
The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam was the bravest of all people and this bravery clearly entered his beloved companions. By the blessing of Khatme Nubuwwat (the seal of Prophethood), the inheritance of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam the `Ulama (religious scholars) and his Ummah have been given these two tasks. One is to fight and the second is to urge the believers and prepare them for it. Fortunate is the person who revives both these duties and gains superiority in this world and the hereafter.
Provision, Under The Shade Of The Spear Narrated Ibne `Umar RadhialLahu-`anhu that the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “My livelihood is under the shade of my spear, and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p408, Vol.1).
The virtue of spear has been mentioned in this Hadeeth and we have been informed that the livelihood and provision of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam lies in the spear (Jihaad). This is why the Muhaditheen (experts in the field of Hadeeth) have stated that the best earning is that of war booty and it is clearly proven by this Hadeeth that booty has been made permissible for this Ummah. Note: The term ‘humiliation for the Kuffar’ in the Hadeeth, means paying Jizya (tax). Fathul Bari (p116, Vol.2).
Only the spear has been mentioned out of all the war weaponry that, ‘livelihood has been placed under the spear because generally, the flag is raised high on a spear, so the spear has been mentioned indicating towards the flag and the livelihood means the booty. Allah has classified the wealth of Booty as clean wealth, as Allah says:
“And remember when you were few and reckoned weak in the land and were afraid that men might kidnap you, But He provided a safe place for you, strengthened you with His help, and provided you with good things so that you might be grateful.” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Anfaal: Verse 26.)
The commentary of (tayab) good, in the above verse has been explained as booty.
Sheikhul Islam Maulana Shabbir `Uthmani RahmatulLah Alayh states in the commentary of this verse. “Do not delay or show idleness in obeying the order (Jihaad), considering your weakness. Before Hijrah (migration) and even just afterwards, you were small in number and less equipped. Considering your weakness the people were avaricious to devour you. And you also feared that lest the enemies of Islam should pluck you and cut you to pieces, but Allah gave you a second abode and station in Madinah and established brotherhood between Muhajireen and Ansars, which is unique in human history. Afterwards, He gave you an open victory at Badr by the grace of His help and cut down the roots of the infidels and gave you spoils of the war together with the war prisoners and provided you with the good things, in this way so that you may remain his thankful servants.” Tafseer Uthmani, Urdu version, (p312). English version, (p774, Vol.1).
Narrated Jabir Bin `AbdulLah RadhialLahu-`anhu, the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “I have been given five things which were not given to anyone else before me:
1- Allah Ta`ala made me victorious by awe, (by his frightening my enemy), for a distance of one months journey.
2- The earth has been made for me (and my followers), a place for offering Salaat (prayer), and a thing to purify, (perform tayammum), therefore anyone of my followers can offer Salaat wherever he is at the time of Salaat.
3- The booty has been made Halaal, (lawful) to me, yet it was not lawful to anyone else before me.
4- I have been given the right of intercession.
5- Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind.” Saheeh Bukhari, English summarized version, (p151). Muslim. Baihaqi, (p4, Vol.9).
Allah confirmed the Religion of Islam to overpower all Religions and for the guidance of mankind till the day of judgment. To uphold this status, certain different tactics had been introduced to remove the barrier in the spreading of Islam and ultimately to break the backbone of the enemy.
One of these tactics was the permissibility of the booty, by which the economical state of the unbelievers becomes weak, which means that they cannot lead the Muslims astray by their wealth and cannot trap the Muslims in the luxuries of the worldly wealth which will lead to the humanity being deprived of Islam.
Looking at the aspect of human nature, one main reason for the nations being led astray is wealth. Its false sparkle had led millions astray and to such an extent in the past that Prophets Alayhimussalam have been denied and even killed.
It was the wealthy unbelievers who created the enmity against these Prophets Alayhimussalam, in the people’s hearts by their wealth. This is why Musa Alayhissalam made a curse for the destruction of the wealth of the Pharaohs, as it is stated in the Holy Qur’an:
“Our Lord! destroy their wealth and harden their hearts,” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Yunus: Verse 88).
The above verse means that Pharoah and his hosts are leading men astray from Allah’s path by their splendour and wealth. This is why Musa Alayhissalam supplicated to Allah to destroy their wealth. In examining the aspect of wealth and the nature of the unbelievers, Islam proposed a cure, which was to make the booty permissible and further stating it as, ‘good’ wealth, making it impossible for the unbelievers to overpower the Muslims economically, and influencing them from Allah’s Religion by their wealth.
The Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam first expedition was intended to target Abu Sufyan’s trade caravan (convoy). It is stated in Hadeeth and Tafseer books, that the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam found out Abu Sufyan was passing by with a trade caravan, so the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam informed his companions to prepare themselves and said, “It is possible that Allah will make this convoy a booty for you”, but Abu Sufyan’s convoy managed to save themselves from the Muslims and the Muslims were confronted by those who came to defend the convoy.
Allah presented the Muslims with a great victory and humiliated the unbelievers with a great defeat. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam had set out aiming for Abu Sufyan’s convoy, but Allah had decided to elevate Haq and to humiliate Kufr.
The historic battle of Badr was fought and the Muslims received the booty and 70 prisoners. The ransom to free the prisoners was also given to the Muslims. After this Allah opened the doors for this blessed wealth and big booty was received within the life time of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam. When the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam passed away, the treasures of Rome and Persia were piled up in the Masjid-e-Nabavi, (the Holy Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam Mosque in Madinah), which was shared out between the Muslims.
It was because of this booty and the Islamic welfare system, that the Muslims witnessed such an era that a person used to set out looking for another person to accept his Zakat but there was nobody to accept it.
Ahadeeth Regarding The Spoils Of War
Narrated Abu Qatada: When it was the day of (the battle of ) Hunain, I saw a Muslim man fighting with one of the pagans and another pagan was hiding himself behind the Muslim in order to kill him. I hurried towards the pagan who was hiding behind the Muslim to kill him, he raised his hand to hit me but I hit his hand and cut it off. That man got hold of me and pressed me so hard that I was afraid (I would die), he then knelt down and his grip became loose and I pushed him and killed him.
The Muslims (excepting the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam and some of his companions) started fleeing and I too fled with them. Suddenly I met `Umar Bin Al Khattaab RadhialLahu-`anhu amongst the people, I asked him, “What is wrong with the people?” He said, “It is the order of Allah.” Then the people returned to Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, (after defeating the enemy). Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Whoever produces a proof that he has killed an infidel, will have the spoils of the killed man”. So I got up to look for evidence to prove that I had killed an infidel, but I could not find anyone to bear witness for me, so I sat down. Then it came to my mind (that I should speak of it) and I mentioned the case to Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam.
A man from the persons who were sitting with him (i.e. the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “The arms of the deceased one whom he (i.e. Abu Qatada) has mentioned are with me, so please compensate him for it (i.e. the spoils).” Abu Bakr RadhialLahu `anhu said, “No, Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam will not give it (i.e. the spoils) to a weak humble person from the Quraish and leave one of Allah’s Lions who fights on behalf of Allah and His Messenger SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam.” Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam then got up and gave that (spoils) to me, I bought with it, a garden which was the first property I received after embracing Islam. Bukhari, English version, (p425-6, Vol.5). Tafseere Mazhari, (p114, Vol.5). Tahawi, (p146, Vol.2).
Anas RadhialLahu `anhu reported the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam as saying, “He who kills an infidel gets his spoils”. Abu Talha killed twenty men that day. Tahawi, (p147, Vol.2). Darmi Abu Dawood, Tafseere Mazhari, (p115, Vol.5). Abu Dawood, English version, (p757, Vol.2).
Salama Bin Akwa RadhialLahu `anhu narrates: We did Jihaad with the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam against Banu Hawazin. I killed one person and brought his camel by it’s reins pulling it. The belongings and weapons of the person were placed on the camel. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam came with the people in-front of me and said, “Who killed such and such a person?” The people answered, “Ibne Akwa”. He said, ” The belongings of the killed is for Ibnul Akwa”. Mazhari Tahawi, (p147, Vol.2).
Hadhrat Salama Bin Akwa RadhialLahu `anhu narrates: A Mushrik (polytheist) spy came and sat down near the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam and started talking with the Sahabas (companions), then he slipped away. The Prophet SallalLahu alayhi Wasallam said, “Find him and kill him”. I (Salama) was the first one to find him and I killed him and I took his belongings. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam gave me his belongings. Tahawi, (p147, Vol.2).
Hadhrat Ibne Abbas narrates: A Mushrik (polytheist) challenged the Muslims to a fight. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam ordered Zubair RadhialLahu Alayhi Wasallam to challenge him. Hadhrat Zubair RadhialLahu Alayhi Wasallam emerged from the row and killed him. The Prophet SallalLahu alayhi Wasallam gave his belongings to Zubair RadhialLahu Alayhi Wasallam. Tahawi, (p146, Vol.2).
It has been narrated by Anas Bin Malik RadhialLahu `anhu that Bara Bin Azib RadhialLahu `anhu confronted a Persian, breaking the wood of his spear by piercing a small spear, injuring him, by which he died. When they estimated the value of his belongings it was about thirty thousand. When we finished Fajr Salaah, Hadhrat `Umar RadhialLahu `anhu came and said to Abu Talha RadhialLahu `anhu that we never used to divide the belongings of the killed one (Kafir) into five parts, but the booty which Bara has achieved is of a high value so we have decided to divide it into five parts. The value of the booty was approximately thirty thousand, so we gave one part (which is six thousand) to `Umar RadhialLahu `anhu, and the other four parts (which equals to twenty four thousand) was given to Bara RadhialLahu Anhu. Tahawi. Awf Bin Malik Al Ashjai said: I went out with Zaid Bin Harithah in the Battle of Mutah. For the reinforcement of the Muslim army a man from the people of Yemen, accompanied me. He had only his sword with him. A man from the Muslims slaughtered a camel. The man for the reinforcement asked him for a part of it’s skin which he gave him. He made it like the shape of a shield. We went on and met the Byzantine armies. There was a man among them on a reddish horse with a golden saddle and golden weapons. This Byzantinian soldier began to attack the Muslims desperately. The man for the reinforcement sat behind a rock for (attacking) him. He hamstrung his horse and overpowered him, and then killed him. He took his horse and weapons. When Allah Most High, bestowed victory on the Muslims, Khalid Bin Al Walid sent for him and took his spoils. Awf said: I came to him and said, “Khalid, do you know that the Apostle of Allah (may peace he upon him) had decided to give spoils to the killer?” He said, “Yes, I thought it abundant”. I said, “You should return it to him, or I shall tell you about it before the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam.” But he refused to return it. Awf said: We then assembled with the Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam. I told him the story of the man of reinforcement and what Khalid had done. The Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Khalid, what made you do the work you have done?” He said, “Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, I considered it to be abundant.” The Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “Khalid, return it to him what you have taken from him” Awf said: I said to him, “Here you are Khalid, did I not keep my word?” The Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “What is that?” I then informed him. He said: The Apostle of Allah SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam became angry and said, “Khalid, do not return it to him. Are you going to leave my commanders? You may take from them what is best for you, and leave to them what is worst.” Abu Dawood, (p757-8, Vol.2). Tahawi, (p148, Vol.2) Mazhari, (p118, Vol.5).
May Allah grant us all this blessed wealth of booty, which He granted to His beloved Messenger SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam and may Allah grant the love of booty to all Muslims.
This does not mean that when the booty is not attained the Jihaad is decreased or the Mujahid remains deprived of it, infact by looking deeply into the books of Ahadeeth we find out that the fighter who does not achieve the booty gets more reward than the Mujahid who attains it.
This is because the Mujahid’s (Islamic fighter’s) sole goal is Allah’s pleasure and the elevation of His word. The booty is not his aim as this is considered as a bonus gift. The real reward is in the hereafter.
But if the Mujahid does not receive this bonus then his reward is increased in the hereafter. Similar to the supplications of a Muslim, which if not accepted in this world, converts into reward for him in the hereafter. There would be no loss for the Mujahid in both circumstances.
At the end of this discussion we bring forth a narration of Bukhari by which one can imagine the Barakah of the Mujahid’s wealth. It is obvious that most of the wealth of the Mujahid (in the path of Allah) is the booty, so Allah puts a lot of Barakah (Blessing) in this wealth by which the Mujahid is self sufficient.
Narrated `AbdulLah Bin Az Zubair: When Az Zubair got up during the battle of Al Jamal, he called me and I stood up beside him, he said to me, “O my son! Today one will be killed either as an oppressor or as an oppressed one. I see that I will be killed as an oppressed one. My biggest worry is my debts. Do you think, if we pay the debts, there will be something left for us from our money?” Az Zubair then willed one third of his property and willed one third of that portion to his sons; namely, `AbdulLah’s sons. He said, “One third of the one third. If any property is left after the payment of the debts, one third (of the one third of what is left) is to be given to your sons.” (Hisham, a sub narrator added: some of the sons of AbdulLah were equal in age to the sons of Az Zubair e.g. Khubaib and Abbad. AbdulLah had nine sons and nine daughters at that time). (The narrator: AbdulLah added:) My father (Az Zubair) went on drawing my attention to his debts saying, “If you should fail to pay part of the debts, appeal to my Master to help you.” By Allah! I could not understand what he meant till I asked, “O father! Who is your Master?” He replied, “Allah (is my Master).” By Allah, whenever I had any difficulty regarding his debts, I would say, “O Master of Az Zubair! Pay his debts on his behalf.” And Allah would (help me) to pay it. Az Zubair was Shaheed leaving no Dinar or Dirham but two pieces of land, one which was (called) Al Ghabah, and eleven houses in Madinah, two in Basrah, one in Kufah and one in Egypt. Infact,
the source of the debt which he owed was, that if somebody brought some money to deposit with him. Az Zubair would say, “No, (I won’t keep it as a trust), but I take it as a debt, for I am afraid it might be lost.”
Az Zubair was never appointed governor or collector of the tax of Kharaj or any other similar thing, but he collected his wealth (from the war booty he gained) during the holy battles he took part in, in the company of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthman RadhialLahu `Anhum. (`AbdulLah Bin Az Zubair added:) When I counted his debt, it turned out to be two million and two hundred thousand.
(The sub narrator added:) Hakeem Bin Hizam met AbdulLah Bin Zubair and asked, “O my nephew! How much is the debt of my brother?” AbdulLah kept it a secret and said, “One hundred thousand.” Hakeem said, “By Allah! I don’t think your property will cover it.” On that AbdulLah said to him, “What if it is two million and two hundred thousand?” Hakeem said, “I don’t think you can pay it; so if you are unable to pay all of it, I will help you.” Az Zubair had already bought Al Ghabah for one hundred and seventy thousand. AbdulLah sold it for one million and six hundred thousand. Then he called the people saying, “Any person who has any money claim on Az Zubair should come to us in Al Ghabah.”
There came to him, AbdulLah Bin Jabbar whom Az Zubair owed four hundred thousand. He said to `AbdulLah Bin Az Zubair, “If you wish I will forgive you the debt.” `AbdulLah Bin Az Zubair said, “No.” Then Ibn Jafar said, “If you wish you can defer the payment if you should defer the payment of any debt.” Ibn Az Zubair said, “No.” `AbdulLah Bin Jafar said, “Give me a piece of land.” `AbdulLah Bin Az Zubair said (to him), “Yours is the land extending from this place to this place.” So `AbdulLah Bin Az Zubair sold some of the property (including the houses) and paid his debt perfectly, retaining four and a half shares from the land (i.e. Al Ghabah).
He then went to Mu`awiyah while `Amr Bin `Uthman, Al Mundhir Bin Az Zubair and Ibn Zama were sitting with him. Mu`awiyah asked, “At what price have you appraised Al Ghabah?” He said, “One hundred thousand for each share.” Mu`awiyah asked, “How many shares have been left?” `AbdulLah replied, “Four and a half shares.” Al Mundhir Bin Az Zubair said, “I would like to buy one share for one hundred thousand.” Amr Bin Uthman said, “I would like to buy one share for one hundred thousand.” Ibn Zama said, “I would like to buy one share for one hundred thousand.” Mu`awiyah said, “How much is left now?” `AbdulLah replied, “One share and a half.” Mu`awiyah said, “I would like to buy it for one hundred and fifty thousand.” `AbdulLah also sold his part to Mu`awiyah for six hundred thousand.
When Ibn Az Zubair had paid all the debts, Az Zubair’s sons said to him, “Distribute our inheritance among us.” He said, “No, by Allah, I will not distribute it among you till I announce in four successive Hajj seasons, ‘Would those who have money claims on Az Zubair come so that we may pay them their debt.'”
So he started to announce that in public in every Hajj season, and when four years had elapsed, he distributed the inheritance among the inheritors. Az Zubair had four wives, and after the one third of his property was excluded (according to the will), each of his wives received on million and two hundred thousand. So the total amount of his property was fifty million and two hundred thousand. Saheeh Bukhari, (p441, Vol.1).
Note: By calculating the shares of the inheritance, the number of fifty million and two hundred thousand is incorrect, the correct figure is fifty million and ninety eight hundred thousand. (For more details see the book called Tark-e-Munkarat (in Urdu) written by Mufti Rasheed Ahmad Sahib Ludhianvi).
By studying the whole narration one can clearly conclude that this is Allah’s grace on the Mujahid, it would not be possible that the wealth which could not repay a debt of one hundred thousand, managed to repay (through Hadhrat `AbdulLah Bin Az Zubair), a debt of 2.2 million and a further 1.2 million inheritance to each of four wives. The wealth thereby totalling to a figure of nearly 60 million.
Glad Tidings Of Fighting Against The Jews
Narrated `AbdulLah Bin `Umar RadhialLahu `Anhu: Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “You (i.e.) the Muslims will fight the Jews till some of them will hide behind stones. The stones will betray them saying, ‘O `AbdulLah! (i.e. slave of Allah!) There is a Jew behind me, so kill him.'” Saheeh Bukhari, (p410).
There have been continuous enmity between the unbelievers and believers from the beginning, as Allah says:
“We said: Get you all down, some of you shall be enemy of some other.” Holy Quraan, (Surah Baqarah: Verse 36).
The law of enmity of some against others has been revealed the day man was sent down to earth. The simple understanding of the difference between the unbelievers and believers is similar to the difference of light and darkness, black and white or happiness and sadness. It is in the nature of the unbeliever to hate Islam and Muslims. They will do their utmost and their sole aim of living is to destroy orr cause harm to the Muslims. This is why the unbelievers have always been fighting against the Muslims and will carry on doing so as Allah says:
“And the infidels shall be always fighting with you till they turn you back from your Religion.” Holy Quraan, (Surah Baqarah: Verse 217).
The Kuffar (unbelievers) have always remained friendly and helpful to each other against the Muslims and although they have significant differences amongst themselves they have been determined to be united against the Muslims. As the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “The unbelievers are one nation.” In respect to this unity against the Muslims, the Holy Quraan states:
“O believers! Do not make the Jews and Christians your friends. They are the friends of one another. And whosoever makes them his friends, he is verily one of them. Allah does not guide the wrong doers.” Holy Quraan, (Surah Maidah: Verse 51).
They become friends of one although they have mighty differences and hidden enmity against each other.
“A Jew is a friend of the Jew and a Christian is a friend of the Christian and they are all each other’s friends against Islam.” Tafseer-e-`Uthmani, (p204). English Version, (p491, Vol.1).
The translation of ‘Wali’ has been explained as a friend, but Wali does not only mean a friend but also friendship, helping, aiding, etc.. This is why the Muslims have been ordered to clearly announce that they have no friendship with the unbelievers.
There are different grades amongst the Kuffar (unbelievers) in which some are above others.
As Allah reveals in the Holy Quraan:
“Though you will find the most hostile of men to the Muslims, the Jews and the polytheists.” Holy Quraan, (Surah Maidah: Verse 82).
In this verse it is told that Jew’s friendship with the polytheists and idolaters is due to their intense enmity against the Muslims, the Prophet and the Religion of Islam. Amongst those nations, who met the Holy Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, the Jews and the polytheists were the most hostile to Islam and the Muslims respectively. The enmities of the Makkan idolaters are well known, but the cursed Jews too left no stones unturned in working against Islam and plotting against the Prophets SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. They tried to kill the Holy Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam by throwing a rock at the head of the Holy Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam during a meeting in which the Holy Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was invited for talks. Once they mixed poison in the food served before the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam in a banquet treacherously called by them. They also resorted to magic and incantation to spoil the senses of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. In brief, they earned wrath after wrath, curse after curse. Tafseere Uthmani, English version, (p518, Vol.1).
In studying the above narration’s it can be clearly concluded that the Jewish plots were more severe than the open enmity of the polytheists. They chose many different tactics to destroy the Muslims. They even tried their best to make two different tribes of Muslims fight against themselves.
Once a group of Muslims from both tribes were sitting talking to each other. Some Jews came and somehow reminded them of the battle of Buath. This was the war in which both tribes of the Ansaar had fought previously, destroying their strength. When this talk took place, it reminded them both of their old enmity and suddenly the buried fire of enmity was lit again. Starting from foul talk they even took their swords out. By good luck the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam found out. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam went to them immediately and lectured them, cooling them down. Isaba Fi Ahwalis Sahaba, (p88, Vol.1). Seeratun Nabi SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, p(233, Vol.1).
The plotting of the Jews reached to such an extent that the Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam life was in danger when he used to come out at night. Hadhrat Talha Bin Bara RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu was a Sahabi (companion). He had informed the people that if he was to die at night, they should not inform the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. The reason being that there was fear from the Jews and I do not wish a tragedy to take place because of me. Seeratun Nabi SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, (p235, Vol.1)
Briefly we find out by looking into the books of history that the Jews are the worst enemies of Islam, from the Holy Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam era to our era. Hatred of Islam has been their preoccupation. But the Muslims have been deceived many times from this severe enemy due to their lack of knowledge and awareness. By making these mistakes generations of Muslims have been wiped out by these Jewish oppressors. It was on account of this, that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam fought against the Jews. Furthermore, he explained the virtue and glad tidings of fighting against the Jews for the coming generation. When the time of Judgment (Qiyamah) will draw near, `Esa `Alayhissalam and Hadhrat Mahdi will come. The Muslims will join them and fight the final battle against the Jews and at that time not even a stone will give refuge to them.
The Qur’an has also stated one solution to save ourselves from the Jewish plots and to overpower the. This is fighting in the path of Allah. We find out from Allah’s revelations that this plotting group cannot challenge you in the battle field as stated in the Holy Qur’an:
“They will do you no harm, barring a trifling annoyance; and if they fight against you, they will show you their backs, and they will not be helped.” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Aal `Imran: Verse 111).
Allah has promised us glory and victory over this Satanic army provided we prove ourselves to be the best Ummah. They can never destroy us. They can, of course bring about a trifling loss or hurt us a little by abusing us. They can never, however, gain predominance despite their riches and heavy armaments. If they fight against us, they will turn their backs and they would not receive any help from any quarter to over turn their defeat and humiliation. This Prophecy proved correct word by word in the resplendent period of the Sahabah. The people of the Book met the same fate as mentioned above. They tried their level best to destroy the Muslims and their glorious Religion, squandered a lot of wealth in their vain desire to eradicate Islam and the upholders of Islam, but to no avail. Wherever they encountered the Muslims, they fled away like terrified donkeys. The Help of Allah always made the Muslims prevail against tremendous odds.
Dear Muslims Brothers, Allah has promised His help to us and has convinced us that these Jews do not have the capability to face you in the battlefield. This can only take place when the Muslims will enter the battlefield or else the Muslims cannot challenge them in the power of speech and plots. The Jews can degrade the Muslims on the table or in politics by their evil plots, but they have always been defeated in the field of Jihaad and will be defeated in the future by the Muslims, but the Muslims have left this field (war) empty. If there is some fighting (against the Jews) it is not on the base of Islam but for nationalism from which the Jews are benefiting.
May Allah grant all the Muslims the true concern so that they may prepare themselves for the confrontation with this worst enemy and so that they may take off the cloak of humiliation and wear the cloak of dignity of Jihaad.
Here we will mention some of the operations which took place against the Jews in the Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam time, so that the zeal of fighting against the Jews may enter the Muslim’s heart.
The Battle Of Banu Kaynaka:
This battle took place in Shawwal (2 A.H.) after the battle of Badr.
The Jews of the tribe of Banu Kaynaka broke the treaty which took place with the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam and announced war against the Muslims. An incident also took place which made the situation worse.
A Muslim woman wearing a veil (who was the wife of an Ansari Muslim) came to a Jewish shop in Madinah. The Jews made a mockery of her (by sticking her cloak onto a nail, by which her cloak came off). When a Muslim saw this there was no limit to his fury and he killed the Jew who was responsible. The Jews then killed the Muslim. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam warned them about their conduct, of which they took no heed and carried on boasting. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam marched towards them with the Muslim army. They fortified themselves in their castles. The Muslims laid a siege for fifteen days. They were subsequently exiled by the mediation of `AbdulLah Bin Obai (who had a treaty with them). They were seven hundred people in total from which thirty were in armour.
The Killing Of Ka`ab Bin Ashraf
Ka`ab Bin Ashraf was a famous poet of the Jews and due to his wealth he was the leader of all the Jews amongst the Arabs. His enmity towards Islam was great. He was grieved by the killing of the leaders of the Quraish in the battle of Badr. He composed some evil poems which incited the people upon revenge. He went to Makkah, where he gathered the people reciting these poems, crying and making the people cry, inciting them to take revenge. He even plotted to kill the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, and prepared others for this task.
In the year 3 A.H. this root of evil was wiped out by the order of the people SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. Muhammad Bin Muslimah RadhialLhu Ta`ala `Anhu and some of his companions took part in this blessed work.
The Battle Of Banu Nazir:
Banu Nazir was a famous tribe of the Jews who was an ally of Banu Kazraj and they had a treaty with the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. Their hearts were filled with the enmity towards Islam and the Muslims, which they unveiled when the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam went to talk to them about an important issue. They had a person hidden on the roof who would throw a rock upon the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam when he passed by to kill him. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was informed by revelation and returned.
The tribe of Banu Nazir were proud of their castles which were their strongholds. Further, the Munafiqeen (hypocrites) had convinced them of their support and the support of Banu Kurayza. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam laid a siege for 15 days and started cutting their orchards. They pleaded that they be given permission to leave Madinah with as much wealth as could be loaded on their camels.
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam accepted this plea. When the Jews were leaving their houses they were destroying them so that the Muslims could not live there. They were exiled to Khaybar and some settled in the area of Azra-at in Syria. Ghazwa-e-Banu Nazir took place in Rabiul-Awwal, 4 A.H.
The Battle Against Banu Kurayza:
It is stated in a narration of Muslim: `AbdulLah Bin `Umar RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu narrated, that the Jews of Banu Nazir and Banu Kurayza fought against the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam exiled Banu Nazir and let Banu Kurayza stay and that was a favour on them.
We understand from this narration that Banu Kurayza were also involved in plotting against the Muslims like the other Jews but the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was lenient towards them. It was on the occasion of the Battle of the Trenches that they conspired openly and declared their truce with the Muslims as void. They allied themselves with the Mushrikeen (polytheists) and plotted to attack the Muslims.
The fort in which the Muslim women had taken refuge was near to Banu Kurayza. The Jews tried to make this fort a target but the bravery of Safiya RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anha terrorized the Jews and they refrained from undertaking further attacks.
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam ordered his companions after the Battle of the Trenches not to put away their weapons but to march forth towards Kurayza. When `Ali RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu reached near their forts they started swearing at the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam openly. The were under siege for one month. In the end they proposed that they would accept the mediation of Sa`ad Bin Mu`az RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu.
Hadhrat Sa`ad Bin Mu`az RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu was a great Sahabi (companion), a great commander, the leader of the tribe of Aws and had been injured in the Battle of the Trenches. He was brought forth. His decision was that the fighters be killed and the women and children be made prisoners. Their wealth and all their needs be made a booty. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “O Sa`ad! You have made a Heavenly decision.” Some Jews were made to witness the execution and they recorded that, the Muslims executed about 700 Jews that day. There was a Jewish woman amongst them who had killed a Muslim, by throwing a stone from the fort.
There were some other important operation against the Jews. There was the killing of Abu Rafi (a Jew), the Sariyyah (army unit) of `AbdulLah Bin Rawahah RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu, the Battle of Khybar and the Killing of Asma (a Jewish woman). These were all operations which took place at the time of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. The significance of Jihaad against the Jews can be clearly seen by these operations which were not based on emotion or due to enmity against a nation but based due to the enmity of the Jews themselves towards Islam. A great deal can be written on this subject but we have to be mindful of the size of this book and therefore end this particular discussion. May Allah Ta`ala enter the hatred of the Kufr in the hearts of the believers and make them aware and recognize their enemies.
Some Narration’s About The Expulsion Of The Jews From Arabia
Abu Hurairah said: While we were in the Mosque the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam came out and said, “Come on to the Jews,” So we went out with him and came to the house where they read their Scriptures, and the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam stood up and said, “If you Jews accept Islam you will be safe. Know that the land belongs to Allah and His messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, and I intend to deport you from this land; so if any of you has property (he cannot take away) he must sell it.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p449, Vol.1). Saheeh Muslim, (p94, Vol.2). Mishkat, (p865).
Ibn `Abbas told that Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam gave three instructions before departing from the world, saying, “Expel the polytheists from Arabia; reward deputation’s as I did.” Ibn `Abbas said either that he did not mention the third or that he (i.e. Ibn `Abbas), had been caused to forget it. Saheeh Bukhari, (p449, Vol.1.). Mishkat, (p865). Saheeh Muslim.
Jabir Bin `AbdulLah said he was told by `Umar Bin Al Khattaab that he had heard Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam say, “I will certainly expel the Jews and the Christians from Arabia so as to leave only Muslims in it.” Muslim transmitted it. A version has, “If I live, Allah willing, I will certainly expel the Jews and the Christians from Arabia.” Saheeh Muslim, (p24, Vol.2). Mishkat, (p866).
Ibn `Umar told that, `Umar Bin Al Khattaab deported the Jews and the Christians from the land of the Hijaz and when Allah’s messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam got supremacy over the people of Khaybar he intended to expel the Jews from it, for when the land was conquered it belonged to Allah, His Messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam and the Muslims. But the Jews asked Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam to leave them on condition that they should do all the cultivation and have half the produce, and he replied, “We shall confirm you on that condition as long we wish.” So they were confirmed till `Umar deported them during his period of rule to Taima and Jericho. Bukhari and Muslim. Mishkat, (p866).
Ibn `Umar told that `Umar stood up to make a speech and said, “Allah’s Messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam employed the Jews of Khaybar to work their property and told them he would confirm them in it as long as Allah did; and I have now seen good to deport them.” When `Umar decided on that, one of the Banu Abul Huqaiq came to him and said, “Commander of the Faithful, are you expelling us when Muhammad SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam has confirmed us in our property and employed us to work it?” `Umar replied, “Do you think I have forgotten what Allah’s messenger SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said when he asked how you would feel when you were expelled from Khaybar, your camel running along with you night after night?” He said, “This was a little joke on the part of Abul Qasim,” to which `Umar retorted, “You lie, enemy of Allah.” He then deported them, giving them the value of the fruits they possessed in money, camels and goods such as saddled, ropes, etc. Bukhari transmitted it. Mishkat, (p865).
To Curse The Enemy In Jihaad
Narrated `Ali RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu: When it was the day of the battle of Al Ahzab (i.e. the clans), Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “O Allah! Full their (i.e. the infidels) houses and graves with fire as they busied us so much that we did not perform the prayer (i.e. `Asr) till the sun had set.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p410, Vol.1).
Imaam Bukhari has mentioned many narration’s in which the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam has cursed his enemies naming them.
Narrated Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu: The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam used to recite the following invocations during Qunut: “O Allah! Save Salama Bin Hisham. O Allah! Save Al Walid Bin Al Walid. O Allah! Save Aiyash Bin Rabia. O Allah! Save the weak Muslims. O Allah! Be very hard on Mudar tribe. O Allah! Afflict them with years (of famine) similar to the (famine) years of the time of Prophet Yousuf.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p411, Vol.1).
Narrated `AbdulLah Bin Abi Aufa RadhialLahu `Anhu: Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam invoked evil upon the pagans on the day (of the battle) of Al Ahzab, saying, “O Allah! The Revealer of the Holy Book, the Swift Taker of Accounts, O Allah, defeat Al Ahzab (i.e. the clans), O Allah, defeat them and shake them.” Saheeh Bukhari, p411, Vol.1).
Narrated `AbdulLah Radhi: Once the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was offering the prayer in the shade of the Ka’abah. Abu Jahl and some Quraishi men sent somebody to bring the abdominal contents of a she camel which had been slaughtered some where in Makkah, and when he brought them, they put them over the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. Then Fatimah (i.e. the Prophet’s daughter) came and threw them away from him, and he said, “O Allah! Destroy the (pagans of) Quraish; O Allah! Destroy Quraish, O Allah! O Allah! Destroy Quraish.” Naming especially, Abu Jahl Bin Hisham, `Utba Bin Rabia, Shaiba Bin Rabia, Al Walid Bin Utba, Ubai Bin Khalaf and Uqba Bin Abi Muit. (The narrator, `AbdulLah added, “I saw them all killed and thrown in the Badr well. Saheeh Bukhari, (p411, Vol.1).
We learn form these narration’s that those unbelievers who harm the Muslims and fight against them are the utmost despised people, to the extent that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam has openly cursed them. Regarding the incident of Bir Mauna, when seventy Sahabas were Shaheed, all of whom were the most learned of the Qur’an (Hafiz Qurra), the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam read Qunooti Nazilah in Fajr for one month cursing the killers.
These narration’s do not contradict the narration’s in which supplicating for the guidance of the unbelievers has been mentioned, because as long as there is hope for their guidance the supplication for guidance can continue. When the unbelievers persist on oppression and persecution without limit, then they can be cursed, but even in this situation if supplication for guidance is made, it is allowed. We need to be conscious of the fact, that when the unbelievers march forth to fight, then to supplicate for the victory of the Muslims and the defeat of the unbelievers has been taught in the Qur’an.
The order to fight
Narrated Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu: Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said, “I have been ordered to fight with the people till they say, “None has the right to worshipped but Allah, ‘and whoever says, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,” his life and property will be saved by me except for Islamic law, and his accounts will be with Allah, (either to punish him or to forgive him). Saheeh Bukhari, (p414, Vol.1).
The above Hadeeth states clearly that Jihaad is an obligation ordained by Allah. This obligation is binding until everyone confess that there is no God (worthy of worship) but Allah. The understanding of this is that either the unbelievers accept Imaan or surrender themselves to live under the system of the Believers.
It is therefore clear, that there is power behind the D`awah of the Kalimah. When the Muslims invite the unbelievers towards Islam the power of fighting is conveyed with the message and any resistance is crushed.
The revelations relating to fighting enables the Muslims to remove the Ruler who rejects the call to Islam and the payment of Jizya (a tax imposed on unbelievers). The Ruler therefore, cannot continue to govern his country in accordance with his pleasure and obstruct his people from the all to Islam. The order of fighting was revealed so that such tyrant rulers could be either converted or removed to allow the free propagation of Islamic D`awah. This was the adopted method of the Sahabas RadhialLahu `Anhum of giving D`awah.
When they used to invite the Kings towards Islam they informed them in a clear manner that the D`awah of the Last Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam was not weak that if it was not accepted they would go back quietly. On the contrary, the Islamic system has been revealed to be superior over all others and as such is to be spread to every corner of the world. The Sahabas RadhialLahu `Anhum Ajma`een made it clear that all obstacles in their path in conveying the message of Islam would be crushed. This has been stated in Bukhari as follows:
Narrated Jubair Bin Haiya that `Umar RadhialLahu `Anhu sent us to Khousra appointing, An Numan Bin Mukrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy the representative of Khousra came out with forty thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, “Let one of you talk to me!” Al Mughaira RadhialLahu Anhu replied, “Ask whatever you wish.” The other asked, “Who are you?” Al Mughaira RadhialLahu Anhu replied, “We were some people from the Arabs, we led a hard, miserable and disastrous life, we used to such hides and the date stones from hunger. We used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats and used to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from amongst ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah alone or give Jizyah (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam has informed us that our Lord says: Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. Shaheed) shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen and whoever amongst us remains alive, shall become your master.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p446, Vol.1).
The existence of the strength of fighting with the D`awah of Imaan is also verified in the Qur’an as Allah says:
“You [true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam and his Sunnah (legal ways, etc.)] are the best of people ever raised up for mankind, you enjoin Al-Ma`ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid what is Al Munkar (Polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden), and you believe in Allah…” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Aal Imran: Verse 110).
The explanation of this verse by the greatest commentator (of the Qur’an), Hibrul Ummah, Ibne Abbas RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu is: you order them to give evidence that, “There is none worthy of worship except Allah,’ and to admit what Allah has revealed and you fight against them on this (cause). Meaning that if they don’t accept, you fight. The Kalimah (none is worthy of worship except Allah) is the biggest Ma`roof (good) mentioned in the verse, and to deny this is the biggest Munkar (evil). Tafseerul Kabeer, (p180, Vol.8).
The points which are raised in this Ayah are that the Imaan, ordaining of good, and forbidding of evil existed in the Ummahs (Religions) before us and these three factors have been confirmed as the main reason for this Ummah being the best. This is supported by Imaam Kaffal RahimahulLahu Ta`ala in the following words:
The reason for the superiority of this Ummah (nation) above others is that this Ummah is fulfilling the highest grade of ordaining good and forbidding evil which is fighting (for this cause).
Ordaining the good can be fulfilled by the mouth, hands and the strongest grade is fighting. One puts his life at risk in fighting and the highest Ma`roof (good) is to bring Imaan (faith) on the true Religion of Tawheed (oneness) of Allah) and Risalat (the Prophethood) of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam and the biggest Munkar (evil) is Kufr.
So Jihaad is the protector of the religion from the most harmful thing which is Kufr, so that the people can reach the most beneficial thing (religion). By considering all this it can be concluded that the status of Jihaad in acts of worship is the greatest and when Jihaad was revealed in the Sharee`ah of Muhammad SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam with much more emphasis and power than the other Sharee`ah before it. This is why our Ummah has been given superiority over other nations. At Tafseerul Kabeer, (p180, Vol.8).
The purpose of this significant research of Imaam Kaffal was not to establish the enjoining of good and forbidding from evil being the reason for the superiority of this Ummah, as both of these existed in the Ummahs before us to a certain degree. The reason for the superiority of this Ummah, is the highest grade of enjoining the good and forbidding evil by way of Jihaad in the path of Allah. The highest Ma`roof (good) is Imaan and the worst Munkar is Kufr, so the life of the highest Ma`roof, calling people towards Imaan lies in Jihaad and the backbone of the worst Munkar (Kufr) is broken by Jihaad, concluding that the main reason for the superiority of this Ummah above others is fighting in the path of Allah.
The response to a question that Qital (fighting) also existed in the previous Ummahs; Imaam Kaffal RahimahulLahu Ta`ala explained that Jihaad is the speciality of the present Ummah, by the great way it has been emphasized and the importance attached to this deed.
Although Jihaad exist in the Ummahs before us, the Jihaad performed by this Ummah have been more numerous than in the past. The great importance of Jihaad on our Ummah, never existed in the Ummahs before us and Jihaad will continue in this Ummah till the day of Judgment. It is stated that the last Jihaad group is the one that will clash with Dajjal. Imaam Kaffal RahimahulLahu Ta`ala further substantiated his work by stating that the most beneficial thing (Imaan) is protected by Jihaad and the worst evil (Kufr) is destroyed by Jihaad.
Taking all this into consideration, Jihaad is superior to all other deeds and when this superior deed will exist the most in this Ummah then this Ummah (in which Jihaad has been ordained with much more importance and emphasis than others) will be the best Ummah.
To take a pledge of allegiance upon the death and not to flee from the battlefield
Narrated Yazeed Bin `Ubaid: Salamah RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu said, “I gave the pledge of allegiance (Al Ridhwan) to Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu alayhi Wasallam and then I moved to the shade of a tree. When the number of people around the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam diminished, he said, “O Ibne Al Akwa! will you not give to me the pledge of allegiance?” I answered, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have already given to the pledge of allegiance.” He said, “Do it again.” So I gave the pledge of allegiance for the second time.” I asked, “O Abu Muslim! for what did you give the pledge of allegiance that day?” He replied, “We gave the pledge of allegiance for death.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p415, Vol.1).
To give the pledge of allegiance for Jihaad
Narrated Mujashi RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu: My brother and I came to the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam and I requested him to take the pledge of allegiance from us then. He said, “I will take (the pledge) for Islam ad Jihaad.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p416, Vol.1).
The pledge mentioned in the first Hadeeth is popularly known as the pledge of Ridhwan. It has also been mentioned in the Qur’an in the following words:
“Indeed Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their Bai`at (pledge) to you, (O Muhammad ) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down, As Sakinah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory.” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Fath: Verse 18)
It has been mentioned about the same Bay`at in another verse:
“Verily those who give Bay`at, a (pledge) to you (O Muhammad), they are giving Bay`at to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands.” Holy Qur’an, (Surah Fath: Verse 9).
The incident of the Bay`at of Ridhwan took place in Dhul Qadah (6. A.H). The prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam saw in a dream in Madinah that they had entered Makkah safely and performed Umrah and Halaq (cutting the hair after Umrah). The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam informed his Sahabah about the dream. He did not specify when the Umrah was to be undertaken but the Sahabah RadhialLahu `Anhu assumed that it would take place that same year, due to their excitement. Soon after the dream, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam decided to perform Umrah.
The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam set off for Umrah with 1400 Sahabas RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhum Ajma`een towards Makkah. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam also took the animals for sacrifice with him, he did not take any weapons with him except for swords. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam sent a person from the tribe of Kuza’a whose Islam was concealed for precautions, to investigate the position and intentions of the Quraish. When the Prophet’s SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam group reached a place called Asfan, he (the spy), came and informed them that the Quraish had united all tribes to try to stop them from entering Makkah. Furthermore, some of them, (polytheists) had come out of Makkah as the first unit of the army. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam changed his route towards Hudaibiyyah. This is the name of a well from which the village was named, it is known as Shamsiya today.
When they reached there, the Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam camel sat down. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam first sent a messenger to inform the people of Makkah that they had not come to fight but to perform Umrah. When the messenger did not return, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam sent Uthman Ghani RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu to hold talks with the Mushrikeen (polytheists) and to convey glad tidings to the oppressed men and women of the Muslims living in Makkah, that soon Islam would become the powerful force in Makkah.
The Quraish stopped Uthman RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu in Makkah and rumours soon spread amongst the Sahabah that Uthman RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu had been Shaheed. About the same time, a group of Quraish who had attacked the Muslims, were captured. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam forgave and released them. On hearing the news of Uthman’s RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu Shahadah, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “To avenge the blood of Uthman RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu is Fardh (obligation).” The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam under a tree of Babool taking a pledge of allegiance upon fighting firmly in the battlefield till death. All the Sahabah RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhum, which included men and women gave the pledge to die, upon the Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam hand.
When the Quraish found out about this pledge they returned Uthman RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu. Salamah Bin Akwa RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu is relating this Bay`at that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam took from him twice.
Allama Ibne Hajar states commentating on why the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam took the pledge from Salamah RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu twice: This was a matter of war and Salamah RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu had sound experience in war, he took it twice as precaution. The second reason being that Salama Bin Akwa RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu used to fight as a soldier on foot and a horse rider (because of his speed in running he could run faster than horse riders). So this is why the pledge was taken from him twice. Fathul Bari, (p138, Vol.6).
There are many lessons for the Muslims from this incident, that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam is taking a pledge for the blood of 1400 worthy companions till death to avenge one Muslim’s blood and is subsequently preparing to fight in Makkah regardless of the sanctity of Makkah. We understand from this incident how precious a Muslim’s blood is and if streams of blood have to flow for the safety of one Muslim’s blood then it shall be done, but the Kuffar cannot be made to believe that they can kill a Muslim who is alone, unequipped. Moreover, it is to express to the unbelievers that all Muslims are like one body, so to touch or cause harm to any part of the body is like challenging the whole body. Similarly to lift the hand against a Muslim’s life, wealth, or honour is similar to challenging the whole nation of the Muslims.
This was the sole reason that nobody could lift their hand against the weakest of Muslims because they knew that he was not alone but behind him was the entire Muslim nation. But sadly this Islamic feeling has departed from the Muslim’s hearts today and we witness an era with no feelings. Never mind having feelings towards one Muslims but entire Muslim countries have been destroyed, millions of our mothers and sisters are being raped and our innocent children are being abused but the Muslims in general remain unaffected. A Muslim’s heart is unmoved when his brother is in danger and this is the reason behind the global persecution of Muslims today. The life and dignity of Muslims have no value and the Kuffar are unchallenged in committing any level of brutality against the Muslims. The Kuffar are well aware that even the life of an animal will be vigorously defended by any one of the vast number of animal rights groups but the Muslim refuses to avenge the rape and slaughter of fellow Muslims. They will not even complain about these injustices but some are even known to insult and mock these innocent victims.
Fellow Muslims! We can not appeal to the unbelievers to assist us, we have to understand that the annihilation of Muslims is their main purpose and mission; they are overjoyed upon seeing the free flow of Muslim blood. The real sorrow is that there is no value of a Muslim in another Muslim’s sight. The oppressed Muslims are looked upon by other Muslims with hatred and insignificance. So when we reach this stage of indifference then why should we expect the Muslim blood to be of any worth. It can be said that the value of this blood is even less than water.
The Muslims have generally looked upon the persecution and oppression of their neighbouring Muslim communities with a view that it did not affect them and their fate was safe. They watched and witnessed the torture and murder of countless innocent civilians and remained unaffected by the humiliation which their mothers and sisters were continually subjected with. The Muslim spectator of this carnage feared even to offer verbal support in case he would offend his masters and risk his worldly status.
Soon these same onlookers of the blood of their brothers become the new target of oppression from the unbelievers. When another group of Muslims hear the painful cry for help they presume this to be another political issue. In this manner, one after another, the Muslims have become the easiest of prey for the unbelievers.
My dear brother, until we are subjected personally to these humiliation we remain indifferent. In so far as the fire does not enter our homes we feel we are safe, we pretend not to even feel the heat of the fire burning the houses of our neighbours. We only start remembering the virtues and rulings of Jihaad when the enemy has attacked and left us humiliated and degraded.
The Muslims should urgently rectify their situation and they should put the fire out before it reaches their homes and accept the Muslim’s issues as their very own, and try to feel their pain. We should never make mockery of the oppressed but instead should fight shoulder to shoulder against the unbelievers avenging the death of each and every Muslim.
The enemy will then understand that the Muslims will fight to protect their own. When this Ummah is united it will fill the hearts of the unbelievers with fear, such that they will consider their situation very carefully before lifting a hand upon an unarmed Muslim.
May Allah have mercy upon the state of the Muslim Ummah and unite them as the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam united the Muslim. Ameen.
The status of the pledge of allegiance for Jihaad
It is clear from the Ahadeeth and the two verses of the Qur’an quoted above, that the pledge for Jihaad was common at the time of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam.
Furthermore, wherever the word Bay`at is mentioned in the Qur’an for men, the pledge for Jihaad is meant.
The Sahabah used to give the pledge of allegiance for Jihaad on the truthful hand of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. We quote the following Ahadeeth.
Hadhrat Yala Bin Muniya RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu says: I went to the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam the day after the conquest of Makkah, I said to him, “O Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, please accept the pledge of allegiance of my father upon migration.” The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam answered “Not upon Hijrah (migration), but upon Jihaad, as Hijrah has ended on the day of the Conquest of Makkah.” Sunani Kubra Baihaqi, (p16, Vol.9)
Hadhrat Bashir Bin Mabad (Ibnul Kasasiya) says: I come in the service of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam to give the Bay`at upon Islam. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam placed some conditions, that I bear witness that there is No God but Allah and Muhammad SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam is His servant and His Messenger, and I should perform Salaah and give Zakaah and perform the Fardh Hajj (once) and observe the fasts of Ramadhan and do Jihaad in the path of Allah. I said, “O Messenger of Allah SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam I do not have the strength of doing two things. The first is that I do not have the strength of doing Jihaad because Muslims say that whoever turned his back from the battle field he has invited the anger of Allah. I fear to go in the battle field and run away fearing death. The second thing which I cannot fulfil is Zakaah, as I do not possess anything except some goats and little wealth which I use for my family.” The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam took hold of his (Bashir Bin Mabad’s) hand shaking it and said, “You will not do Jihaad nor give charity then how will you enter Jannah?” (meaning that you will not sacrifice your life or wealth, so how will you enter Jannah.?) I said, “O Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam (agreeing with the conditions), I give the pledge of allegiance. (Upon these two things).” So I gave Bay`at the pledge of allegiance upon everything. Mukhtasar Tafseere Ibne Kathir, (p93, Vol.2). Baihaqi, (p20, Vol.9). Musnad-e-Ahmad.
In addition to the above, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam used to take the Bay`at upon breaking relation with unbelievers and polytheists.
Hadhrat Jabir Bin `AbdulLah RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu Says: I went in the service of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam when the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was taking the pledge of Allegiance. I said, “O Prophet of Allah SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, please take your hand out so that I may give Bay`at to you and so that you may place some conditions upon me as you know better than me.” The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “I take the Bay`at that you will worship Allah and perform Salaah and give Zakaah and that you will be good towards Muslims and separate yourself from polytheists.” Sunani Kubra Baihaqi, (p13, Vol.9).
The obligation of Jihaad is expressed as follows: “To be gracious towards Muslims and ensure their security in terms of their lives and wealth and to liberate them from the jaws of the Kuffar. This is indeed a great favour on the Muslims and the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam instructed to break relations with the polytheists.
We learn from some Ahadeeth that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam used to take the Bay`at upon Islam and good deeds. Jihaad is integral with both Islam and good deeds. When Islam is mentioned, this includes all obligations of Islam and Jihaad is one of the obligations and similarly Jihaad is also part of the good deeds.
The precise understanding is that which ever Bay`at was taken by the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam it clearly included Jihaad. The Bay`at mentioned in the Qur’an for men, upon which Allah announced His pleasure and has promised His help is the pledge of Allegiance upon Jihaad.
With the departure of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam from this world the pledge for Jihaad continued until recent times, but sadly we are deprived of this great virtue today. Allah has placed a special feeling in Bay`at which is that when one gives a Bay`at upon something, then he feels the responsibility of it and he fears to break this pledge. The issue of Bay`at is very important and is advisable for Muslims to undertake. The Bay`at will help to control our weaknesses during difficult periods, particularly in Jihaad. With Bay`at we will be mindful of our personal involvement in a battle; it will lift our courage and refrain us from causing dissent within our own ranks, thereby reducing any risk of appearing weak in the face of the enemy.
A further reason is that when one gives the Bay`at to a person he has a special respect and relationship for that person and he feels content to act upon that person’s instructions and is mindful of being disobedient towards him. So the benefit of Bay`at in Jihaad is that when one gives the Bay`at to his Ameer he has made a link of faithfulness and bond with him by which he finds it easy to obey the Ameer (which is one of the most important aspect in Jihaad). He feels content and agrees with the decision of the Ameer, which his Nafs (soul) may find difficult to accept. Furthermore, whichever task he is assigned with, he is content to undertake, thereby maintaining the discipline of Jihaad.
In the absence of Bay`at we can imagine the problems that would be facing the Muslims. There would be a general decline in discipline, in which the people would agree with the Ameer when it suits them, and cause dissent amongst the Muslims when it doesn’t suit them. Crucial orders may be disobeyed due to casual attitude, leading to general disrespect for the status of an Ameer. The actions of the Ameer will be under scrutiny in a negative manner which cannot promote the well being of the Muslims. Therefore the advantages of Bay`at are considerable, and in the above situation it would be a great moral assistance for the Ameer. May Allah revive the Sunnah of Bay`at upon Jihaad so that the Mujahideen are able to progress with the obligation of Jihaad with a united front, throughout the world.
Obeying the Ameer (Leader) In Jihaad Narrated Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “He who obeys me obeys Allah, and he who disobeys me, disobeys Allah. He who obeys the Ameer, disobeys me. The Imaam is like a shield for whose safety the Muslims should fight and where they should seek protection. If the Imaam orders people with righteousness and rules justly, then he will be rewarded for that and if he does the opposite, he will be responsible for that.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p415, Vol.1).
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam has placed considerable emphasis on obeying the Imaam. Yahya Bin Husain RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu narrates from his grandmother, she said that she heard the Holy Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam delivering his sermon on the occasion of the last pilgrimage. He was saying, “If a slave is appointed over you and he conducts your affairs according to the Book of Allah, you should listen to him and obey (his order).” Saheeh Muslim, (p125, Vol.2).
It has been stated in some narration’s that if a maimed Abyssinian slave is appointed who leads you according to the Book of Allah then listen to him and obey him. Saheeh Muslim, English version, (p1022, Vol.3).
It has been stated by Abu Hurairah RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “Listening and obedience (to the Ameer) in our pleasure and displeasure, in our adversity and prosperity, even when somebody is given preference over us is necessary.” Saheeh Muslim, (p134, Vol.2).
But the condition is that he should not order disobedience to Allah, as the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam said, “Submission is obligatory only in what is good.” Saheeh Muslim, (p125, Vol.2).
The general ruling is that if the Ameer orders anything which is clearly against the Sharee`ah then it will be disobeyed. With the exception of this, to obey the Ameer under all circumstances is a requirement under the Sharee`ah . The critical analysis of every order given by the Ameer and to check whether it complies with the Sharee`ah or not is not within the capability of every person; and we should be mindful that severe warnings have been narrated for those who disobey the Ameer.
However, when notable Scholars declare in the light of the Sharee`ah, confirming from the four main sources of information, that an order given by an Ameer is against the Sharee`ah, then this order is not to be followed. We should always be mindful not to seek Allah’s displeasure in any way.
There are many narration’s in the books of Hadeeth which state that the Sahaba-e-Kiraam used to give Bay`at upon being obedient and attentive in all circumstances.
The conclusion is clear from these Ahadeeth and narration’s, that it is a requirement for the Muslims in collective acts of worship and collective matters to obey an Ameer. The Muslims should not e divided into different groups causing friction, and they should never disobey the Ameer and by doing so the Barakah of the work of Deen and the unity of Muslims is destroyed. Without any doubt Allah’s hand is upon the group and whoever leaves this group is clearly in error.
May Allah give all the Muslims the ability to become one soul and obey the Ameer according to the Sharee`ah in all collective deeds with particular reference to Jihaad. To Recite Poems In Jihaad
Narrated Al Bara RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu: I saw Allah’s Apostle SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam on the day (of the battle) of the Trench carrying earth till the hair of his chest were covered with dust and he was a hairy man. He was reciting the following verse of `AbdulLah (Bin Rawaha):-
‘O Allah, were it not for You, We would do have been guided, Nor would we have given in charity, nor prayed. So, bestow on us calmness, and when we meet the enemy, Then make our feet firm, for indeed, If they want to put us in affliction, (i.e. want to fight against us) we would not (flee but withstand them).’
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam used to raise his voice while reciting these verses. Saheeh Bukhari, (p425, Vol.1).
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam did not normally recite poems but in the battlefield his feelings were different and indeed it is a fact that good poems and poetry instill a religious fervour which is very useful in Jihaad.
On the occasion of the battle of Hunain, when the Muslims were suddenly attacked by a shower of arrows, they hesitated and began to retreat from the battlefield. The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam stood steadfast in the shower of arrows and was reciting the following:-
“I am the Prophet in truth, I am the son of `Abdul Muttalib.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p403, Vol.1).
On the occasion of the battle of trenches, the Ansari Sahaba-e-Kiraam, were reciting these poems when digging the trenches.
“We are those who have sworn allegiance to Muhammad SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam for Jihaad (for ever) as long as we live.” The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam replied to them, “O Allah! There is no life except the life of hereafter, so honour the Ansar and emigrants (Muhajireen) with your generosity.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p416, Vol.1).
On one occasion of Jihaad, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam finger was injured, the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam recited the following poems:-
“You are just a finger that bled, and what you got is in Allah’s cause.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p393, Vol.1).
The Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam sent a group of Sahaba-e-Kiraam RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhum to Syria for Jihaad in the year 8 A.H. They confronted the enemy in a place called Mautah. This place was near to a place called Balka. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam appointed Zaid Bin Haritha RadhialLahu Taala Anhu as the Ameer and said if Zaid is Shaheed then Jafar Bin Abi Talib RadhialLahuTala Anhu, will take his place (as the Ameer), and if he is also Shaheed then AbdulLah Bin RAwaha RadhialLahu Tala Anhu will replace him as the Ameer. Teh battle took place and all three raised the flag of Islam high and were Shaheed in the above mentioned order. After the Shahadah of AbdulLah Bin RAwaha RadhialLahuTala anhu, Khalik Bin Waleed RadhialLahu Taala Anhu took the flag and Allah gave them victory. When AbdulLah Bin Rawaha RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu had held the flag he had added two more poems with the above mentioned poem which are mentioned below.
“You are just a finger that bled, and what you got is in Allah’s cause. O soul if you are not killed you will surely die (your own death). These are teh reservoirs of death which you have entered, What you (o soul) had desired of Shahadah you will receive on (this occasion). If you do what they, (Jafar and Zaid RadhialLahu Taala Anhu) did then surely you have been guided.” (meaning that if you are Shaheed). Fathul Bari.
When the Prophet SallaLahu Alayhi Wasallam surrounded the Jews of Banu Nazir due to their plots and the breaking of the treaty, these Jews declined to come out even upon the incitement of the hypocrites and sent a message to the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam, that we are not going to come out. You can do what you like. The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasalla said, “Allah is the Greatest, the Jews have called for a war.” The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam surrounded them for many days, then ordered the Sahabas RadhialLahu Anhum to cut the trees of Bani Nazir and to burn their gardens. In the end they put forward a proposal to be exilted which was accepted.
Hadhrat Hasan RadhialLahu Taala anhu mentioned the incident of the Sahabas RAdhialLahu TAala Anhum burning the trees in the following poems:-
“The chiefs of Bani Lu’ai found it easy to watch fire spreading at Al-Buwairah.” Saheeh Bukhari, (p312, Vol.1).
Three more poems have been found in the diwan (scriptures) of Hasan RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu.
1) “Those who helped Qurashi, lost each other (meaning, they were killed and separated). Nor did they have any helper withing their own town.”
2) “They were given the book, but they destroyed it, So they were blind from the teachings of the Torah, and surely destroyed.”
3) “You denied the Quran even though you were testified about it, From what the warner of Allah (Muhammad SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam) had said.” Innamul Bari, (p110).
The Sahabas RadhialLahu Taala Anhum used to satirize the Kuffar with their poems strenghening the Muslim’s bravery and giving coolness to the Muslim’s hearts by saying poems in favour of the Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam just like they used to do Jihaad against the unbelivers by their lives and wealth.
The Prophet SallalLahu Alayhi Wasallam said regarding Hasan RadhialLahu Taala Anhu, “Hasan satirized against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and gave satisfaction to himself.” Saheeh Muslim, English Version, (p1328, Vol.4).
The Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam uncle’s son, Abu Sufyan Bin Harith Bin `Abdul Muttalib had composed some satirized poems against the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam. In answer to this Hasan RadhialLahu Ta`ala `Anhu replied back defending the Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam position by these poems.
Note:- It should be kept in mind that Abu Sufyan Bin Harith embraced Islam on the day of the conquest of Makkah.
The following are Hasan’s RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu poems which have been narrated by Muslim.
‘You satirized Muhammad, but 1 replied on his behalf, And there is reward with Allah for this. You satirized Muhammad, virtuous, righteous, The Apostle of Allah, whose nature is truthfulness. So verily my father and his father and my honour, Are a protection to the honour of Muhammad; May 1 lose my dear daughter, if you don’t see her, Wiping away the dust from the two sides of Kada, They pull at the reins, going upward; On their shoulders are spears thirsting (for the blood of the enemy); Our steeds are sweating, our women wipe them with their mantles. If you had not interfered with us, we would have performed the Umrah, And (then) there was the Victory, and the darkness cleared away; Otherwise wait for the fighting on the day in which Allah will honour whom He pleases. And Allah said: I have sent a servant who says the Truth in which there is no ambiguity;
And Allah said: I have prepared an army- they are the Ansaar whose object is fighting (the enemy); There reaches every day from Ma`add abuse, or fighting or satire; Whoever satirizes the Apostle from amongst you, or praises him and helps it is all the same, And Jibrael, the Apostle of Allah is among us, and the Holy Spirit who has no match.’ Saheeh Muslim, (p1328-9, Vol.4).
The War Poems Of Hadhrat `Ali RadhialLahu `Anhu
On the occasion of the battle of Khaibar, Ali RadhialLahu `Anhu marched forth with the flag. The leader of the Jews, Marhab came out from the enemy ranks puffing his chest out and swerving his sword up and down. He challenged anyone to confront him and recited these poems:-
‘The people of khaibar know well that I am Marhab. 1 am well equipped with weapons, A strong and experienced champion. At the time when the war flames are raging.’
Hearing this challenge, Amir Bin Akwa RadhialLahu `Anhu came out reciting these poems:-
‘You know well, 0 Khaibar, that I am Amir, Equipped with weapons, 1 am strong, 1 am a hero who flourishes in hardships.’
Amir’s RadhialLahu `Anhu sword fell into Marhab’s shield. So the challenge was taken by Ali RadhialLahu `Anhu. Marhab recited the same poems.
Ali RadhialLahu `Anhu answered him with the following poems:-
‘I am the one who has been named by his mother, Haydar, Like the lions of the jungles from which on fears to look. I place the feeding (killing) in front of the enemy on a full scale.’
The confrontation took place and Ali RadhialLahu `Anhu killed Marhab by one blow.
The Poem Of Salama Bin Akwa RadhialLahu `Anhu
`Abdur Rahman Fazari, who was a Kafir raided the grazing she-camels of the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam, and escaped with the camels killing the shepherd. Salama Bin Akwa RadhialLahu `Anhu was walking towards Gaba, (the name of a place) with his bow and arrow, when he found out about this incident. He climbed a mountain near Madinah called Sila and sent three cries, “O Sabah!” (an indication for help). Then he rushed towards the looters, taking his bow and arrow. They were many in number and were riding on mounts, but Salama RadhialLahu `Anhu would run forward injuring some and then continuing. He managed to free all the camels himself and the unbelievers started to run leaving their own possessions behind. On this occasion Salama RadhialLahu `Anhu was challenging them by these poems:-
‘I am the son of A1 Akwa, and today perish the mean people!’ Bukhari, (p427, Vol.2).
The Poems Of Khubaib RadhialLahu `Anhu At The Time Of His Shahadah
The Mushrikeen (polytheists) took Khubaib RadhialLahu `Anhu captive to Makkah. After staying captive for some time, the Mushrikeen (polytheists) moved him out of the sanctuary of Makkah and asked him for his last wish before planning to hang him. He said, “Allow me to offer two rak`ats of prayer. “ He performed two rak`ats calmly and said, “Had I not been afraid that you would think I was afraid of death, I would have prayed for a longer time. “So it was Khubaib RadhialLahu `Anhu who set the first tradition of praying two rak`ats before being executed. This tradition became a Sunnah tradition for every Muslim.
He then made this supplication, “O Allah! there is no person here who will my salaams to the Prophet (saw), so You convey my message.” Jibrael Alayhissalam conveyed his Salaams to the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam the same day. The Prophet (saw) replied, ‘And may my Salaams be upon you, 0 Khubaib! “ And he told the gathering that Quraish had martyred Khubaib RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu.
The smell of musk could be scented from the blood which was flowing from the wounds as the Kuffar kept him on the rope of forty days.
When Khubaib RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu was hanged on the rope and he still had life, he said, “O Allah! count them one by one, (kill them) and do not leave any one.” When Khubaib RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu cursing them, the unbelievers were fearing from his curse as they knew that it would be accepted. A year had not passed and they were all destroyed. Only one of them survived who lay on the floor at the time of the curse.
When Khubaib RadhialLahu Ta`ala Anhu was hanged on the rope and his body was full of spear wounds, the unbelievers took an oath asking him, “Do you wish that the Prophet SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam was in your place today?” Khubaib RadhialLahu Anhu Answered, “I swear by Allah! I cannot even bear that I be let free and exchange a thorn to prick the Prophet’s SallalLahu `Alayhi Wasallam foot, (May my soul be sacrificed for him).” Fathul Bari.
Khubaib RadhialLahu Anhu recited these poems at the time when he was attacked, hanging on the rope:-
‘When I am being Shaheed as a Muslim, I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah’s cause. If He wishes, He will bless the cut limbs.’
Allama Ainy RahimahulLahu Ta`ala has narrated ten poems of Khubaib RadhialLahu Anhu in the commentary of Bukhari, which are the following:-
‘A lot of groups has gathered without a doubt around me. They have also gathered their tribes. And have all gathered fully. Close by, they have gathered their sons and wives, 1 have approached near to a long terror which is about to end. Every one of them is showing his enmity towards me with full effort, As 1 am tied in chains and in a place of destruction. To Allah I complain of my lack of energy and uneasiness, And also of those things which they have gathered for the time of my destruction. O Owner of the Throne (Allah), Give me patience upon the calamity which has befallen me, My situation is that they have cut pieces of my meat, And there is less chance for any desire, It is for Allah’s cause. If He wishes, He will bless the cut limbs, They have moved forward because of their Kufr, Even though death is after this, (they do not fear what will happen to them after their death). My situation is that I am crying but there are no tears. 1 do not fear death as 1 am surely going to die, But my fear is of the surrounding fire (Hell), May Allah save me from it. 1 am not going to show my weakness nor fear, Without any doubt, I am returning to Allah, When I am being Shaheed as a Muslim, 1 do not care in what way I receive my death.’ My situation is that I am crying but there are no tears. 1 do not fear death as 1 am surely going to die, But my fear is of the surrounding fire (Hell), May Allah save me from it. 1 am not going to show my weakness nor fear, Without any doubt, I am returning to Allah, When I am being Shaheed as a Muslim, 1 do not care in what way I receive my death.’
This article is one of the most comprehensive I have read on the topic of Jihad. It has been well done and explains in detail the place Jihad has in the Islamic vision of the caliphate. I will keep the article intact and in its original form for reference and further researches. Any of my views will be expressed here or elsewhere.
Jihad: The Forgotten Obligation: http://www.2600.com/news/mirrors/harkatmujahideen/www.harkatulmujahideen.org/jihad/o-jihad.htm