The Two Faces of the Prophet Muhammad



In order to show the two faces of Muhammad, it is necessary to recount his early life with insights and analysis provided to the original stories.

Timeline 7th Century Muslim History

Seventh century (601 – 700)

This century corresponds to approxmiately 23 BH – 81 AH.

[Heriga: noun: “The flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 a.d., marking the beginning of the Muslim era.”]

570 AD:Birth of Muhammad

605: Birth of Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad. She was the wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib and all of Muhammad’s descendants are through her.
610: The first declared revelation of the Qur’an in the cave at Hira. Muhammad begins to preach Islam.
613: Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam.
614: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims migrates to Abyssinia
616: Second migration to Abyssinia.
617: Boycott of the Hashemites and Muhammad by the Quraish.
619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija, Year of Sorrow.
620: Visit to Taif. “Ascension to the heavens”.
622: Hijra—migration to Medina. First year of Islamic calendar.

622: Constitution of Medina. Establishment of the first Islamic state.

624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina.

625: Battle of Uhud. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Medina.

627: Battle of the Trench. Killing and enslavement of Banu Quraiza.

628: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Battle of Khaybar. Muhammad sends letters to various heads of states.
629: Muhammad pilgrimage to Mecca. Battle of Mu’ta.
630: Conquest of Mecca. Battle of Hunayn. Battle of Autas. Siege of Ta’if.
631: Expedition to Tabouk, Ghassanids.
631 or 632, tribe of Thaqif adopts Islam.
632: Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca.
632: Death of Muhammad. Death of Fatimah, his daughter. Abu Bakr is chosen by consensus of the majority of the prophet’s companions as caliph. Battles of Zu Qissa.Battles of Zu Abraq. Battle of Buzakha. Battle of Zafar. Battle of Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Mosailima.


Early Life of Muhammad

Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570AD.  His father died when he was only an infant and his mother sent him off to live with a Bedouin tribe for 4 years.  When he was 6, his mother died and he lived with another relative for 2 years, who also died, before being taken in by his uncle, a wealthy merchant.

Muhammad grew up to become a successful merchant, respected for his fairness and business acumen.  So much so that a wealthy much older woman, Kadijha, asked him to marry her.  He accepted.  This was unheard of in Meccan society especially in those days.  He was married to Kadijha for 25 years, taking no other wives during that time.  They had 4 daughters.

Muhammad’s Sexual Appetite

[Although Muhammad had no other wives while Kadijha lived (she died 620 AD), he had an exceptional sexual drive. Could he have remained faithful throughout his marriage? So the true picture could be quite different than that suggested. After Kadijha’s death Muhammad went rampant:

“According to Anas ibn Malik, the Prophet Muhammad used to visit all eleven of his wives in one night; but he could manage this, as he had the sexual prowess of thirty men. The historian Al-Tabari calculated that Muhammad married a total of fifteen women, though only ever eleven at one time; and two of these marriages were never consummated. This tally of fifteen does not include at least four concubines. According to Merriam-Webster, a concubine is “a woman with whom a man cohabits without being married”, and has a “social status in a household below that of a wife.” All of Muhammad’s concubines were his slaves. Al-Tabari also excludes from the fifteen several other women with whom Muhammad had some kind of marriage contract but who, due to legal technicalities, never became full wives. It is fairly certain, however, that none of these unions were ever consummated. They were the cultural equivalent of a broken engagement. Finally, there were several other women whom Muhammad wished to marry, or whom he was invited to marry, but for various reasons he did not.”] [5]

Muhammad  would meditate in a cave on top of a mountain outside Mecca.  After his first revelation in 610, when he was terrified at hearing the voice of Allah, it was Kadijha who comforted him and validated the experience.  She then became his first convert.

Muhammad’s Hallucinations Was a Result of Illness

[Muhammad was terrified because he awoke from his “Temporal Lobe Epilepsy” weak confused, and frightened because he did not understand his medical condition.

“The experience terrified the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), and he ran home, jumping into Khadijah’s (RA) arms asking her to hold him and cover him- and she did. Zamilooni! Zamilooni! “Cover me! Cover me!” Dathirooni! Dathirooni! “Embrace me! Embrace me!”

She was startled by his terror, and after soothing and comforting him for a while, the Prophet (SAW) was able to calm down and relate to her his experience. She was the pillar of strength in one of the most defining moments of history. She was there for him, she supported him, she believed in him and encouraged him. The Prophet (SAW) feared he was losing his mind or being possessed. Khadijah (RA) put all his fears to rest:

“Allah forbid! He will surely not let such a thing happen, for you speak the truth, you are faithful in trust, you bear the afflictions of the people, you spend in good works what you gain in trade, you are hospitable and you assist your fellow men.

Muhammad Led to believe He received Divine Visions

She then took him to her cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal – a scholar well-versed in the Judeo-Christian scripture – and he confirmed to the Prophet (SAW) that his experience was Divine and he was to be the Last Prophet. “I swear by Him in who holds Waraqa’s life, Allah has chosen you to be the prophet of this people. They will call you a liar, they will persecute you, they will banish you, and they will fight against you. Oh, that I could live to those days. I would fight for these.”

After his ministry began, and the opposition of his people became harsh and brutal, Khadijah (RA) was always there to support the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), sacrificing all of her wealth to support the cause of Islam. When the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his family was banished to the hills outside of Makkah, she went there with him, and the three years of hardship and deprivation eventually led to her death.

Thus, the Prophet (pbuh) lost his beloved wife and friend, the first person to accept Islam and support him. She had been a refuge from all his troubles and, through her goodheartedness, the best company in his suffering. He had loved her very much. This happened in 619 A.D., the year which became known as the ‘Year of Sorrow’. Soon after this, the Prophet Muhammad’s uncle and protector, Abu Talib, also died.

Once, years after Khadijah died, he came across a necklace that she once wore. When he saw it, he remembered her and began to cry and mourn. His love for her never died, so much so, that his later wife A’isha became jealous of her. Once she asked the Prophet if Khadijah had been the only woman worthy of his love. The Prophet (SAW) replied: “Never did Allah (SWT) give me a better wife than Khadijah. She hailed my mission at a time when everybody shouted against it. She lent me the support of her conviction when there was hardly a believer. She enlivened my heart when I felt lonely and deserted. Khadijah’s love was given to me by Allah (SWT). How could I forget her?”“] [6]

This new religion was based on Muhammad’s revelations, now known as Islam.  It was thoroughly exclusive, claiming an absolute equality among believers.  This didn’t sit well with the ruling clan in Mecca, the Quraysh, who persecuted Mohammad and his followers for 12 years until they left Mecca.  Some followers had already found asylum in Abyssinia, a Christian kingdom.  But Muhammad stayed in Mecca with his remaining followers, who at one point were forbidden to conduct business, marry other Meccans, trade, or buy food.

Then things got worse.  After 25 yeas of marriage his beloved Kadijha died, followed by his uncle, a clan leader, who had afforded some measure of protection.  His uncle was succeeded by someone hostile to Muhammad. [4]

Muhammad’s Ministry Gained very few Converts, initially

[“Muhammad began his ministry when he was 40 years of age. It was a painfully slow start as his first convert was hgis wife, Khadija, and in the next 3 years he managed to convert 7 men one of whom was his slave, Said. The others were Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn Affan, Zubair ibn el Awa, Abdel Rahman ibn Auf, Saad ibn abi Wakkaas, and Talha. After another 5 years of proselytising Muhammad had 16 followers. It took several more years before he managed to gain 40 men and women to accept his faith. After 13 years of proselytising in Mecca he managed to get 100 followers. Muhammad was desperate to make his ideology more appealing especially to his own tribe, the Quraysh tribe. This is why many of his ritual he introduced were pagan rituals of the Quraysh like circling the Kaa’ba, the kissing of the Black Stone, making the Hajj, addressing his god as Allah just as the Moon god was addressed, but still his efforts went begging with the Quraysh tribe who considered his ideology as deviant and unacceptable. This is why Muhammad eventually attempted a Bargain with the Quraysh tribe and paid obeisance to the pagan gods with what is today known as the Satanic verses.” [7]

[Muhammad was not very successful, in the beginning, in his efforts to convert people to his beliefs. After 13 years he managed to convert 100 people. That, to me, is failure.

Reject by the Jews, Christians, Romans, nomadic Arabic tribes, he was desperate. So eventually he decided to use his influence on his on tribe, the Quraysh tribe. He did everything to win the Quraysh tribe, even to pay “obeisance to the Quraysh pagan gods, the Satanic Verses” but to no avail. The Quraysh not only rejected him, but planned to put an end to his rubbish by plans to assassinate him and kill his supporters. When Muhammad learned of this, his faithful followers sneaked Muhammad out of Mecca and he eventually ended in Medina. Hence  the 622: Hijra—migration to Medina. First year of Islamic calendar.

Muhammad was shocked, humiliated, angry, bitter, and was determined to seek revenge. He was going to show the Quraysh tribe and the whole of Mecca who was right. This is the point when the 2nd Face of Muhammad appeared. Muhammad then planned to be assertive and aggressive from this point on. Hence it has been referred to as the Meccan Islam when Muhammad attempted to apply the Jewish and Christian methods of reasoning to win over converts, into the (post-)  Medinian Islam when Muhammad had to abrogate  peaceful Islam with his Authoritative and Aggressive Islam. The Two Qurans evolved but as the  old and abrogated verses remained in the Quran, and as the Quran is accepted as the immutable literal word of Allah, both versions formed the “dualism” of the Quran. It was in fact a reflection of the total change of attitude of Muhammad himself.


The first thing Muhammad had to do was to adjust his doctrines to fit his needs. So the Quran was adjusted to include the following:

Qur’an:2.106  “Whatever communications We(Prophet Muhammad) abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or like it. Do you not know that Allah has power over all things?”[What is significant is that now Muhammad appears to have an authority to alter Allah’ Words to suit Muhammad. In fact, most of the Quran were the words of Muhammad no Allah’s.]

Next he had to justify the actions he was about to take:

Qur’an:20.14 “Surely I am Allah, there is no god but I, therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance:”   Followed by:

Qur’an:9:5      “Fight and kill the disbelievers wherever you find them, take them captive, harass them, lie in wait and ambush them using every stratagem of war.” [This is the verse of the Sword, replacing all other verses of peace and compassion for disbelievers.]  Followed by many other verses like:

Qur’an:8:39  “So fight them(Kafirs) until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief [non-Muslims]) and all submit to the religion of Allah alone (in the whole world).”

Qur’an:2:216 “Jihad (Holy fighting in Allah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims), though you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and like a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knows, and you know not.” [Another translation reads:] “Warfare is ordained for you.”

Having cleared the ideological aspects of Islam, Muhammad now had to concentrate on the physical aspects of his ambition to teach the Meccans a lesson of their lives.

Early Medina: A Wealthy Jewish Trading Town

In early Medina, in addition to the Banu Nadir, there were two other major Jewish tribes: the Banu Qurayza and the Banu Qaynuqa. They were joined centuries later by two non-Jewish Arab tribes from Yemen, Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj. So fundamentally, Medina was a prosperous Jewish trading centre not too receptive to Islam.

The Banu Nadir settled outside the city of Yathrib, now Medina, because of the Roman persecutions of the Jews in Palestine. According to the Muslim historian al-Yaqubi, the Banu Nadir were an Arab tribe ethnically, which had converted to Judaism and initially settled on the eponymous Mount Nadir. Like other Medinese Jews, Banu Nadir bore Arabic names, but spoke a distinct dialect of Arabic. They earned their living through agriculture, money lending, and trade in weapons and jewels, maintaining commercial relations with Arab merchants of Mecca. Their fortresses were located half a day’s march to the south of Medina. Banu Nadir were wealthy and lived in some of the best lands in Medina.
In order to ensure peace in Medina, Muhammad quickly drew up an agreement that would allow him assurance of peace and control of Medina, but how sincere was his intention? Was this Constitution an act of Taqiyya? The whole story will unfold.


The Constitution of Medina (Arabic: صحیفة المدینه‎, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It constituted a formal agreement betweenMuhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), includingMuslims, Jews, Christians and pagans. This constitution formed the basis of the future caliphate. The document was drawn up with the explicit concern of bringing to an end the bitter inter tribal fighting between the clans of the Aws (Aus) and Khazraj within Medina. To this effect it instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah.

The precise dating of the Constitution of Medina remains debated but generally scholars agree it was written shortly after the Hijra (622). It effectively established the first Islamic state. The Constitution established: the security of the community, religious freedoms, the role of Medina as a haram or sacred place (barring all violence and weapons), the security of women, stable tribal relations within Medina, a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict, parameters for exogenous political alliances, a system for granting protection of individuals, a judicial system for resolving disputes, and also regulated the paying of blood money (the payment between families or tribes for the slaying of an individual in lieu of lex talionis).

Rights of non-Muslims under the Constitution of Medina

The non-Muslims included in the ummah had the following rights:

  1. The security of God is equal for all groups,
  2. Non-Muslim members have equal political and cultural rights as Muslims. They will have autonomy and freedom of religion.
  3. Non-Muslims will take up arms against the enemy of the Ummah and share the cost of war. There is to be no treachery between the two.
  4. Non-Muslims will not be obliged to take part in religious wars of the Muslims.


The various tribes in Medina were tired of the constant fighting and insecurity and were glad to find a solution to their disputes.


When all parties accepted this Constitution, all parties were re-assured of their own security and independence (or was this a false security?) and Muhammad was assured of a peaceful existence and freedom to carry out his plans for the establishment and expansion of Islam, his main goal in life now.

Muslims, like Jews, were at that time praying towards Jerusalem. In the Constitution of Medina, Muhammad demanded the Jews’ political loyalty in return for religious and cultural autonomy.

The Jewish clans however kept aloof from Islam though in the course of time there were a few converts from them.[7] After his migration to Medina, Muhammad’s attitude towards Christians and Jews changed. Norman Stillman states:

During this fateful time, fraught with tension after the Hijra [migration to Medina], when Muhammad encountered contradiction, ridicule and rejection from the Jewish scholars in Medina, he came to adopt a radically more negative view of the people of the Book who had received earlier scriptures. This attitude was already evolving in the third Meccan period as the Prophet became more aware of the antipathy between Jews and Christians and the disagreements and strife amongst members of the same religion. The Qur’an at this time states that it will “relate [correctly] to the Children of Israel most of that about which they differ” (XXVII, 76).
[Muhammad was buying time,  and with deceit he would recruit Arab warriors, and bleed the Jews of Medina dry and eliminate them, while planning to build up his military strength to defeat Mecca. He was cunning and devious and ruthless, still hurting from the rejection he received in Mecca from his own Quraysh tribe.

Beginnings of armed conflict

Economically uprooted by their Meccan persecutors and with no available profession, the Muslim migrants turned to raiding Meccan caravans to respond to their persecution and to provide sustenance for their Muslim families, thus initiating armed conflict between the Muslims and the pagan Quraysh of Mecca. Muhammad delivered Qur’anic verses permitting the Muslims, “those who have been expelled from their homes“, to fight the Meccans in opposition to persecution (see Qur’an Sura 22 (Al-Hajj) Ayat 39-40)

These attacks provoked and pressured Mecca by interfering with trade, and allowed the Muslims to acquire wealth, power and prestige while working toward their ultimate goal of inducing Mecca’s submission to the new faith.

In March 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Muslims set an ambush for the Meccans at Badr.Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims. Meanwhile a force from Mecca was sent to protect the caravan. The force did not return home upon hearing that the caravan was safe. The battle of Badr began in March 624. Though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans and taking seventy prisoners for ransom; only fourteen Muslims died. They had also succeeded in killing many of the Meccan leaders, including Abu Jahl. Muhammad himself did not fight, directing the battle from a nearby hut alongside Abu Bakr. In the weeks following the battle, Meccans visited Medina in order to ransom captives from Badr. Many of these had belonged to wealthy families, and were likely ransomed for a considerable sum. Those captives who were not sufficiently influential or wealthy were usually freed without ransom. Muhammad’s decision was that those prisoners who refused to end their persecution of Muslims and were wealthy but did not ransom themselves should be killed. Muhammad ordered the immediate execution of two Quraysh men without entertaining offers for their release. Both men, which included Uqba ibn Abu Mu’ayt, had personally attempted to kill Muhammad in Mecca. The raiders had won much booty, and the battle helped to stabilize the Medinan community. Muhammad and his followers saw in the victory a confirmation of their faith and a prime importance in the affairs of Medina. Those remaining pagans in Medina were very bitter about the advance of Islam. In particular Asma bint Marwan and Abu ‘Afak had composed verses insulting some of the Muslims and thereby violated the Constitution of Medina to which they belonged. These two were assassinated and Muhammad did not disapprove of it. No one dared to take vengeance on them, and some of the members of the clan of Asma bint Marwan who had previously converted to Islam in secret, now professed openly. This marked an end to the overt opposition to Muhammad among the pagans in Medina.


Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of the three main Jewish tribes. Jewish opposition “may well have been for political as well as religious reasons”. On religious grounds, the Jews were skeptical of the possibility of a non-Jewish prophet, and also had concerns about possible incompatibilities between the Qur’an and their own scriptures. The Qur’an’s response regarding the possibility of a non-Jew being a prophet was that Abraham was not a Jew. The Qur’an also stated that it was “restoring the pure monotheismof Abraham which had been corrupted in various, clearly specified, ways by Jews and Christians”. According to Francis Edwards Peters, “The Jews also began secretly to connive with Muhammad’s enemies in Mecca to overthrow him.”

Banu Qaynuq was the first of the Jewish tribes that Muhammad got rid of from Medina.


Whenever alliances of tribesmen against Medina were formed, he sent out an expedition to break it up. For example the assassination of Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf, a member of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir who had gone to Mecca and written poems that had helped rouse the Meccans’ grief, anger and desire for revenge after the battle of Badr. Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Jewish Banu Nadir from Medina.

After defeat by the Quraish at the Mount Uhud in March, 625, the Banu Nadir challenged Prophet Muhammad as the leader of Medina.

In July of the same year, two men were killed during skirmish in which the Muslims were involved. As a result Prophet Muhammad went to the Nadir, asking them to make a contribution towards the blood money of two men killed. Initially most of the Nadir, except Huyayy ibn Akhtab, were inclined to accept Prophet Muhammad’s request. However, Ibn Ubayy communicated to ibn Akhtab of his intent, along with allied nomads, to attack Prophet Muhammad. The Nadir, then postponed the contribution until later that day.

Prophet Muhammad left the locality immediately accusing the Banu Nadir of plotting to assassinate him, saying to have learned this either through revelation or Muhammad ibn Maslama.

According to other sources, the Banu Nadir invited Prophet Muhammad to their habitations for a religious debate, to which Prophet Muhammad accepted. Prophet Muhammad also accepted the condition that he bring no more than three men with him. On his way he was notified by a Banu Nadir convert to Islam of an assassination attempt at the debate.

Prophet Muhammad besieged the Banu Nadir. He ordered them to surrender their property and leave Medina within ten days. The tribe at first decided to comply, but “certain persons of Medina who were not Believers sent a message to the Banu al-Nadir, saying, ‘Hold out, and defend yourselves; we shall not surrender you to Prophet Muhammad. If you are attacked we shall fight with you and if you are sent away we shall go with you.’”  Huyayy ibn Akhtab decided to put up resistance, hoping also for help from the Banu Qurayza, despite opposition within the tribe.The Nadir were forced to surrender after the siege had lasted for 14 days, when the promised help failed to materialize and when Prophet Muhammad ordered the burning and felling of their palm-trees. Under the conditions of surrender, the Banu Nadir could only take with them what they could carry on camels with the exception of weapons.

The Banu Nadir left on 600 camels, parading through Medina to the music of pipes and tambourines. Al-Waqidi described their impressive farewell: “Their women were decked out in litters wearing silk, brocade, velvet, and fine red and green silk. People lined up to gape at them.” Most of Banu Nadir found refuge among the Jews of Khaybar, while others emigrated to Syria. According to Ibn Ishaq, the chiefs of Nadir who went to Khaybar were Sallam b. Abu’l-Huqayq, Kenana ibn al-Rabi and Huyayy b. Akhtab. When these chiefs arrvied in Khaybar, the Jewish inhabitants of Khaybar became subject to them.

Prophet Muhammad divided their land between his companions who had emigrated with him from Mecca. Until then, the emigrants had to rely upon the Medinese sympathizers for financial assistance. Prophet Muhammad reserved a share of the seized land for himself, which also made him financially independent.[1]

Upon expulsion of the Banu Nadir, Prophet Muhammad is said to have received a revelation of the Surah al-Hashr. [5]

This was the second of the 3 Jewish tribes that Muhammad had expunged from Medina.

The Genocide of Banu Qurayza

Hijra year 5 (627 AD), almost nine hundred Jews of a Medinan tribe named Banu Qurayza were massacred by Muslims in one day. Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, was the lead spectator of this butchery which began early in the day, ending in torchlight. Those who escaped death were taken captive by Muslims and sold in slave markets. This genocide is known in history as the Banu Qurayza incident.


The Qur’an makes mention of this incident in chapter 33:

And He brought those of the People of the Scripture who supported them down from their strongholds, and cast panic into their hearts. Some ye slew and ye made captive some. And He caused you to inherit their land and their houses and their wealth, and land ye have not trodden. Allah is Able to do all things

Setting the apologetics aside, the Banu Qurayza massacre will always remain a stain on Muhammad and Islam, as this incident has no parallels in true history for the reason that it was perpetrated by a man who claimed to be a prophet sent as a mercy to mankind.

Muslims propose many apologetic arguments to release Muhammad from this crime. The most favored argument they use is the alleged treachery of Banu Quraiza. Its ludicrousness is evident when considering any act of treachery from this tribe would have rid the world of Islam at Khandaq, and as a result, Islam would never have existed outside of Arabia.

The excuses they forward thumbing through Deuteronomy (contained within religious scripture they themselves consider to have been altered since the incident in question), and a man who came into the picture much later, do not stand up to scrutiny, for the very reason that Muhammad had planned to slaughter the tribe before Saad bin Muadh, the ‘arbitrator’, had been invited.

Moreover, when the latter pronounced his sanguinary verdict, it was Muhammad who rushed in favor of it, proclaiming it to be Allah’s judgment. Taking all of these issues into account, there is no valid argument that a Muslim can use in defense of this most gruesome of genocides. After this most unholy of incidents, there remained not a tribe named Banu Qurayza in Arabia. [6] [8]

Muhammad Conquers Mecca

[Thus Muhammad enriched and  built up the skills of his fighters with raids on Meccan/Quraysh caravans, driving out the Jews and taking their possessions and their wealth, and built up a formidable army, ready to invade Mecca and take revenge. In 630 AD, 8 years after the Hijra to Median, Muhammad defeated Mecca and took over control ending the pagan Quraysh tribes influence in Mecca forever. This Islamic movement has been attempting to rule the world for Allah, even today.

[1] Quraysh persecution of Muhammad:
[2] Jews reject Muhammad:
[3] muhammad- the Religion of Peace:

[4] Life of Muhammad:

[5] Muhammad’s Wives and Concubines:

[6] Muhammad suffered Temporal Lobe Epilepsy:

[7] Muhammad’s Slow Progress:

[8] Betrayal of the Jews in Medina:

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