Evolution of Islam from Quraysh Paganism and Plagiarism to Fascist Theocracy

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Evolution of Islam from Quraysh Paganism and Plagiarism to Fascist Theocracy

Introduction

Having been constantly confronted by articles on “Political Correctness” and “apologetic Appeasement” to Islam, I decided to examine the evolution of Islam with a more critical eye from its earliest beginnings. What was the ambience, the culture, the religious beliefs of Arabia around the time Muhammad lived?

Pre-Islamic Arabia

The Arabian Peninsula was largely arid and volcanic, making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs. The landscape was dotted with towns and cities; two of the most prominent being Mecca and Medina. Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes. Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions, supporting indigenous tribes against the harsh environment and lifestyle. Tribal grouping was encouraged with unity being based on blood relations. Indigenous Arabs were either nomadic or sedentary, the former constantly travelling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture. Nomadic survival also depended on raiding caravans or oases; nomads did not view this as a crime.

Byzantine and Sassanian empires dominated the pre-Islamic Middle East region. The Roman-Persian Wars between the two had devastated the region, making the empires unpopular amongst local tribes. Politically Arabia at the time was divided between two tribal confederations, the Banu Qais, loosely allied with Byzantium and who were originally powerful in Northern and Western Arabia, and the Banu Kalb, who had originally come from Yemen, and were loosely allied with Sassanid Persia.

In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage, the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idols of tribal patron deities. Three goddesses were associated with Allah as his daughters: Allāt, Manāt and al-‘Uzzá. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews. Hanifs – native pre-Islamic Arabs who “professed a rigid monotheism” – are also sometimes listed alongside Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia, although their historicity is disputed among scholars. According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham. [1]

1. PAGAN ARABIA IN PRE-ISLAMIC TIMES

ARABIA BEFORE MUHAMMAD

Very little is known about the land of Arabia before the rise of Islam. Historians took little notice of it and nothing came out of it to draw the attention of the known world to the Arab peoples. Its principle town was known as Makkah (Mecca), a settlement in the desert region near the Red Sea in the middle of the Arabian peninsula. It was primarily a commercial centre and numerous caravans went back and forth from the town to trade with other regions to the north.

The Arabs were split up into various tribes often in conflict with one another. At Mecca the Quraysh tribe was dominant, being divided into smaller groups such as the Banu Hashim (into which Muhammad was born) and the Banu Umayya (from which many of his fiercest enemies arose). There was no central rule in Arabia and, if one tribe was attacked by another, a custom prevailed that the injured tribe could accept a ransom for the loss of any member or attempt to take the life of a member of the offending tribe in retaliation. Daughters were regarded as a misfortune and many infant females were buried alive. If a son was born to a family there would be great celebrations but if the child was a girl its parents would conceal its birth as much as they could.

For four months of the year hostilities were traditionally suspended as pilgrims visited Mecca for the various fairs held annually to commemorate different idols worshipped by the Arabs and to give local poets (shu`ara) an opportunity to compete with one another. Poetry was a very popular art and many examples of pre-Islamic poetry have survived. A number of poets, however, were regarded as mentally imbalanced (majnun) and it was an insult to call a poet a kahin (soothsayer).

**The Arabs were steeped in pagan idolatry and the adoration of stones, whether shaped into the form of idols or merely set up as they were, was common. Many were brought by tribesmen visiting the fairs to Mecca and occasionally were left in the Ka`aba, a cube-like structure in the centre of the town and the principal shrine of pagan Arab idolatry. ***Long before the advent of Islam Diodorus Siculus, a Roman historian, commented that there was in Arabia a temple greatly revered by the Arabs and it is probable that he had the Ka`aba in mind. Very few other records of Arabian religion exist, however, and it is from later Islamic sources that most of our knowledge today derives.

JAHILIYYA – THE TIMES OF IGNORANCE

Our limited knowledge of Arabia perhaps is indicative of a prevailing Arab ignorance about the outside world at the time. Christian and Jewish influences were found in many areas but on the whole pagan superstition and all the typical practices associated with idolatry were prevalent. Islam found a fertile soil into which it could establish its message of monotheism and its own unique character and it is not surprising to find Muslim historians speaking of those days as Jahiliyya, the “Times of Ignorance”.

***The Ka`aba was the great focal point and shrine of Arab paganism. Islamic tradition holds that it was originally built by Adam although the Qur’an states that its foundations were raised by Abraham and his son Ishmael (Surah 2:127). In the generations before Muhammad’s prophetic career, however, it was the focal point of all Arabian idolatry. Of particular prominence was a black stone (al-hajarul-aswad) built into its north-east corner. Whether it was worshipped as an idol is not certain but its fame as the most significant part of the shrine has survived in the Islamic era and to this day Muslim pilgrims attempt to kiss it while walking around the Ka`aba.

Very near the Ka`aba were two small hills known as as-Safa and al-Marwa. On the first was a small idol known as Isaf and on the second was a similar deity known as Na’ila. Pagan Arabs used to touch these images during their pilgrimage rites and the legend behind them was that they were originally a man and woman from Jurhum who had cohabited in the Ka`aha and were turned into stones for their impudence. ***The ceremony of running between these two hills has prevailed in the Islamic pilgrimage despite its apparent pagan origin. The Qur’an justifies this practice, saying the two hills are among the “symbols of Allah” and that there is no sin in encompassing them (Surah 2:158). Today they are incorporated into the huge complex of the Great Mosque of Mecca which is built around the Ka`aba, the shrine now standing in an open courtyard.

PAGAN ARAB IDOLATRY

***The Qur’an mentions a number of the idols revered by the Arabs but interestingly makes no mention of Hubal, said to have been the chief deity in the Ka`aba. The Quraysh attributed victory to Hubal when overcoming Muhammad’s warriors at the Battle of Uhud of which more will be said later. His identity probably derives from Baal, the pagan deity to whom the Israelites were so often distracted and whose existence was challenged by Elijah on Mount Carmel. Hubal’s image stood over a well in the hollow of the Ka`aba and was destroyed by Muhammad when he conquered Mecca towards the end of his life. A Nabatean inscription predating Islam still exists on which his name is inscribed and it is said that an image of the idol existed in carnelian with a golden hand attached after the original had broken off. The pagan Arabs are said to have consulted Hubal by divination with arrows.

***Three feminine deities mentioned by name in the Qur’an were al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat (Surah 53:19). **Al-Lat belonged principally to the Thaqif tribe at at-Ta’if, a settlement to the east of Mecca, and a massive statue of the goddess was venerated in the town. When Muhammad set about destroying all the idols around Mecca the demise of this one alone brought cries of grief from her worshippers.

A certain `Amr b. Lu`any was said to have set up **the image of al-Uzza at Nakhla, a village nearby, and her devotees did not consider themselves discharged from their pilgrimage to Mecca until they had made a circuit of her shrine as well. **Manat was worshipped by the Aus and Khazraj tribes to the north of Mecca at a town called Yathrib, later to be known as al-Madina (Medina) when Muhammad became the leader of the peoples there and converted these two tribes to Islam. The same `Amr set up an image of Manat at Qudayd on the shore of the Red Sea and pilgrims to Mecca who revered her would not shave their heads until they had paid their respects to her shrine as well. `Amr b. Lu`ayy is also said to have erected an image of Hubal in the Ka`aba, having obtained it during one of his journeys to Syria.

***These three feminine deities were apparently believed to be the “daughters of Allah”, the Supreme Being to whom the Ka`aha is today dedicated (being known as baitullah, the “House of Allah”). The Qur’an ridicules the idea that Allah should have daughters while the pagan Arabs preferred to have sons as offspring (Surahs 16:57, 52:39). They were also believed to be intercessors with Allah.

The Qur’an recognises Allah alone as the Supreme Deity, the one and only Lord of all the worlds. The worship of Allah was known before the advent of Islam as the Qur’an itself shows. It speaks of the pagans as calling on Allah exclusively to protect them when they set sail in a boat but as being ungrateful to him when he delivers them safely to dry land, giving a share of their worship to other gods as well (Surah 29:65). On another occasion it states that they swear their strongest oaths by him (Surah 6:109). No record of an image of Allah exists and, although some writers have tried to identify Allah with other Arabian gods, no real evidence exists to support the theory.

***It appears that the acknowledgement of one Supreme Being, the unseen ruler of the universe, arose out of contact with Jews and Christians who settled in or passed through Arabia. It is known that the Christian Syriac name for God was Alaha and it is thought that it may have been derived from the Hebrew Elohim. It is quite possible that the name Allah came from this Syriac title, especially as Christian Arabs have also always used the name Allah for God and still do to this day.

Others have suggested that the name derives from al-ilah meaning “the god”. There is nothing in pre-Islamic history to give credence to this idea, however. Whatever the origin of the Arabic word it is used in the Qur’an as an actual name for God and not as a neutral title for a single deity. It is thus the equivalent of Yahweh in Old Testament times. ***The absolute unity of Allah is the central theme of the Qur’an and is summed up in the fundamental declaration of Islamic faith, La ilaha illallah – “there is no god but Allah” (cf. Surah 9:31).

Arabia was a land of warring tribes who nevertheless had certain unwritten laws determining their interactions with one another. One’s prime loyalty was to one’s family or tribe and the honour of each had to be preserved at all costs. Islam was destined to shatter many of the traditions held dear for generations before it and the loyalty of a Muslim to Allah and the Islamic faith over and above family loyalties became one of these changes to the consternation of the pagan Arabs. Nonetheless the major characteristic of pre-Islamic Arabia that Muhammad’s course was destined to challenge most severely was the veneration of countless idols and images representing the gods of the common people.

2. CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH INFLUENCES

JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN ARABIA

Although idolatry was prevalent in Arabia the two major monotheistic religions, Judaism and Christianity had penetrated the peninsula and their influence was destined to have a considerable effect on the development of Islam.

The Qur’an pays more attention to Judaism than to Christianity. There were a number of Jewish tribes scattered in the regions north of Mecca. Around Yathrib three Jewish communities were settled in their own quarters, namely the Banu Qaynuqa, Banu Nadhir and the Banu Quraydhah. Muhammad was destined to confront each of these in turn once he had become the leader of the Muslims in the city. Although the Arabs at Mecca had probably had some contact with Jews there are no reliable records of any Jews settled there. Most of them appear to have been resident in the northern regions and, as many trading caravans from Mecca passed through their territories, it is probable that a familiarity with Judaism arose through such contacts.

It is not known whether these Jews were direct descendants of communities scattered throughout the region at the time of the diaspora or whether they were predominantly Arab converts to Judaism but it is generally presumed that the latter was the case. In southern Arabia, however, historical records indicate that a remarkable assertion of Judaism over Christianity took place not long before the time of Muhammad.

A Yemenite ruler had adopted the Jewish faith and set about severely persecuting the Christians in the region. Known as Dhu Nuwas (“the one with the curly hair”), he attacked the Christian community at Najran and, finding no way to subdue the settlement forcefully, he promised its inhabitants that they would be spared and would be free to profess their faith if they surrendered peacefully. On gaining control, however, his army plundered the area and large pits were dug and filled with burning fuel. All who refused to convert to Judaism were condemned to be consumed by the flames and Arab historians confirm that many thousands perished. Not long after this, however, he was overthrown by an expeditionary force led by a certain Aryat from Christian Abyssinia. The incident is a unique example of Jewish aggression and supremacy in the Arabian peninsula.

CHRISTIANITY IN PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA

For many centuries Christianity had been established in Egypt and Syria and, although it had never really had the same success in Arabia except for the community of Christians at Najran in the south, its presence was also destined to influence the development of Islam. It was not traditional Christianity that prevailed in the region, however, but two sectarian forms that for many generations had bitterly opposed each other.

A Christian leader known as Nestorius had some centuries earlier taught that Christ had had two distinct natures, one human and the other divine. The human Christ was an ordinary human being upon whom the divine Christ had been imposed at the time of his baptism. It was only the human Christ who had died at Calvary, the divine Christ having left his person and returned to heaven. At the First Council of Ephesus in 431 AD Nestorius was denounced as a heretic but his teachings took root among the Christians settled in the regions dominated by the Persians and the Nestorian Church was established there during Muhammad’s time.

A certain Famiyun, a Nestorian Christian from Syria, is credited with establishing the Christian community at Najran. He converted the people of the region during a sojourn in which he is said to have effectively cursed a palm-tree which had previously been worshipped by the people. They had an annual festival in which a whole day was devoted to veneration of the tree with jewels and fine garments being placed on it. At Famiyun’s command in the name of the Christian God the tree was suddenly torn from its roots and the onlookers, amazed at the sight, adopted Christianity. (Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasulullah, p.16).

Another oriental Christian named Eutyches is credited with asserting the other sectarian conviction in the region. In 488 AD he boldly attacked Nestorian beliefs, declaring that there was only one nature in the person of Christ, namely the divine. Christ was God bearing a human form on earth but not made of flesh and blood as other humans are. The Monophysite sect was established on this doctrine and it gradually became the dominant form of Arabian Christianity. It was prevalent in Egypt and, by the time of Muhammad, it was entrenched at Hira and in the Syrian regions immediately to the north of the Arabian peninsula. Despite the Nestorian origin of the Christian community at Najran it was decidedly Monophysite in conviction by the time Muhammad began to preach in Mecca. Abyssinia was by this time also one of the strongholds of the Christian faith in the region and here too we find the Monophysite faith predominant.

The Christianity Muhammad was destined to encounter was not to be the established catholic faith but a somewhat confused sectarian group of differing beliefs whose adherents were often strongly opposed to one another. Numerous other sects were scattered throughout the region, all holding a succession of differing beliefs about the nature of God and the composition of the divine Trinity. All these were destined to affect the development of Islam and it is interesting to find that the Christianity assessed in the Qur’an is not the pristine faith of the New Testament rather the distorted versions of it found in the churches around Arabia.

CHRISTIAN INFLUENCES UPON EARLY ISLAM

***Muhammad claimed that the Qur’an was a revelation given to him from heaven but many of its teachings show a somewhat obvious dependence on the Christianity of pre-Islamic Arabia. In fact there is nothing in the Qur’an which is genuinely original or which cannot be shown to have parallels in the varying religious convictions found throughout the region. He was exposed on an annual basis to the hordes of pilgrims who came to the fairs at Mecca which made the town a receptacle for all kinds of floating knowledge. Muhammad appears to have absorbed and retained within his memory as much of this as he could. ***A study of the teaching of the Qur’an shows the Prophet of Islam to have been more familiar with Jewish rabbinical works and apocryphal Christian writings than the contents of the Old and New Testaments.

A little-known book titled The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy (because the only manuscripts of the book are in Arabic) makes Jesus speak from the cradle, a phenomenon repeated in the Qur’an (Surah 19:29-30), while The Gospel of Thomas, another apocryphal composition of which a Syriac version was known to exist prior to Muhammad’s time, records other miraculous works of Jesus repeated in the Qur’an, such as the creation of clay birds which came to life at his command (Surah 3:49).

***Although the common Christian Arabic name for Jesus has always been Yasu`, derived from the original Hebrew Nashua  the Qur’an uses the name `Isa, obtained most probably from the Nestorian Isho. There are no other records anywhere in Christian history to possibly suggest the strange name for Jesus in the Qur’an. As Arabic is a Semitic language closely allied to Hebrew one would have expected his name to have been the same Yasu` as the Christians used. In fact the full Nestorian Syriac title for Jesus was Isho Mshiha, “Jesus Messiah”, and it is interesting to find that the most common Qur’anic title for him is very similar, namely al-Masihu `Isa (Surah 3:45).

Muhammad was well acquainted with the Christians of Najran. A delegation is said to have come on one occasion from the settlement to meet him and question him on certain points of his teaching about the Christian faith which perplexed them. Even before his prophetic mission, however, we find that he joined the Christians who visited `Okadh, a meeting-point between Mecca and at-Ta`if, and listened to the Bishop of Najran, Al-Qass ibn Sa`ida, whose eloquent preaching against wealth is recorded in poetic forms very similar to Qur’anic passages on the same subject. In later years Muhammad remembered Qass preaching from his brown camel and used to ask Abu Bakr, his close companion, to recite some of his lyrics.

Some centuries before Muhammad’s time a certain Mani had proclaimed himself to be divinely inspired and claimed that he was the Comforter foretold by Jesus (John 14:16), a claim paralleled in the Qur’an for Muhammad (Surah 7:157, 61:6) and by his followers to this day. Mani also claimed that Jesus himself was not crucified but only a semblance of him being in fact the Antichrist, another teaching which has parallels in the Qur’an (Surah 4:157).

*****One of Muhammad’s early contacts was a man named Waraqa, a relative of his first wife Khadijah and a Christian. He is said to have translated a portion of one of the Gospels into Syriac and it must be presumed that he too would have introduced Muhammad to much of the local Christian heritage.

Although pre-Islamic Arabia was mainly pagan with only a limited Christian influence, there is much evidence that this influence grew as Muhammad’s mission developed. It is probable that there was very little Christian influence upon Muhammad in the earlier years of his mission as the initial chapters of the Qur’an make no specific mention of the Christian faith, yet a study of the later surahs shows that, as his contacts with Christians increased, in particular with those in southern Syria, so the Qur’an’s dependence on local Christian characteristics grew as well.

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3. ABRAHA AND THE YEAR OF THE ELEPHANT

THE CHRISTIAN KING OF ABYSSINIA

An event that took place near Mecca not long before the rise of Islam has to be included in any assessment of the environment in which Muhammad founded the new faith. ***After the demise of Dhu Nuwas the king of Abyssinia, Abraham  decided to make the Christian faith dominant in southern Arabia and he had a fine cathedral built at San`a to which he hoped to draw all the Arabs as pilgrims. The city survives to this day in what is now Yemen, though the church he built has long since vanished.

Abraha, although a determined warrior, had a good reputation in the region. He was known to be a Christian of sincere conviction, indeed a very zealous one, and he was renowned for his keen sense of justice, his charitable nature and the manner in which he championed the cause of the poor and the unfortunate.

***Nonetheless he was determined to make San`a the commercial centre of the Arabian peninsula and soon after the completion of his cathedral he issued a proclamation obliging all Arabs to visit it annually. He was well aware of the popularity of the Ka’aba in Mecca and he was fixed in his purpose to displace it as the commercial and religious centre of Arabia. His decree generally went unheeded, however, and the Christian King of Himyar watched with grief as the hordes of pilgrims set out each year for Mecca instead.

An independent record of his contests with the resident tribes in the area of the Yemen is introduced with an inscription introducing the name of the Triune God of the Christians in terms that show that the exact essence of the Trinity was well-known to the Christians of Arabia, notwithstanding a misrepresentation of it in the Qur’an. A record of his management of the repairs to the dam of Marib in southern Arabia begins with these words: “By the power of the Merciful One (Rhmnn), and His Messiah (w-Mshhw), and of the Holy Spirit (rh quds)”. The Qur’an acknowledges Allah as ar-Rahman (Surah 17:110) and recognises Jesus as al-Masih (Surah 4:171), but it regards the Trinity as representing Allah, Jesus and his mother Mary (Surah 5:78, 5:119) while the holy spirit (ruhul- quddus) is identified as the medium of revelation (Surah 16:102), elsewhere said to be Jibril, the Angel Gabriel (Surah 2:97). The use of the

correct trinitarian formula in an Arabian inscription not long before the rise of Islam, however, shows that the Qur’an is not treating an error among the local Christians and its own misconception does tend to give the impression that the founder of Islam himself was in some confusion at this point.

ABRAHA’S MARCH ON THE KA`ABA AT MECCA

News came to the Christian king one day that a member of the tribe of Kenanah had entered his cathedral and had desecrated it by strewing animal dung all over its interior. Abraha was infuriated, more particularly when he heard that the tribes in the vicinity had revolted against his rule and had assassinated his ally Muhammad ibn Khuza`a, the king of Modar. So he decided to lead an expedition to Mecca with the sole purpose of destroying the Ka`aba.

A large contingent set out with numerous soldiers and horsemen. A unique feature of the army was the inclusion of an elephant among the other animals taken along, a circumstance which was later to give the year in which the march took place its name, the Year of the Elephant. (The actual year was 570 AD). When it reached Mughammis near Mecca, Abraha sent a contingent to the outskirts of the city and the soldiers plundered what they could including two hundred camels belonging to `Abd al-Muttalib who was to become Muhammad’s grandfather.

The Quraysh meanwhile decided it was useless to try to resist the large army and Abraha, sensing their unwillingness to engage him, sent a messenger to Mecca telling them he did not wish to fight anyone but sought only to destroy the Ka`aba. He summoned a representative to come out and meet him and `Abd al-Muttalib duly went forth. When he arrived he demanded that his camels be returned to him. Abraha was surprised that he should only be concerned about his animals when the centre of his religious faith was about to be eliminated but the Arab retorted that, while the camels were his concern, the Lord of the Ka`aba would look after his own house and would defend it against him.

Abraha returned the camels and set out for the Ka`aba. The Quraysh decided to withdraw to the hills around the town after ‘Abd al-Muttalib had first taken hold of the metal ring in the door of the shrine and had prayed to Allah to protect it. Meanwhile the elephant was brought to the front of the army and was decked in festive apparel. The guide of the procession marching on Mecca, one Nufayl, was very reluctant

to proceed with the journey and in a whispered but emphatic voice he commanded the elephant to kneel. He had learnt the words of command which the beast had been trained to understand and caused it to go down on its knees and refuse to march any further. Abraha was annoyed but no matter how hard he tried to persuade it to rise and press on with his army the elephant would not march on the city.

THE DESTRUCTION OF ABRAHA’S ARMY

It is not known exactly how the army came to grief but something dramatic appears to have happened to it to cause it to be decimated and give up the march on Mecca. A logical explanation can be given in that, as the Quraysh were occupying the hills, they may have rained down stones and rocks on the exposed force and obliged it to withdraw. An outbreak of smallpox or some other plague could likewise have caused Abraha to pull back without accomplishing his goal. A legend soon grew, however, that the army had been beaten back miraculously by a flock of birds which hurled down rocks and stones upon the soldiers. A record of this is found in the Qur’an itself in the following chapter:

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. Have

you not seen how your Lord dealt with the companions of the elephant? Did he not make their guile go astray? And he sent against them flights of birds, hurling against them stones of baked clay, and he made them like green stalks that have been consumed. Surah 105:1-5

The traditional story of this event describes these unique birds as about the size of a swallow with green plumage and yellow beaks. Each one is said to have had three pebbles, one in its beak and one each in its claws, and as they pelted the army hundreds perished as the pebbles, hurled with an unbelievable ferocity, pierced the soldiers’ coats of mail and found their mark. The rest of the army returned to Yemen and many others died on the way (giving the impression that it was most probably an outbreak of a disease such as small-pox that caused the catastrophe). Abraha himself died not long after returning to San`a and no further excursions from the city were undertaken.

The Qur’an, however, takes the legend at face value. The deliverance of the Ka`aba was obviously regarded by the Arabs as a miracle and a sign that the shrine had a divinely sanctioned significance. It is interesting to note that the Qur’an elsewhere describes the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in much the same way, saying that they too were assailed with “stones of baked clay” (hijaratam-min sijjil – Surah 15:74).

The sanctity of the Ka`aba, both prior to Islam and within its realm, is in no small measure the result of this incident. During his lifetime Muhammad always regarded it as a genuinely holy shrine despite the fact that it was surrounded by idols. The very sequel of an Arabian prophet may well have had some connection with this event, creating as it did a sense of divine protection upon the city of Mecca.

Two other factors may also assist in determining why that claimant to universal prophethood should have been Muhammad himself. Firstly it was his own grandfather who took the lead and initiative in opposing the Abyssinian ruler and in assuring him that the Lord of the Ka`aha would look after his own house just as the Arab chieftain had seen to his. *****Secondly it has always been believed by Muslim historians that Muhammad himself was born in 570 AD, the very Year of the Elephant, and it has been customary for Muslims throughout the history of Islam to regard the destruction of Abraha’s army as a sign of the imminent rise of a final messenger who would withstand all the attempts of pagans and unbelievers to destroy the ultimate revelation of God which would be given to him through the mediation of a divinely-inspired scripture.

It is not known for certain when Muhammad was actually born but there can be no doubt of his lineage and the place of his birth. He was born in Mecca of two members of the Banu Hashim, `Abdallah and his wife Amina. His father died shortly before he was born though his grandfather ‘Abd al-Muttalib lived on for some years and was the young boy’s official protector. Amina died six years after his birth, leaving the young Muhammad an orphan but one who was destined to transform the religious and social characteristics of his people and to eventually become the founder of the only major world religion to succeed the Christian faith. [2]

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***Pagan Origins of Islam: Ancient Pagan Customs Still Practiced today by Islam
This article discusses the monotheistic religion of Islam and its pre-Islamic pagan heritage.

(1) Worship at the Kaaba
According to the hadith, the Ka’aba in Mecca was a center of idol-worship, with the Ka’aba housing 360 idols:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Masud: The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time) there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka’aba. He started stabbing the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: “Truth (Islam) has come and Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished.”
Sahih Bukhari 3:43:658
Prophet Muhammad discarded the 360 idols but retained for Islam, the Ka’aba with its Black Stone, justifying it with the claim that Abraham and Ishmael originally constructed it. However, there is no historical or archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ka’aba beyond a few hundred years before Muhammad’s lifetime. In fact, Muhammad’s own words disprove any connection he was attempting to make between Abraham, Ishmael and the Ka’aba.

The Qur’an says Abraham built it:

Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Isma’il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
Qur’an 2:125
Muhammed says it was built 40 years prior to the Temple at Jerusalem:

Narrated Abu Dhaar: I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Which mosque was built first?” He replied, “Al-Masjid-ul-Haram.” I asked, “Which (was built) next?” He replied, “Al-Masjid-ul-Aqs-a (i.e. Jerusalem).” I asked, “What was the period in between them? He replied, forty years.
Sahih Bukhari 4:55:636
***The Temple at Jerusalem was built by Solomon around 958-951 BC. This implies that if Muhammad were to be believed, the Ka’aba must have been built approximately 998-991 BC. But Abraham lived around 2000 BC and both Abraham and Ishmael would have been dead by then.

If Muhammad is correct, then the Qur’an [and therefore Allah] is wrong. But if the Qur’an is correct in stating that Abraham and Ishmael built the Ka’aba, then Muhammad and the sahih hadith is wrong.

*****The Kaaba has nothing to do with Abraham or Ishmael. It has a wholly pagan heritage. Egyptian Professor and foremost authority on Arabic literature, Dr. Taha Husayn, said the following:

The case for this episode is very obvious because it is of recent date and came into vogue just before the rise of Islam. Islam exploited it for religious reasons.[1]
Also, according to sahih hadith, Muhammad even considered dismantling it:

Narrated Aswad: Ibn Az-Zubair said to me, “Aisha used to tell you secretly a number of things. What did she tell you about the Ka’ba?” I replied, “She told me that once the Prophet said, ‘O ‘Aisha! Had not your people been still close to the pre-Islamic period of ignorance (infidelity)! I would have dismantled the Ka’ba and would have made two doors in it; one for entrance and the other for exit.” Later on Ibn Az-Zubair did the same.
Sahih Bukhari 1:3:128
Worship at the Ka’aba and the kissing of the Black Stone are just the first of many practices adopted from 7th century paganism and repackaged within monotheistic Islam.

(2) ***Veneration of the Black-stone
The pagan gods of pre-Islamic Arabia were worshiped in the form of rectangular stones or rocks. For example, the pagan deity ‘Al-Lat’, mentioned in Qur’an 53:19, and believed by pre-Islamic pagans to be one of the daughters of Allah, was once venerated as a cubic rock at Ta’if in Saudi Arabia. An edifice was built over the rock to mark it apart as a house of worship.

(3) ***Al-lat stood in al-Ta’if, and was more recent than Manah. She was a cubic rock beside which a certain Jew used to prepare his barley porridge (sawiq). Her custody was in the hands of the banu-‘Attab ibn-Malik of the Thayif, who had built an edifice over her. […]She is the idol which God mentioned when He said, “Have you seen Al-lat and al-‘Uzza (Surah 53:19)?[2]
Kitab Al-Asnam (The Book of Idols), p 14
“A principal sacred object in Arabian religion was the stone, either a rock outcropping or a large boulder, often a rectangular or irregular black basaltic stone… of numerous baetyls, the best known is the Black-stone of the Ka’aba at Mecca which became the central shrine object in Islam”.[3]
Encyclopedia Britannica
***There is no denying that the Black Stone was one among many stones and idols venerated at the Ka’aba by the pre-Islamic pagans. The Black Stone was kissed during pre-Islamic pagan worship. Though Muhammad threw out 360 other objects at the Ka’aba, he retained this Black Stone and continued the practice of kissing it. It is this same stone that the pre-Islamic pagans once kissed, that Muslims kiss today when visiting Mecca.

(4) ****Praying 5 Times Towards Mecca
Pagans prior to Islam would pray five times per day towards Mecca.[4] Muhammad retained for Islam, this pre-Islamic practice, sanctioning it with a story of a night trip to heaven on a mythical beast called al-Buraq. In heaven, the Hadith tells us that Allah demanded 50 prayers per day per Muslim. Upon advice from Moses, Muhammed bargains with Allah and successfully reduces it to five prayers per day.

Zoroastrians are also expected to recite their (kusti) prayers at least five times a day having first cleansed themselves by washing (ablution). So even today, this is not a practice unique to Islam.[5] But, contrary to the Muslims, they pray in the direction of the Sun (at each time of the day) and/or of the Holy Fire (if they are in a Fire Temple). [6]

(5) ****Fasting on the 10th of Muharram
***Muhammad’s pagan tribe, the Quraish, fasted on the 10th of Muharram. Though optional, Muhammad retained this pagan practice too.

Narrated ‘Aisha: ‘Ashura’ (i.e. the tenth of Muharram) was a day on which the tribe of Quraish used to fast in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance. The Prophet also used to fast on this day. So when he migrated to Medina, he fasted on it and ordered (the Muslims) to fast on it. When the fasting of Ramadan was enjoined, it became optional for the people to fast or not to fast on the day of Ashura.
Sahib Bukhari 5:58:172
(6) ****Tawaf between Safa and Marwa
Doing Tawaf between Safa and Marwa is an Islamic ritual associated with the pilgrimage to Mecca. Safe and Marwa are two mounts, located at Mecca. ***This ritual entails Muslims walking frantically between the two mounts, seven times. This was originally a pagan pre-Islamic practice. Muhammad retained it for Islam, sanctioning it with yet another Qur’anic revelation.[7]

Narrated ‘Asim: I asked Anas bin Malik: “Did you use to dislike to perform Tawaf between Safa and Marwa?” He said, “Yes, as it was of the ceremonies of the days of the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance, till Allah revealed: ‘Verily! (The two mountains) As-Safa and Al-Marwa are among the symbols of Allah. It is therefore no sin for him who performs the pilgrimage to the Ka’ba, or performs ‘Umra, to perform Tawaf between them.’ ” (2.158)
Sahih Bukhari 2:26:710
Clearly, the Hadith testifies that Muhammad merely adopted this pagan ceremony from the pre-Islamic “period of ignorance” and justified it with yet another convenient Qur’anic revelation.

A myth was also created about Hagar running between these two mounts in search of water until she found the Zamzam Well. Even if this story were true, why is this reason for people to run up and down between two mounts to please a god? This myth was not created to further justify the ritual, but for another reason; Muhammad was trying to market Zamzam, owned by his family, as a money-making venture.

(7) ****Requirement of Ihram
Ihram is a state a Muslim enters into for his pilgrimage to Mecca. It involves a series of procedures like ritual washing, wearing ‘Ihram garments’, etc. ***Ihram was originally a pagan requirement for worshipping idols during pre-Islamic times. Muhammad retained this practice for Islam. Muslims assume Ihram to perform the Hajj or Umrah.

Narrated ‘Urwa: I asked ‘Aisha : …But in fact, this divine inspiration was revealed concerning the Ansar who used to assume “Ihram” for worshipping an idol called “Manat” which they used to worship at a place called Al-Mushallal before they embraced Islam, and whoever assumed Ihram (for the idol), would consider it not right to perform Tawaf between Safa and Marwa.
Sahih Bukhari 2:26:706
(8) ****Circumambulation 7 Times

In the Islamic ritual of Tawaf, Muslims go around the Kaaba 7 times. In the Hindu marriage rite of Satphere, the married couple goes around a fire also 7 times. In both of these rituals, religious phrases are repeated during the circumambulation.
Circumambulation is to go in circles around a particular object. In Islam, worshippers and pilgrims do this around the Ka’aba at Mecca. Pre-Islamic pagans used do it to please the moon god Hubal, the 360 deities and Allah (who was merely one among the many deities worshipped there). Muhammad himself used to do it, even before the 360 idols inside the Ka’aba were removed.

Judaism and Christianity (the religions of those who are considered People of the Book) do not practice ritual circumambulation to please God. Two other faiths which do are Hinduism and Buddhism, religions older than Islam and accused by Islam of “paganism” and practicing idolatry.

(9) ****Crescent Moon Symbol
Hubal was the moon god worshiped at the Ka’aba. The crescent moon was Hubal’s symbol. Muhammad’s pagan grandfather Abd al-Muttalib almost slaughtered Muhammad’s father Abdallah at the Ka’aba, to Hubal. From Ibn Hisham:

An arrow showed that it was ‘Abdullah to be sacrificed. ‘Abdul-Muttalib then took the boy to Al-Ka’bah with a razor to slaughter the boy. Quraish, his uncles from Makhzum tribe and his brother Abu Talib, however, tried to dissuade him. They suggested that he summon a she-diviner. She ordered that the divination arrows should be drawn with respect to ‘Abdullah as well as ten camels. … the number of the camels (finally) amounted to one hundred. … They were all slaughtered to the satisfaction of Hubal.[8]
The Ka’aba, Islam’s holiest shrine, has been a place where such pagan human sacrifices and slaughters have taken place for Hubal. When Muhammad founded Islam, he discarded Hubal. At the Battle of Badr, his enemy Abu Sufyan praised the high position of moon god Hubal, saying “O Hubal, be high”. Muhammad asked his followers to yell back, “Allah is higher”.[9]

(10) ****Is moon-god Tubal no longer “higher”? Is Islam completely free of the ‘moon’ influence? ***Take a closer look at mosques all over the world, and you are likely to find Hubal’s symbol, the crescent moon, positioned at a high point of the mosque. As with the Cross for Christianity and the Star of David for Judaism, the Crescent moon is today a universal symbol for Islam.

It may not be a deliberate effort to worship Hubal. And yet, interestingly, through Islam, the pagan prayer of Muhammad’s enemy Abu Sufyan at Badr has been answered, “O Hubal be high”. [3]

If Allah was Unique, Muhammad would not have needed to plagiarise the Bible

Plagiarism of the Bible
(1) Genesis 1:1-5
Bible:

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.
Genesis 1:1-5 – KJV
Qur’an:

Praise be God, Who created the heavens and the earth, and made the darkness and the light. Yet those who reject Faith hold (others) as equal, with their Guardian-Lord.
Qur’an 6:1
And We appoint the night and the day two portents. Then We make dark the portent of the night, and We make the portent of the day sight-giving, that ye may seek bounty from your Lord, and that ye may know the computation of the years, and the reckoning; and everything have We expounded with a clear expounding.
Qur’an 17:12
(2) Genesis 1:2
Bible:

And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
Genesis 1:2 – KJV
Qur’an:

And He it is Who has created the heavens and the earth in six Days and His Throne was on the water,
Qur’an 11:7
(3) Genesis 1:6-8
Bible:

And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.
Genesis 1:6-8 – KJV
Qur’an:

Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and we made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe?
Qur’an 21:30
(4) Genesis 1:12
Bible:

And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself,
Genesis 1:12 – KJV
Qur’an:

And the earth – We have spread it forth and made in it firm mountains and caused to grow in it of every suitable thing.
Qur’an 15:19
(5) Psalms 104:19
Bible:

He appointed the moon for seasons: the sun knoweth his going down.
Psalms 104:19 -KJV
Qur’an:

It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time). Nowise did God create this but in truth and righteousness. (Thus) doth He explain His Signs in detail, for those who understand.
Qur’an 10:5
(6) Genesis 1:31
Bible:

And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
Genesis 1:31 – KJV
Qur’an:

Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days, then He mounted the Throne. The Beneficent! Ask anyone informed concerning Him!
Qur’an 25:59
(7) Psalms 24:1
Bible:

The earth is the LORD’s, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.
Psalms 24:1 – KJV
Qur’an:

Unto Allah belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. And We charged those who received the Scripture before you, and (We charge) you, that ye keep your duty toward Allah. And if ye disbelieve, lo! unto Allah belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and Allah is ever Absolute, Owner of Praise.
Qur’an 4:131
(8) Psalms 33:6-9
Bible:

By the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the army of heaven by the breath of his mouth.He makes the waters of the sea come together in a mass; he keeps the deep seas in store-houses. Let the earth be full of the fear of the Lord; let all the people of the world be in holy fear of him. For he gave the word, and it was done; by his order it was fixed for ever.
Psalms 33:6-9 – KJV
Qur’an:

The Originator of the heavens and the earth! When He decreeth a thing, He saith unto it only: Be! and it is.
Qur’an 2:117
(9) Psalms 104:25-26
Bible:

So is this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both small and great beasts. There go the ships: there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein.
Psalms 104:25-26 – KJV
If you send out your spirit, they are given life; you make new the face of the earth.
Psalms 104:30 – KJV
Who covereth the heaven with clouds, who prepareth rain for the earth, who maketh grass to grow upon the mountains. He giveth to the beast his food, and to the young ravens which cry.
Psalms 147:8-9 – KJV
Qur’an:

Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of night and day, and the ships which run upon the sea with that which is of use to men, and the water which Allah sendeth down from the sky, thereby reviving the earth after its death, and dispersing all kinds of beasts therein, and (in) the ordinance of the winds, and the clouds obedient between heaven and earth: are signs (of Allah’s Sovereignty) for people who have sense.
Qur’an 2:164
(10) Psalms 86:8-9
Bible:

Among the gods there is none like unto thee, O Lord; neither are there any works like unto thy works. All nations whom thou hast made shall come and worship before thee, O Lord; and shall glorify thy name.
Psalms 86:8-9
Qur’an:

There is no god but He: That is the witness of God, His angels, and those endued with knowledge, standing firm on justice. There is no god but He, the Exalted in Power, the Wise.
Qur’an 3:18
(11) Psalms 135:15-18
Bible:

The idols of the heathen are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. They have mouths, but they speak not; eyes have they, but they see not; They have ears, but they hear not; neither is there any breath in their mouths. They that make them are like unto them: so is every one that trusteth in them.
Psalms 135:15-18 – KJV
Qur’an:

And if ye call them to the Guidance, they follow you not. Whether ye call them or are silent is all one for you. Lo! those on whom ye call beside Allah are slaves like unto you. Call on them now, and let them answer you, if ye are truthful! Have they feet wherewith they walk, or have they hands wherewith they hold, or have they eyes wherewith they see, or have they ears wherewith they hear? Say: Call upon your (so-called) partners (of Allah), and then contrive against me, spare me not!
Qur’an 7:193
(12) Deuteronomy 32:39
Bible:

See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand.
Deuteronomy 32:39 – KJV
The LORD killeth, and maketh alive: he bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up.
1 Samuel 2:6 – KJV
Qur’an:

And verily, it is We Who give life, and Who give death: it is We Who remain inheritors (after all else passes away)
Qur’an 15:23
(13) 1 Samuel 2:7-8
Bible:

The LORD maketh poor, and maketh rich: he bringeth low, and lifteth up. He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the LORD’s, and he hath set the world upon them.
1 Samuel 2:7-8 – KJV
Qur’an:

Say O Allah! Possessor of the kingdom, You give the kingdom to whom You will, and You take the kingdom from whom You will, and You endue with honour whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, You are Able to do all things.
Qur’an 3:26
(14) Psalms 44:21
Bible:

Shall not God search this out? for he knoweth the secrets of the heart.
Psalms 44:21 – KJV
Qur’an:

Say: “Whether ye hide what is in your hearts or reveal it, God knows it all: He knows what is in the heavens, and what is on earth. And God has power over all things.
Qur’an 3:29
Psalms 113:4
Bible:

The LORD is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens.
Psalms 113:4 – KJV
Qur’an:

Possessor of the highest rank, Lord of power: He makes the inspiration to light by His command upon whom He pleases of His servants, that he may warn (men) of the day of meeting.
Qur’an 40:15
(15) Deuteronomy 25:13-16
Bible:

Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small. Thou shalt not have in thine house divers measures, a great and a small. But thou shalt have a perfect and just weight, a perfect and just measure shalt thou have: that thy days may be lengthened in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. For all that do such things, and all that do unrighteously, are an abomination unto the LORD thy God.
Deuteronomy 25:13-16 – KJV
Qur’an:

You shall give full measure when you trade, and weigh equitably. This is better and more righteous.
Qur’an 17:35
(16) Deuteronomy 10:20 & 30:20
Bible:

Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; Him shalt thou serve, and to Him shalt thou cleave and swear by His name.
Deuteronomy 10:20 – KJV
that thou mayest love the LORD thy God, and that thou mayest obey His voice, and that thou mayest cleave unto Him; for He is thy life and the length of thy days, that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them.”
Deuteronomy 30:20 – KJV
Qur’an:

And remember the Name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with a complete devotion.
Qur’an 73:08
(17) Psalms 113:1-2
Bible:

Praise ye the LORD! Praise, O ye servants of the LORD; praise the name of the LORD! Blessed be the name of the LORD from this time forth and for evermore.
Psalms 113:1-2 – KJV
Qur’an:

And remember your Lord by your tongue and within yourself, humbly and with fear without loudness in words in the mornings, and in the afternoons and be not of those who are neglectful.
Qur’an 7:205
(18)  Psalms 4:5
Bible:

Offer the sacrifices of righteousness, and put your trust in the LORD
Psalms 4:5 – KJV
Qur’an:

And Allah’s is the Invisible of the heavens and the earth, and unto Him the whole matter will be returned. So worship Him and put thy trust in Him. Lo! thy Lord is not unaware of what ye (mortals) do.
Qur’an 11:123
(19) Isaiah 55:7
Bible:

Let the wicked forsake his way and the unrighteous man his thoughts; and let him return unto the LORD, and He will have mercy upon him, and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon.
Isaiah 55:7 – KJV
Qur’an:

If ye are thankless, yet Allah is Independent of you, though He is not pleased with thanklessness for His bondmen; and if ye are thankful He is pleased therewith for you. No laden soul will bear another’s load. Then unto your Lord is your return; and He will tell you what ye used to do. Lo! He knoweth what is in the breasts (of men).
Qur’an 39:7
(20) Deuteronomy 15:11, 14:29 & Proverbs 28:27
Bible:

for the poor shall never cease out of the land. Therefore I command thee, saying: `Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy in thy land.’
Deuteronomy 15:11 – KJV
He that giveth unto the poor shall not lack, but he that hideth his eyes shall have many a curse.
Proverbs 28:27 – KJV
And the Levite (because he hath no part nor inheritance with thee), and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, who are within thy gates, shall come and shall eat and be satisfied, that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thine hand which thou doest.
Deuteronomy 14:29 – KJV
Qur’an:

(Alms are) for the poor who are confined in the way of Allah — they cannot go about in the land; the ignorant man thinks them to be rich on account of (their) abstaining (from begging); you can recognise them by their mark; they do not beg from men importunately; and whatever good thing you spend, surely Allah knows it. (As for) those who spend their property by night and by day, secretly and openly, they shall have their reward from their Lord and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve. Those who swallow down usury cannot arise except as one whom Shaitan has prostrated by (his) touch does rise. That is because they say, trading is only like usury; and Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury. To whomsoever then the admonition has come from his Lord, then he desists, he shall have what has already passed, and his affair is in the hands of Allah; and whoever returns (to it) — these arc the inmates of the fire; they shall abide in it. Allah does not bless usury, and He causes charitable deeds to prosper, and Allah does not love any ungrateful sinner. Surely they who believe and do good deeds and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate they shall have their reward from their Lord, and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.
Qur’an 2:273-277
(21) Proverbs 19:17
Bible:

He who is kind to the poor lends to the LORD, and he will reward him for what he has done.
Proverbs 19:17 – KJV
Qur’an:

Who is it that will lend unto Allah a goodly loan, so that He may give it increase manifold? Allah straiteneth and enlargeth. Unto Him ye will return.
Qur’an 2:245
(22) Proverbs 23:22 & 30:17
Bible:

Hearken unto thy father that begat thee, and despise not thy mother when she is old.
Proverbs 23:22 – KJV
The eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it.
Proverbs 30:17 – KJV
“Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Exodus 20:12 – KJV
Qur’an:

And your Lord has commanded that you shall not serve (any) but Him, and goodness to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age with you, say not to them (so much as) “Ugh” nor chide them, and speak to them a generous word. And make yourself submissively gentle to them with compassion, and say: O my Lord! have compassion on them, as they brought me up (when I was) little.
Qur’an 17:23-24
(23) Ephesians 4:31-32
Bible:

Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice: And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.
Ephesians 4:31-32 – KJV
Qur’an:

You shall resort to pardon, advocate tolerance, and disregard the ignorant.
Qur’an 7:199
And let not those of you who possess grace and abundance swear against giving to the near of kin and the poor and those who have fled in Allah’s way, and they should pardon and turn away. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
Qur’an 24:22
Those who spend (benevolently) in ease as well as in straitness, and those who restrain (their) anger and pardon men; and Allah loves the doers of good (to others).
Qur’an 3:134
(24) Matthew 5:27-29
Bible:

Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
Matthew 5:27-29 – KJV
Qur’an:

Say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts; that is purer for them; surely Allah is Aware of what they do; And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their head-coverings over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands or their fathers, or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or those whom their right hands possess, or the male servants not having need (of women), or the children who have not attained knowledge of what is hidden of women; and let them not strike their feet so that what they hide of their ornaments may be known; and turn to Allah all of you, O believers! so that you may be successful.
Qur’an 24:30-31
(25) 1 Corinthians 5:11 & Corinthians 10:14
Bible:

But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolator, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat.
1 Corinthians 5:11 – KJV
Therefore, my dear friends, flee from idolatry.
Corinthians 10:14 – KJV
Qur’an:

You shall maintain your devotion absolutely to GOD alone. Anyone who sets up any idol beside GOD is like one who fell from the sky, then gets snatched up by vultures, or blown away by the wind into a deep ravine.
Qur’an 22:31
(26) Matthew 10:12-13
Bible:

And when ye come into an house, salute it. And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you.
Matthew 10:12-13 – KJV
Qur’an:

There is no fault in the blind, and there is no fault in the lame, and there is no fault in the sick, neither in yourselves, that you eat of your houses, or your fathers’ houses, or your mothers’ houses, or your brothers’ houses, or your sisters’ houses, or the houses of your uncles or your aunts paternal, or the houses of your uncles or your aunts maternal, or that whereof you own the keys, or of your friend; there is no fault in you that you eat all together, or in groups separately. But when you enter houses, greet one another with a greeting from God, blessed and good. So God makes clear to you the signs; haply you will understand.
Qur’an 24:61 [4]

An Omniscient Allah would know all things and would not have made such blunders

Scientific Errors of the Quran
Muslims believe that the Qur’an contains a message from an all-powerful, all-knowing, infallible being. If this is true then it should not contain any errors, mistakes, or information that contradicts known facts about the universe. If even one error exists in the text of Islam’s holy book then the claims of divine authorship and infallibility are not true. An objective evaluation of the Qur’an shows that it contains numerous scientific and historical errors and it reflects a pre-scientific, 7th century view of the natural world.

Some apologists will contest these numerous scientific errors in the Qur’an by appealing to metaphor, alternative meanings, or phenomenological interpretations of the text. Even if we suppose that alternative explanations were possible in every case, the wording and content of the Qur’anic verses often mimic the popular mythology and unscientific misconceptions of the time in which they were recorded. The author of the Qur’an makes no clear or unambiguous statements that differentiate his understanding of the natural world from the common folklore of the people living in the 7th century. If the Qur’an was delivered by an all-powerful, all-knowing being then he would have been able to foresee how such ambiguous and misleading statements would be understood by future generations and the doubts and confusions they would cause. This alone should be reason to reject any claims to its divine authorship.

Astronomy
Geocentricism

Main Article: Geocentrism and the Qur’an
The Qur’an mentions numerous times that the sun and the moon travel in an orbit, but does not mention once that the earth does too. This is consistent with a earth-centered (geocentric) view of the cosmos that places a motionless earth at the center of the universe and all “heavenly bodies” travel around the earth. This was the prevailing understanding of the universe prior to the 16th century when Copernicus helped explain and popularize a sun-centered (heliocentric) view of the universe. Tellingly, the sun’s orbit is always mentioned in the context of night and day.

A token unto them is night. We strip it of the day, and lo! they are in darkness. And the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise.
Qur’an 36:37-38
This is in a passage about night and day. Right after describing the change from day to night, it says that the sun runs on to a resting place for it (a few translations use instead, “appointed term”, though in nearly all other verses where we find قرر as a participle they translate it as a place of settlement or an abode or resting place. There are also sahih hadith that mention the sun’s daily cycle using the same Arabic word as in verse 36:38 to mean a resting place Sahih Muslim 1:297 (for the Arabic of this hadith, see here).

The alternative view was that it refers to the sun’s final resting on the last day. There are other verses (35:13, 31:29, 39:5, 13:2) that mention the sun and moon floating/swimming (with the same verb as is translated “run” in 36:38) for a term appointed (لِأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى which does have that meaning – مُسْتَقَرٍّ in 36:38 is a different word). Another version of the above mentioned hadith (e.g. Sahih Bukhari 9:93:520 – for the Arabic see here) probably supports this view, with a different ending indicating that the مُسْتَقَرٍّ (resting place) in 36:38 refers to the end of the world when the sun is asked to rise from its setting place (مِنْ مَغْرِبِهَا). Whichever interpretation was intended, the sun’s movement is nevertheless mentioned right after describing day and night, just as the next verse mentions the different mansions appointed for the moon each night. The whole passage is about day and night and the sun and moon’s movement in that context.

It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.
Qur’an 36:40
Some apologists try to explain away the Qur’anic description of the sun moving in an orbit as a reference to our sun orbiting the black hole at the center of the milky way galaxy every 225 million years. This is an Ad hoc hypothesis, of no relevance to human time scales, and nothing from the text implies that the sun is orbiting anything other than the earth. If the author had knowledge of the sun orbiting a black hole then it is conspicuous that he never mentions it explicitly nor in any way differentiates the sun’s orbit from that of the moon.

In the Qur’an, the moon and the sun orbit the earth together. There is no distinction made between the moon, which actually revolves around the earth, and the sun which only appears to revolve around the earth when in fact the sun’s apparent movement through the sky is a product of the rotation of the earth around its axis.

By the Sun and his (glorious) splendour; By the Moon as she follows him;
Qur’an 91:1-2}
The Arabic word translated “follow” is primarily defined as to follow, go or walk behind, follow in way of immitation, of action etc. and is often used for animals like camels following behind each other. This is very much compatible with and suggestive of a worldview in which the moon and sun traverse the same or similar paths after one another, which is what a 7th century person might believe from observing the sky. The choice of word is not suggestive merely of appearing one after the other.

And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit.
Qur’an 21:33
Hast thou not seen how Allah causeth the night to pass into the day and causeth the day to pass into the night, and hath subdued the sun and the moon (to do their work), each running unto an appointed term; and that Allah is Informed of what ye do?
Qur’an 31:29
Notice also that the path of the sun is something that the author expects people to have seen (another problem for the galactic orbit interpretation).

Setting and Rising Place of the Sun
Main Article: Dhul-Qarnayn and the Sun Setting in a Muddy Spring
The Qur’an assumes a flat earth which has physical places into which the sun sets and rises from. Since the earth is a rotating sphere, the sun does not set in any particular place and you can never travel to “the spot” where the sun sets nor a place where it rises; the sun appears to set or rise on the horizon no matter where you are on the planet. In these verses, the author propagates a popular legend from the 7th century of a man named Dhu’l-Qarnayn who visits the places where the sun sets and rises; here he finds the sun going down into a muddy spring and later rising on a tribe with no coverings.

Till, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it setting in a muddy spring, and found a people thereabout. We said: O Dhu’l-Qarneyn! Either punish or show them kindness.
Qur’an 18:86
Till, when he reached the rising-place of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had appointed no shelter therefrom.
Qur’an 18:90
Some Muslim Apologists have come up with creative interpretations of these verses to say that Dhu’l-Qrnayn only traveled until he reached “the west” or to a spot “at the time” when the sun set and not the “place” where the sun set. Unfortunately, these alternative interpretations are severely undermined by the context and Arabic words used in these verses, which instead point to a physical location. Again, we must ask why an all-knowing being would use such misleading verses that mimic the misconceptions and legends prevalent at the time if one of these alternative explanations is correct.

Stars are Missiles Shot at Devils
Main Article: Mistranslations of Qur’an 67:5
The author of the Qur’an does not seem to know the difference between stars (giant balls of gas thousands of times larger than the earth) and meteorites which are small rocky masses of debris which brighten up after entering the earth’s atmosphere. Many ancient people confused the two, as meteorites look like stars that are streaking across the sky; this is why there were often called shooting stars or falling stars. In the following verse, the Qur’an claims that Allah uses stars as missiles to ward away devils. This repeats a common Arab myth at the time the Qur’an was first recited.

And verily We have beautified the world’s heaven with stars/lamps, and We have made them missiles for the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flame.
Qur’an 67:5
Except such as snatch away something by stealth, and they are pursued by a flaming fire, of piercing brightness.
Qur’an 37:10

Moon Emits Light
The moon does not emit its own light but simply reflects light coming from the Sun. The Arabic word for reflected (in`ikaas) does not appear in this Qur’anic verse that says the Moon is a “light”. It instead uses the word “Noor” which is used to denote an entity that emits light.

And hath made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp?
Qur’an 71:16
The word “Noor” is also used in this verse to show that Allah is the “light” of the universe. Clearly the author is not implying that Allah reflects light from another source but is the source of the light.

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp: the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star: Lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it: Light upon Light! Allah doth guide whom He will to His Light: Allah doth set forth Parables for men: and Allah doth know all things.
Qur’an 24:35

Moon was Split in Two
Main Article: Moon Split Miracle
The Qur’an and Hadith claim that the moon was miraculously split into two pieces and then, presumably, put back together again. There is absolutely no scientific evidence whatsoever that the moon has ever been split into two. Since the moon is visible to half the planet at any given time, we should expect to see numerous accounts from different parts of the world attesting to this event if it actually happened. The Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, Persians, Chinese and Indians had avid astronomers who should have seen this event and recorded it in their histories. The absence of historical record from other civilizations, contemporary to Muhammad, is a strong indication that this event never happened.

The hour drew nigh and the moon did rend asunder.
Qur’an 54:1-3
Narrated Anas: “That the Meccan people requested Allah’s Apostle to show them a miracle, and so he showed them the splitting of the moon.”
Sahih Bukhari 4:56:831

Sun, Moon and Stars Created for Humans
The sun, moon and stars are much older than humans. But the Qur’an states their created purpose is for timekeeping and navigation.

It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time).
Qur’an 10:5
They ask thee concerning the New Moons. Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men, and for Pilgrimage.
Qur’an 2:189
He it is that cleaveth the day-break (from the dark): He makes the night for rest and tranquillity, and the sun and moon for the reckoning (of time): Such is the judgment and ordering of (Him), the Exalted in Power, the Omniscient.
Qur’an 6:96
It is He Who maketh the stars (as beacons) for you, that ye may guide yourselves, with their help, through the dark spaces of land and sea: We detail Our signs for people who know.
Qur’an 6:97

Night is a Veil
Night is just the darkness of space as seen from the earth due its rotation.

Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o’er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession:
Qur’an 7:54
Seven Planets in the Universe
Main Article: Cosmology of the Qur’an
This verse claims there are seven planets. However, according to astronomers, there are eight ordinary planets and five dwarf planets, which leaves the grand total at thirteen in our solar system. Modern astronomy also has found hundreds of other planets in other solar systems and Cosmologists estimate that hundreds of billions of stars and planets exist in the universe. The author of the Qur’an singling out such a small number of celestial objects only reaffirms his ignorance of the makeup of the universe.

Allah is He Who created seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah comprehends, all things in (His) Knowledge.
Qur’an 65:12
A Tafsir (interpretation of the Qur’an) attributed to Ibn Abbas, but by an unknown author and date, says that Allah means that all 7 planets are flat planets.

Allah is He who created 7 heavens one above the other like a dome, and of the Earths, the like thereof, 7 planets but they are flat
Tafsir Ibn-Abass
A hadith suggests that these are seven earths stacked above each other.

The Prophet said, “Whoever takes a piece of the land of others unjustly, he will sink down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.
Sahih Bukhari 3:43:634

Seven Heavens
Main Article: Cosmology of the Qur’an
The universe consists of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of stars. There is no such thing as seven layers to the universe. This myth of seven heavens was a common idea prevalent in the Middle East during the time when the Qur’an was first recited.

See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another
Qur’an 71:15
There are only 5 not 7 principal layers to the Earth’s atmosphere, and likewise only 5 not 7 major layers to the Earth itself.

Allah is He Who created seven heavens, and of the earth the like of them; the decree continues to descend among them, that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah indeed encompasses all things in (His) knowledge.
Qur’an 65:12
Stars are Located in the Nearest Heaven[edit]
Stars are spread throughout the Universe and there is no such thing as the “nearest” heaven or layer. Also, this verse is in keeping with the author’s claim (Quran 71:15 as described above) that the seven heavens are arranged one above the other.

Surely We have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment, the stars
Qur’an 37:6

Earth Created in Six Days
Main Article: Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:Creation
The earth first formed around 9 billion years after the Big Bang. The Qur’an, however, repeats the prevailing middle eastern myth that the earth and universe were formed in six days.

We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in Six Days, nor did any sense of weariness touch Us
Qur’an 50:38
Muslim apologists try and rescue the Qur’an by pointing to an alternative meaning of the Arabic word ‘yawm’ which typically means ‘day’ but can sometimes mean ‘time period’. However the predominant meaning of the word is day and when a specific number is used, in this case six, the word almost always means a literal 24-hour day. Again, nothing in the context of the verses, nor the Qur’an in general, suggests the universe or earth were formed over long time periods. Secondly, neither the universe nor earth were formed in six long periods of time. It would have been trivial for an all-knowing diety to simply state that the universe was first formed over 13.8 billion years ago. However, this information is conspicuously missing.

Earth Created before Stars
The author of the Qur’an is also unaware that the elements in the Earth’s crust and core were first formed in stars. Modern science has proposed that all the elements that make up the earth (Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Iron, etc.) was originally formed by nucleosynthesis in stars and then expelled into the universe when those stars supernova. Yet the Qur’an describes the earth being formed before the stars and from “smoke” or material that pre-dates stars. All rocky and gaseous planets in the universe were formed in a similar manner to the earth and the Qur’an singling out the earth only further highlights the authors ignorance of the history of the formation of celestial objects.

He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things.
Qur’an 2:29
Earth and Heavens were Ripped Apart
Some apologists claim that the following verse is compatible with the Big Bang theory. But according to this theory, the Universe was formed about 13.8 billion years ago due to a rapid expansion from singularity. The earth was formed 4.54 billion years ago from accretion of debris that surrounded the precursor of the Sun. There was no “separation” of the “joined” earth and heavens as this verse suggests. It is, in fact, a repetition of cosmic egg myths in which an egg-like structure was split into two halves, the lower half forming the earth and the upper half forming the heaven.

Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?
Qur’an 21:30

Universe was Made from Smoke by Contraction
Main Article: Quran and a Universe from Smoke
Neither was there any stage of formation of the Universe that involved smoke (carbon particles suspended as a result of combustion) nor did the earth and heavens “come” together at any point of time. Earth is a part of this Universe and has developed within it.

Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower.
Qur’an 41:11-12
The next verse clearly says that stars were created after the seven heavens which took two days to create, and after the earth which was created even earlier.

The Cause of Shadows
Shadows are produced when the sun’s light is blocked by an obstacle. It is the Earth’s rotation that causes these shadows to change size and location. However, by calling the sun the guide of shadows, this verse claims shadows are caused due to the sun’s movement. A non-living “guide” can have two meanings: a controller of movement or an indicator. Other translations of this verse do call the sun an indicator but this is also unscientific because the sun cannot indicate them.

Hast thou not turned thy vision to thy Lord?- How He doth prolong the shadow! If He willed, He could make it stationary! then do We make the sun its guide; Then We draw it in towards Ourselves,- a contraction by easy stages.
Qur’an 25:45-46
Further, this verse suggests that shadows can be made stationary i.e. the rotation of the earth can be stopped. This is not possible. Then the next verse says that shadows are drawn towards Allah which has no scientific meaning.

Sun is a Flat Disk
This verse suggests that the Sun is flat and can be folded up. The Sun appears as a flat disc from the perspective of a person on earth, but the sun is in fact a near-perfect sphere (oblate spheroid). The verse implies the authors ignorance of this fact.

When the sun (with its spacious light) is folded up
Qur’an 81:1
The similar size and distance of the sun and moon[edit]
Main Article: Geocentrism and the Qur’an
The Qur’an has statements about the end of the world that are much as one would expect if the author believed the sun and moon to be of similar size and a similar distance from Earth.

And the moon darkens And the sun and the moon are joined,
Qur’an 75:8-9
The word translated “are joined” is Arabic jumi’a, a verb which means to collect together, gather together, bring together. Given that this would actually require the moon to travel 98 million miles away from Earth and into the sun, which dwarfs it by over 600 times in diameter, it seems vastly less fitting as an apocalyptic event than if the ancient conception of the cosmos was correct.

Sky is a Tent/Dome
A common myth at the time of the Quran’s composition was that the sky or heavens were held up with pillars. Many Bedouin people living in Arabia imagined the sky as a large tent covering, similar to the tents they used. The author repeats this myth by describing the sky as being “raised” above the earth.

It is He Who made the Earth a couch for you, and the sky a dome.
Qur’an 2:22
Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see
Qur’an 13:2
In another verse, the author says that the sky has a covering.

And when the heaven has its covering removed,
Qur’an 81:11
Sky Guards the Earth
Asteroids and meteorites have penetrated the atmosphere and hit the earth throughout the course of history. This includes the massive meteorite that hit near the Yucatán Peninsula 65 million years which killed off numerous species including most dinosaurs. There is no guardian, whatsoever, that prevents these types of events form happening.

And We have made the heavens as a canopy well guarded: yet do they turn away from the Signs which these things (point to)
Qur’an 21:32
Sky can Fall Down on People
The Qur’an author thought that the sky is like a ceiling that can fall on someone while the earth can swallow someone too. This is obviously impossible as the earth’s atmosphere is simply made of gas.

See they not what is before them and behind them, of the sky and the earth? If We wished, We could cause the earth to swallow them up, or cause a piece of the sky to fall upon them. Verily in this is a Sign for every devotee that turns to Allah (in repentance).
Qur’an 34:9
Sky can be Rolled Up
This is another verse implying that the sky or heaven is something solid.

The Day when We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll.
Qur’an 21:104
Ignorance of the North and South Poles
Main Article: The Ramadan Pole Paradox
In polar regions, the longevity of day and night vary during summer and winter. The day gets shorter and shorter in winter until there are days or weeks of uninterrupted night. At the poles themselves, day and night alternately last for six months and all phases of the moon occur several times between sunrise and sunset. The author of the Qur’an did not know about this and he only repeated earlier geocentric ideas.

It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.
Qur’an 36:40
Furthermore, when reading this verse one should wonder in what sense day and night each have an orbit. This does, however, seem to fit with another verse (see above Night is a Veil).

Biology
Evolution
The Qur’an presupposes a creationist view of life on earth. Its understanding of the history of human life is incompatible with the overwhelming scientific evidence that humans have evolved from prior life forms, over the course of millions of years, through natural selection [1]. While some Muslims accept the theory of evolution, most reject it in favor of a creationist world view. Opinion polls show that the majority of Muslims agree Islam and evolution are not compatible.

Human Creation from Clay
Main Article: Creation of Humans from Clay
The Qur’an state that humans were created instantaneously from mud or clay. There is no indication that the author is aware of the evolution of human life over millions of years nor our common ancestry with apes and primates.

We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape;
Qur’an 15:26
To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: “Be,” and it is.
Qur’an 2:117
First Humans: Adam and Eve
Main Article: Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:Creation
The Qur’an and Hadith contains stories concerning the ‘first humans’ and how all people are descended from these two earliest ancestors. It states that humans were created in a garden (paradise) and then brought to earth fully formed. This view of the origins of human life is clearly contradicted by the numerous fossils of pre-homosapien species that lived on earth for millions of years before modern humans first evolved.[2]

“He it is Who created you from a single being, and of the same (kind) did He make his mate,”
Qur’an 7:189
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah ‘s Apostle said, “Treat women nicely, for a women is created from a rib, and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion, so, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely.”
Sahih Bukhari 4:55:548
Some Muslim apologists will claim the view of two ancestral “parents” is consistent with recent scientific findings that show a common female and male ancestor of all modern humans. They often exploit the confusion caused by scientists referring to these genetic ancestors as Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam. These two individuals bear little resemblance to the Quranic account as they are simply the last common male and female ancestors of everyone alive today, not of all humans in history. The Qur’an clearly states Eve was created later than Adam, however Mitochondrial Eve lived some 50,000 to 80,000 years earlier than Y-chromosomal Adam.[3] Genetic evidence overwhelmingly indicates that humans diverged from earlier species as a population, not a single couple. [4].

Humans Created in Paradise and then Brought to Earth
Main Article: Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:Creation
The author of the Qur’an explicitly states that humans were first created outside of the earth and then only later sent down to live on the planet after being expelled from paradise. We have no evidence that humans ever lived in a terrestrial or extra-terrestrial paradise. In fact, all evidence points to primitive humanoids living in caves for tens of thousands of years before settling into more permanent dwellings. [5]

“Then did Satan make them slip from the (garden), and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: ‘Get ye down, all (ye people), with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood – for a time.’
Qur’an 2:36
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he was made to enter Paradise, on it he. was expelled from it.
Sahih Muslim 4:1856

Embryology
Main Article: Embryology in the Qur’an
The Qur’an and Hadith contain statements about bodily fluids and the stages of development of the human embryo. Many of these descriptions are vague and unscientific. Most bear a striking resemblance to similar descriptions found in the Jewish Talmud and the ideas of ancient Greeks such as Galen, including their errors.

Sperm Originates Between the Backbone and Ribs
Main Article: Qur’an and Semen Production
The Qur’an states, incorrectly, that semen originates from a spot between the backbone and ribs. Today we know sperm comes from the testicles and semen from the pelvic region, which is not between the spine and ribs.

He is created from a drop emitted- Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs
Qur’an 86:6-7
Embryo is Formed from Male and Female Fluids[edit]
Main Article: Greek and Jewish Ideas about Reproduction in the Quran and Hadith
The author of the Qur’an describes the formation of a human embryo from fluids emanating from the man (and possibly also of the woman). This reflects the contemporary, but incorrect, view that the embryo is initially formed out of semen stored in the womb. In fact, semen is the vehicle for the sperm cells, one of which fuses with a woman’s ovum in her fallopian tube, and the resulting cell divides and travels back into the womb for implantation. While English translations mention a “drop of seed”, or “drop of sperm”, the Arabic word in question literally means a small amount of liquid, a euphemism for semen.

Did We not create you from a liquid disdained? And We placed it in a firm lodging For a known extent.
Qur’an 77:20-22
From what thing doth He create him? From a drop of seed. He createth him and proportioneth him
Qur’an 80:18-19
Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm [nutfatin amshajin], in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight.
Qur’an 76:2
No Mention of Female Ovum
The Qur’an’s author did not mention the role of the ovum in human reproduction and appears to have no knowledge of it. This verse fails to mention the important role of the female egg, or ovum, plays in the reproduction of humankind. It implies that reproduction is caused simply by the male semen. The human ovum is very small, though visible to the human eye, and it’s purpose wasn’t understood in the 7th century. Again, we are left wondering why an all-knowing deity would omit such information.

He is created from a drop emitted
Qur’an 86:6
Humans Created from a Clot of Blood
Main Article: Embryology in Islamic Scripture
The Qur’an and Hadith depict that humans are formed from a clot of blood. There was never a stage in embryonic development where humans are formed into a clot of blood. This description is likely influenced by an unscientific and primitive understanding of human reproduction based on observations from an early-term miscarriage and a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:
Qur’an 96:2
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Mus’ud: “Allah’s Apostle, the true and truly inspired said, “(The matter of the Creation of) a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period.”
Sahih Bukhari 4:54:430
All Organisms are Created in Pairs
Main Article: Qur’anic Claim of Everything Created in Pairs
Not every creature procreates or reproduces through male and female sexual relationship. The whiptail lizard in the U.S. Southwest, Mexico, and South America, is an all-females species which reproduces by parthenogenesis. Viruses reproduce using a host’s DNA and are neither female nor male. Bacteria reproduce by cell division. Fungus can reproduce either sexually or asexually. Many species of plants also reproduce either asexually or through pollination.

And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction.
Qur’an 51:49
Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge.
Qur’an 36:36
Womb has Three Layers
Main Article: Greek and Jewish Ideas about Reproduction in the Qur’an and Hadith
The word butun (بطن) means belly/abdomen/midriff, though some translators like to use the more specific word “womb”. There are many more layers in the human body such as the endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium, peritoneum, besides the cervix uteri, corpus uteri, abdomen (with walls), and placenta (with layers). The idea of three membranes around the fetus (chorion, allantois, and amnion) was taught by the highly influential Greek physician, Galen. It is likely that the Quranic author is simply repeating this erroneous idea.

He created you (all) from a single person: then created, of like nature, his mate; and he sent down for you eight head of cattle in pairs: He makes you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness. such is Allah, your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion. There is no god but He: then how are ye turned away (from your true Centre)?
Qur’an 39:6
Bones are Formed before Flesh
Main Article: Embryology in the Qur’an
The Qur’an explains that the bones of a human embryo are formed first and then covered up with flesh. Modern scientific studies and research have shown that the bones and muscles of a developing fetus are formed simultaneously.

Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones then (not and) clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create!
Qur’an 23:14
Source and Purity of Milk
Main Article: Qur’an and Milk
The Qur’an states that milk is produced, in the body, somewhere between excretions and blood. The mammary glands, where milk is produced and stored, are nowhere near the intestines which is where excrement is stored. Many kinds of cattle and goat milk needs processing or pasteurization before they can safely be consumed; the milk is often infected with bacteria and other micro-organisms. A significant number of humans are lactose intolerant and unable to digest milk without experiencing abdominal bloating and cramps, flatulence, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. This makes the Qur’anic claim that milk is ‘pure’ and ‘agreeable’ to those who drink it dubious.

And verily in cattle (too) will ye find an instructive sign. From what is within their bodies between excretions and blood, We produce, for your drink, milk, pure and agreeable to those who drink it.
Qur’an 16:66
Corn has Seven Ears, Each with a Hundred Grains
A corn plant generally has only one or two ears and an ear has up to 600 grains.

The parable of those who spend their substance in the way of Allah is that of a grain of corn: it groweth seven ears, and each ear Hath a hundred grains.
Qur’an 2:261
Geology and Meteorology
The Earth is Flat
Main Article: Flat Earth and the Qur’an
Facing Toward Mecca[edit]
The Qur’an tells all Muslims to face in the direction of Mecca when they pray. However, this would only be possible on a flat Earth because it is not possible to bow down towards the direction of Mecca when you are on the opposite side of the earth. The author here presupposes a small world, local to Arabia, that is flat. Only in that world view can people everywhere face Mecca.

From whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; that is indeed the truth from the Lord. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.
Qur’an 2:149
Earth is Spread Out and Flat
The author of the Qur’an mentions to his audience that the earth is ‘spread out’ and layed flat like a carpet spread on the ground.

And at the Earth, how it is spread out?
Qur’an 88:20
The Qur’anic commentator al-Jalalayn in his Tasfir agrees with this understanding of the verse saying that most scholars at his time agree that the earth is flat and not spherical.

And the earth, how it was laid out flat?, and thus infer from this the power of God, exalted be He, and His Oneness? The commencing with the [mention of] camels is because they are closer in contact with it [the earth] than any other [animal]. As for His words sutihat, ‘laid out flat’, this on a literal reading suggests that the earth is flat, which is the opinion of most of the scholars of the [revealed] Law, and not a sphere as astronomers (ahl al-hay’a) have it, even if this [latter] does not contradict any of the pillars of the Law.
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
Earth is Like a Couch
The earth is described as a couch, flat and laid out for people to lay upon.

Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your dome; and sent down rain from the heavens; and brought forth therewith Fruits for your sustenance; then set not up rivals unto Allah when ye know (the truth).
Qur’an 2:22
Ibn-Kathir in his Tafsir agrees with this interpretation that the earth is flat and comfortable like a bed.

who has made the earth as flat and comfortable as a bed and placed upon it mountains standing firm… (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Part 1)
Ibn-Kathir
Earth is Like a Carpet
The earth is described like a carpet, completely flat and spread out on the ground and not rolled up for storage.

He Who has, made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels);
Qur’an 20:53
He Who has, made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky.” With it have We produced diverse pairs of plants each separate from the others.
Qur’an 43:10
Earth is a Wide Plain
The author of the Qur’an sees the earth as a wide plain or expanse. This is often likened to a flat bed, as some translators put it. Again, the author seems unaware of the curvature of the earth or the fact that it is a sphere.

Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse,
Qur’an 78:6
Earth is Level
The Qur’an describes a time in the future when mountains will be removed leaving the earth smooth and level. This description assumes the earth is already flat and level with only the mountains giving it shape. The author here appears to have no knowledge that the earth is curved and not level.

One Day We shall remove the mountains, and thou wilt see the earth as a level stretch, and We shall gather them, all together, nor shall We leave out any one of them.
Qur’an 18:47
They ask thee concerning the Mountains: say “My Lord will uproot them and scatter them as dust; He will leave them as plains smooth and level; Nothing crooked or curved wilt thou see in their place
Qur’an 20:105
Earth has Seven Atmospheric Layers
Main Article: Science and the Seven Earths
Some apologists believe the Qur’an describes the layers of the earth’s atmosphere when it refers to the firmament and it’s likeness on earth. However, scientists have determined that there are five principal layers in the atmosphere and not seven.

Allah is He Who Created seven firmaments and of the earth a similar number. Through the midst of them (all) descends His command: that ye may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah comprehends all things In (His) Knowledge.)”
Qur’an 65:12
The Earth does not Rotate
The author of the Qur’an repeats a common view of the 7th century that the earth was a fixed and un-moving object with the stars, sun, and moon revolving around it. The author appears to be unaware that the earth is rotating around its axis and moving through space around the sun.

Is not He (better than your gods) Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water). Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not.
Qur’an 27:61
(Is not He Who has made the earth as a fixed abode,) meaning, stable and stationary, so that it does not move or convulse, because if it were to do so, it would not be a good place for people to live on. But by His grace and mercy, He has made it smooth and calm, and it is not shaken or moved
The Command to praise Allah and send Blessings on His Messengers
Tafsir Ibn Kathir
Permanent Barrier between Fresh and Salt Water
Main Article: Meeting of Fresh and Salt Water in the Quran
When a fresh water river flows into the sea or ocean, there is a transition region in between. This transition region is called an estuary where the fresh water remains temporarily separated from the salt water. However, this separation is not absolute (thus cannot be described as a “barrier”), is not permanent, and the different salinity levels between the two bodies of water eventually homogenize. The Qur’an however erroneously says that the seperation between the two types of water is absolute and permanent.

It is He Who has let free the two bodies of flowing water: One palatable and sweet, and the other salt and bitter; yet has He made a barrier between them, a partition that is forbidden to be passed.
Qur’an 25:53
The Mountains Prevent Earthquakes
Main Article: The Qur’an and Mountains
Modern geology has discovered that large plates in the crust of the earth are responsible for the formation of mountains. Called Plate tectonic these massive plates meet and the pressure between them pushes up the crust forming mountains but also causing earthquakes and faults. the Qur’an propagates the idea that mountains are crucial in stabilizing the earth when, in fact, the earth would be much more stable and have less earthquakes if mountains did not exist.

And He has set up on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads; that ye may guide yourselves
Qur’an 16:15
Mountains Cast into the Earth
Mountains are usually formed through the movement of lithosphere plates. They were not thrown down into the earth.

And He hath cast into the earth firm hills that it quake not with you, and streams and roads that ye may find a way
Qur’an 16:15
Chest Contracts with Altitude
Main Article: Qur’an Describes Altitude Sickness
This verse says that your chest cavity gets smaller with higher altitude when in reality the opposite is true.

Those whom Allah (in His plan) willeth to guide,- He openeth their breast to Islam; those whom He willeth to leave straying,- He maketh their breast close and constricted, as if they had to climb up to the skies: thus doth Allah (heap) the penalty on those who refuse to believe.
Qur’an 6:125
Earthquakes are a Punishment from God
Main Article: Accidents and Natural Disasters in the Muslim World
Some of the highest death tolls from natural disasters in the last decade were in Muslim countries. In fact, natural disasters do not differentiate between Muslim or non-Muslim nations nor are they controlled by a divine being. Earth quakes are extremely common along tectonic fault lines and are not a punishment for human behavior but the byproduct of natural forces. The Qur’anic author perpetuates an unscientific understanding of his phenomena in there verses.

Do then those who devise evil (plots) feel secure that Allah will not cause the earth to swallow them up, or that the Wrath will not seize them from directions they little perceive?
Qur’an 16:45
But they denied him, and the dreadful earthquake took them, and morning found them prostrate in their dwelling place.
Qur’an 29:37
Hurricanes and Blizzards are a Punishment from God[edit]
Main Article: Accidents and Natural Disasters in the Muslim World
Two of the deadliest blizzards in history happened in Muslim countries. However, the Qur’an regards those natural disasters as violent punishment from God. Weather patterns follow predictable patterns and are not controlled by a divine being.

Do ye then feel secure that He will not cause you to be swallowed up beneath the earth when ye are on land, or that He will not send against you a violent tornado (with showers of stones) so that ye shall find no one to carry out your affairs for you
Qur’an 17:68
Rainwater is Pure
The Qur’an says rainwater is pure, though in some industrial areas rainwater can contain significant amounts of pollution and acidity. Called acid rain this type of rain causes harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and buildings.

And He it is Who sends the winds as good news before His mercy; and We send down pure water from the cloud,
Qur’an 25:48
No Evaporation in Water Cycle
Main Article: Water Cycle in the Qur’an
Every verse about rain in the Qur’an implies that rain comes either directly from the sky or from Allah. However evaporation of water into the air is conspicuously never mentioned.

That sends down (from time to time) rain from the sky in due measure;- and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead; even so will ye be raised (from the dead)
Qur’an 43:11
Hail Comes from Mountains in the Sky
Hail forms in cumulonimbus clouds when super-cooled water droplets freeze. However, the Qur’an mistakenly ascribed the formation of hail to invisible mountains in the sky.

Seest thou not that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? – then wilt thou see rain issue forth from their midst. And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) wherein is hail. He strikes therewith whom He pleases and He turns it away from whom He pleases, the vivid flash of His lightning well-nigh blinds the sight.
Qur’an 24:43
Thunder is an Angel
The Qur’anic author was superstitious about thunder and imagined this natural phenomena as an angel.

And the thunder declares His glory with His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him; and He sends the thunderbolts and smites with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is mighty in prowess.
Qur’an 13:13
Muslim sources, which explain this verse clearly, indicate that the author of the Qur’an believed that thunder was not an impersonal natural phenomenon, but an angel:

(The thunder hymneth His praise) by His command; it is an angel; it is also said: it is the voice of the sky (and (so do) the angels) and also the angels hymn His praise (for awe of Him) the angels have awe towards Allah. (He launcheth the thunder bolts) i.e. fire (and smiteth with them whom He will) He destroys by means of fire whoever He will, referring here to Zayd Ibn Qays whom Allah destroyed by fire, along with his friend ‘Amir Ibn al-Tufayl who was killed as a result of being stabbed in his waist (while they dispute (in doubt) concerning Allah) while they dispute with Muhammad (pbuh) concerning the Religion of Allah, (and He is mighty in wrath) His chastisement is severe
Tafsir Ibn-Abbas
Zoology
Bees Eat Fruit
Bees feed on nectar and pollen. However, the Qur’an relates that bees consume fruit.

And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in (men’s) habitations; Then to eat of all the fruits (of the earth), and find with skill the spacious paths of its Lord: there issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colors, wherein is healing for men: verily in this is a Sign for those who give thought.
Qur’an 16:68-69
Ants Recognize Humans and Speak with Each Other
Ants typically communicate with each other using pheromone which are a chemical signal. While scientists have also discovered that ants make some noises, nothing has ever indicated that the brains of ants could produce such complex communication as is depicted in the Quranic story of Solomon and the ants. However, the Qur’an tells us that not only does an ant warn her fellow ants of the approach of a large army of humans, but it recognizes one of the humans as Solomon. Then, he also understands her speech. How an ant could even see that far or have known the identify of Solomon is never explained. This account of a talking ant is clearly a legend and not scientific.

At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: “O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it.” So he smiled, amused at her speech; and he said: “O my Lord! so order me that I may be grateful for Thy favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: And admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants.”
Qur’an 27:18-19
Horses Created as Transportation
It took thousands of years of domestication and cross-breeding before horses were domesticated approximately 4,000 years ago in East Europe and Central Asia. Prior to this, horses were wild animals though the Qur’an neglects to mention this important fact. Even today feral horses are descendants of once domesticated horses that aren’t tamed or used for human transportation.

And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys, for you to ride and use for show; and He has created (other) things of which ye have no knowledge.
Qur’an 16:8
Bird Flight is a Miracle
Today, engineers and scientists are well aware of the aerodynamic properties of a bird’s wing. It functions by creating a difference in the air pressure between the lower and upper part of the wing and this creates lift that pushes the bird upward. The wings of birds evolved over millions of years to acquire this feature. The author of the Qur’an, however, is unaware of these scientific details and says that ‘nothing’ holds up the bird except the miraculous power of Allah.

Do they not look at the birds, held poised in the midst of (the air and) the sky? Nothing holds them up but (the power of) Allah. Verily in this are signs for those who believe
Qur’an 16:79
Classification of Creatures
The Qur’an observes that creatures of the desert move using their bellies (snake) or two legs (human) or four legs (cows, goats, etc.). However, the author fails to include insects such as millipedes that have a thousand legs.

And Allah has created every animal from water: of them there are some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills for verily Allah has power over all things.
Qur’an 24:45
Only Eight Types of Cattle
While the Qur’an states that there are eight kinds of cattle, In fact there are more than a dozen kinds of cattle. The word “cattle” in 39:6 is al-ana’ami, meaning pasturing (i.e. grazing) animals. The word azwajin (“kinds” in the translation of 39:6 below) generally means mate or member of a pair. Qur’an 6:143-144 clarifies that these refer to male and female pairs of sheep, goats, oxes and camels. This neglects other types of cattle from the regions outside of Arabia such as reindeer, which are important to people in northern latitudes.

He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate; and He hath provided for you of cattle eight kinds. He created you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, in a threefold gloom. Such is Allah, your Lord. His is the Sovereignty. There is no Allah save Him. How then are ye turned away
Qur’an 39:6
Birth Defects and Imperfections
The author of the Qur’an states that there are no flaws in anything. The author fails to mention the numerous defects and imperfections in all species.

Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou (Muhammad) canst see no fault in the Beneficent One’s creation; then look again: Canst thou see any flaw?
Qur’an 67:3
Poisonous Sea Life is Edible
A number of sea creatures are deadly and fatal to humans if consumed. This includes the puffer fish, poison dart frong, marbled cone snail, blue ringed octopus and stonefish. The Qur’an, however, makes no prohibition against eating these types of animals even though it goes into lengthy detail forbidding the consumption of pigs, which are safe for humans to eat.

Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food,- for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel; but forbidden is the pursuit of land-game;- as long as ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. And fear Allah, to Whom ye shall be gathered back.
Qur’an 5:96
Birds Fight Elephants
Birds and elephants don’t fight each other. In fact, African elephants and birds have a symbiotic relationship where the birds eat bugs and lice off of elephants [6]. The Qur’an here depicts a fanciful story of birds being directed to attack elephants and their riders during a battle.

Sees thou not how Allah dealt with the companions of the elephants? Did He not make their plan into misguidance? And he sent against them flights of birds.
Qur’an 105:1-3
Sinful Animals
According to the Qur’an, all animals will be judged for their sins. This despite the fact that animals are not as self-aware as humans and operate almost exclusively on instinct.

There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end.
Qur’an 6:38
History
Wall of Iron between Two Mountains
Main Article: Dhul-Qarnayn
The author of the Qur’an repeats the Syrian legend of Alexander the Great as a great king who helps a tribe of people build a massive wall of iron between two mountains. Even with satellites and near universal exploration of the world, no archaeologist has ever found even a trace of such a massive structure.

“Bring me blocks of iron.” At length, when he had filled up the space between the two steep mountain-sides, He said, “Blow (with your bellows)” Then, when he had made it (red) as fire, he said: “Bring me, that I may pour over it, molten lead.” Thus were they made powerless to scale it or to dig through it.

Qur’an 18:96-97
Christians Worship Mary as Part of the Trinity
Christians have never worshiped Mary as part of the Trinity. The author of the Qur’an seems to be mistaken in his understanding of the doctrine of the Trinity and the theology of Christians throughout history.

And behold! Allah will say: “O Jesus the son of Mary! Didst thou say unto men, worship me and my mother as gods in derogation of Allah’?” He will say: “Glory to Thee! never could I say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, thou wouldst indeed have known it. Thou knowest what is in my heart, Thou I know not what is in Thine. For Thou knowest in full all that is hidden
Qur’an 5:116
Mary Confused with Miriam
Each of the following verses narrates the story of Jesus’s birth. But Mary the mother of Jesus was born in the first century BCE and is not related to Moses and his family that existed 1500 years before. Miriam, not Mary, was the sister of Moses and Aaron and daughter of Amram (Imran).

At length she brought the (babe) to her people, carrying him (in her arms). They said: “O Mary! truly an amazing thing hast thou brought! O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a man of evil, nor thy mother a woman unchaste!”
Qur’an 19:27-28
And Mary, the daughter of ‘Imran, who guarded her chastity; and We breathed into (her body) of Our spirit;
Qur’an 66:12
Hence the claim that Mary’s mother is the wife of Imran is also false.

Behold! a woman of ‘Imran said: “O my Lord! I do dedicate unto Thee what is in my womb for Thy special service: So accept this of me: For Thou hearest and knowest all things.” When she was delivered, she said: “O my Lord! Behold! I am delivered of a female child!”- and Allah knew best what she brought forth- “And no wise is the male Like the female. I have named her Mary, and I commend her and her offspring to Thy protection from the Evil One, the Rejected.”
Qur’an 3:35-36
The fact that two different people are given the exact same name despite supposedly living over 1000 years apart in communities which spoke completely different languages (ancient paleo-hebrew and then syriac-aramiac), with different alphabets, also casts serious doubt on the precise historicity of the Qu’ranic account.

Coat of Mail was Invented during the Reign of David
There is no evidence that Coats of mail existed during the time of David (10th century BCE). The earliest example of a coat of mail was Celtic.[1] Its invention is commonly credited to the Celts.[2]

And assuredly We gave David grace from Us, (saying): O ye hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise! And We made the iron supple unto him, Saying: Make thou long coats of mail and measure the links (thereof). And do ye right. Lo! I am Seer of what ye do.
Qur’an 34:10-11
It was Our power that made the hills and the birds celebrate Our praises, with David: it was We Who did (all these things). It was We Who taught him the making of coats of mail for your benefit, to guard you from each other’s violence: will ye then be grateful?
Qur’an 21:79-80
Noah’s Ark holds Every Species
The legend of Noah and the Ark states that two of each kind of animal was placed on an ark. However, there are over a hundred thousand species of animals including penguins, polar bears, koala bears, and kangaroos that live spread across the entire planet and in different climates and requiring specialized diets. There is no way such an event could have occurred.

At length, behold! there came Our command, and the fountains of the earth gushed forth! We said: “Embark therein, of each kind two, male and female, and your family – except those against whom the word has already gone forth,- and the Believers.” but only a few believed with him.
Qur’an 11:40
Pharaoh or Pharaohs
Geographically, the Coptic land of Egypt was adjacent to Arabia. Thus, most Arabs were aware of the preservation method applied by the ancient Egyptian to their Pharaohs. There were so many Pharaohs ranging from numerous dynasties, many of them were preserved intact. But the Qur’an merely narrated one Pharaoh that was preserved.

This day shall We save thee in the body, that thou mayest be a sign to those who come after thee! but verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Signs!”
Qur’an 10:9

Jews call Ezair son of God
Historically, Judaism has been a strict form of monotheism. But the author of the Qur’an accuses Jews of polytheism by stating that they call Uzair (Ezra) the son of God in the same way that Christians see Jesus as the son of God. The author of the Qur’an seems to be unaware of the different theological implications of these two terms between Judaism and Christianity.

The Jews call ‘Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!
Qur’an 9:30
Supernatural Destruction of Cities
The Qur’an author thought that outside the vicinity of Arabia there were cities and tribes destroyed by Allah. He acquired this information through hearsay from Arabian folklore as well as other legends. Those cities and tribes probably were destroyed by natural disasters, famine, wars, migration or neglect.

Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the End of those before them? They were more numerous than these and superior in strength and in the traces (they have left) in the land: Yet all that they accomplished was of no profit to them.
Qur’an 40:82
Humans can Sleep for Three Hundred Years
The oldest verified human life has been a little over 120 years. Humans cannot live without food and water for more than a few days. However, the Qur’an incorporated a myth from the 5th century legends of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus who sleep in a cave for over 300 years and then miraculously awaken in perfect health. There is no historical evidence that this ever happened or could even been scientifically possible.

Then We sealed up their hearing in the Cave for a number of years.
Qur’an 18:11
Humans can Live for a Thousand Years
The oldest verified human life has been a little over 120 years. Based on fossil records and testing on human remains, anthropologists have concluded that human life spans are increasing, not decreasing. Nevertheless, the Qur’an claims that Noah lived for almost 1,000 years.

We (once) sent Noah to his people, and he tarried among them a thousand years less fifty: but the Deluge overwhelmed them while they (persisted in) sin.
Qur’an 29:14
Non-Existent Mosque in Jerusalem
Muslims claim that Al-Aqsa mosque is mentioned in the Qur’an as the furthest mosque, even though there was obviously no mosque in Jerusalem during Muhammad’s time.

Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).
Qur’an 17:1
Sociology
Fasting and Prayer Requirements at the Poles
Main Article: The Ramadan Pole Paradox
The author of the Qur’an was apparently unfamiliar with the polar regions in which there are six months of sunlight and six months of perpetual night during winter and summer. The Qur’an claims that Muslims should fast from sunrise till sunset, however this is arguably not observable by anyone living in the polar regions.

…then complete your fast Till the night appears;…
Qur’an 2:187
A similar issue exists for the five daily prayers. Anyone living in the polar region would not be able to make a sunset or sunrise prayer all year round. Even for cities further south like Aberdeen in Scotland, the gap between the night prayer (Isha) and the dawn prayer (Fajr) is around 4 and a half hours in June, so anyone following these rules has to interupt their sleep around 3.20am, then go back to sleep before getting up for the day. Such issues would not have crossed the mind of a 7th century man in Arabia, who believed that everyone experiences sunrise and sunset when he does, and where it would be perfectly natural to arise at dawn any time of the year.

Establish regular prayers – at the sun’s decline till the darkness of the night, and the morning prayer and reading: for the prayer and reading in the morning carry their testimony.
Qur’an 17:78
People are Protected in Mecca
Main Article: Hajj
The Qur’an claims Allah has made Mecca and the Ka’aba a place of safety. However, historically it has been attacked and seen battles numerous times. Juhayman al-Otaybi, Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, and Abu Tahir al-Janabi killed thousands of Muslim pilgrims in Mecca. Moreover, Yazid Bin Muawiya sent an army battalion to attack Mecca and desecrated the Ka’aba. The universal safety of people in Mecca has no historical evidence supporting it.

Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Isma’il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
Qur’an 2:125
Allah made the Ka’ba, the Sacred House, an asylum of security for men, as also the Sacred Months, the animals for offerings, and the garlands that mark them: That ye may know that Allah hath knowledge of what is in the heavens and on earth and that Allah is well acquainted with all things.
Qur’an 5:97
All Animals Live in Communities
Some animals such as the jaguar, leopard, and panda are well known for being solitary creatures, rarely meeting in pairs and only to mate. They do not live in communities and routinely fight each other over territory.

There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end.
Qur’an 6:38
Requirement to Learn in Arabic
There are over 5,000 languages and dialects in the world, with less than 4% of the world’s population being native Arabic speakers. However, it is incumbent upon Muslims to pray in Arabic, recite the Qur’an in Arabic, and understand commentaries and the traditions of Muhammad in Arabic. We are left wondering why an all-knowing being would not provide a more efficient way to send his message to all people on earth and why he does not account for the immense diversity of languages.

We have made it a Qur’an in Arabic, that ye may be able to understand (and learn wisdom).
Qur’an 43:3
Non-Muslims are Deaf, Dumb, and Blind
Main Article: Golden Age
The Qur’an calls non-believers “deaf dumb and blind”. However all the technology, medicine, and scientific advancements in the Muslim world are almost exclusively purchased from the non-Muslim countries. Computers, television, space travel, helicopters, media players, nuclear bombs, cameras, satellites, birth control pills, vaccinations, telephones, radios, light bulbs, microchips, games consoles, refrigerators, microwaves, plastic, aluminium, x-rays, antibiotics, heart-transplants, the internet etc., were all invented by non-Muslims.

Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will not return (to the path)
Qur’an 2:18
Myths and Legendary Tales[edit]
Humans Transformed into Apes[edit]
The Qur’an records a miraculous event where Sabbath breakers are transformed into apes. This account seems to be a mere legend and has no basis in scientific fact.

And well ye knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: We said to them: “Be ye apes, despised and rejected.”
Qur’an 2:65
Golden Calf Statue Moos
A statue of a calf was cast out of ornaments but it could moo.

So he brought forth for them a calf, a (mere) body, which had a mooing sound, so they said: This is your god and the god of Musa, but he forgot.
Qur’an 20:88
Tribe Trapped Behind a Wall
Main Article: Dhul-Qarnayn
The story of Dhul-Qarnayn says that a tribe is trapped behind a massive wall of Iron. According to the Qur’an, these two beast tribes concealed themselves behind this metal wall and will only be let free on the day of Judgement. Obviously, no such wall has ever been found nor is there a tribe somewhere on earth trapped behind it.

Until the Gog and Magog (people) are let through (their barrier), and they swiftly swarm from every hill.
Qur’an 21:96
Supernatural Food
Main Article: Parallelism Between the Qur’an and Judeo-Christian Scriptures
The Qur’an states Mary received food sent down from heaven. There have never been any scientifically verified accounts of fully cooked food falling from the sky.

Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Allah, Lord of us! Send down for us a table spread with food from heaven, that it may be a feast for us, for the first of us and for the last of us, and a sign from Thee. Give us sustenance, for Thou art the Best of Sustainers.
Qur’an 5:115
A Stick Transforms into a Serpent
Main Article: Parallelism Between the Qur’an and Judeo-Christian Scriptures
Then (Moses) threw his rod, and behold! it was a serpent, plain (for all to see)!
Qur’an 7:107
Solomon’s Army of Genies and Birds
Throughout history, kings and emperors had commanded huge and small amount of armies. None was ever recorded to possess armies that entirely consists of birds and genies. This story in the Qur’an draws on Jewish folklore.

And Solomon was David’s heir. He said: “O ye people! We have been taught the speech of birds, and on us has been bestowed (a little) of all things: this is indeed Grace manifest (from Allah.)And before Solomon were marshalled his hosts― of Jinns and men and birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks.
Qur’an 27:16-17
He spoke with a Hoopoe bird and wanted to punish it for a small error.

And he took a muster of the Birds; and he said: “Why is it I see not the Hoopoe? Or is he among the absentees? I will certainly punish him with a severe Penalty, or execute him, unless he bring me a clear reason (for absence).
Qur’an 27:20-22
The Hoopoe bird was in fact busy eavesdropping on a beautiful female ruler, Queen Sheba.

I found (there) a woman ruling over them and provided with every requisite; and she has a magnificent throne.
Qur’an 27:23
Jonah Performs Repentance inside a Fish
A human could not live inside a fish and pray.

Then the big Fish did swallow him, and he had done acts worthy of blame. Had it not been that he (repented and) glorified Allah,He would certainly have remained inside the Fish till the Day of Resurrection.But We cast him forth, on the naked shore in a state of sickness
Qur’an 37:142
Muhammad Flies on a Winged Horse to Heaven
Main Article: Buraq
It took one week to travel from Mecca to the Farthest Mosque by camel. But the Qur’an reveals that a magical winged horse, called the Buraq, traveled a similar distance in a matter of minutes. No such creature has ever been shown to be real and it seems to only exist in legend and mythology.

Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).
Qur’an 17:1
Body Parts Speak
The limbs and organs of a human are controlled by the brain that conveys electrical signal through the nervous system. But the Qur’an believes that the limbs can talk and testify against the person, even though they would have no voice, memory or mind of their own.

On the Day when their tongues, their hands, and their feet will bear witness against them as to their actions.
Qur’an 24:24
The Ocean Split in Half
Moses and the Israelites crossed an ocean that was split into two halves.

And remember We divided the sea for you and saved you and drowned Pharaoh’s people within your very sight.
Qur’an 2:50
Solomon can Control the Wind[edit]
King Solomon had the authority to manipulate the wind at his command and could fly anywhere he wanted.

Then We subjected the wind to his power, to flow gently to his order, Whithersoever he willed
Qur’an 38:36
A flying carpet made from wood, on top of which he could carry everything in his kingdom including chairs, to wherever Solomon wants to go, whilst flocks of birds would fly over to give shade
Ibn-Kathir
A Dead Man Testified against his Killer[edit]
Scientifically, a man who has died for a few days can never be resurrected.

And We said: Smite him with some of it. Thus Allah bringeth the dead to life and showeth you His portents so that ye may understand.
Qur’an 2:72
Animals Speak to Humans
The Qur’an states that a beast will come and tell humans the truth.

And when the Word is fulfilled against them (the unjust), we shall produce from the earth a beast to (face) them: He will speak to them, for that mankind did not believe with assurance in Our Signs.
Qur’an 27:82
Mountains and Birds can Sing Songs
And assuredly We gave David grace from Us, (saying): O ye hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise! And We made the iron supple unto him
Qur’an 34:10
Others
Linguistics
And He taught Adam the names – all of them. Then He showed them to the angels and said, “Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful.”
Qur’an 2:31
The Qu’ran states that the first humans “Adam and Eve” spoke to each other in some kind of advanced language in many suras, and also that God told them the names of everything. Thanks to the modern field of linguistics and the history of language we know that the type of sentences constructed in the Qu’ran would simply not have been able to be spoken by humans until over 100,000 years since the first humans evolved. The language of the first humans would be incomprehensible to us and they would not be able to express the kinds of sentences that Adam and Eve do in the Qu’ran.

Mathematical Error in Hereditary Laws
4.11: Allah (thus) directs you as regards your Children’s (Inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females: if only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is a half. For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to each, if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased Left brothers (or sisters) the mother has a sixth. (The distribution in all cases (‘s) after the payment of legacies and debts. Ye know not whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. These are settled portions ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Al-wise.

4.12: In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no child; but if they leave a child, ye get a fourth; after payment of legacies and debts. In what ye leave, their share is a fourth, if ye leave no child; but if ye leave a child, they get an eighth; after payment of legacies and debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question, has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies and debts; so that no loss is caused (to any one). Thus is it ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Most Forbearing.
Qur’an 4:11-12
Wife: 1/8 = 3/24,
Daughters: 2/3 = 16/24,
Father: 1/6 = 4/24,
Mother: 1/6 = 4/24,
Total = 27/24=1.125
The total does not equal to 1. This error can never be reconciled in any way. [7]

People use the Forehead to Lie
Main Article: Qur’an and the Lying Prefrontal Cerebrum
Brain wave technology has shown that electrical activity happens in the entire brain when a person is being deceitful.

Let him beware! If he desist not, We will drag him by the forelock. A lying, sinful forehead.
Qur’an 96:15-16
Sailing of Ships is a Miracle[edit]
Ships float due to buoyancy and they can be driven by various sources of power.

Seest thou not that the ships sail through the ocean by the Grace of Allah?- that He may show you of His signs? Verily in this are signs for all who constantly persevere and give thanks.
Qur’an 31:31
And among His Signs are the ships, smooth-running through the ocean, (tall) as mountains.
If it be His Will He can still the Wind: then would they become motionless on the back of the (ocean). Verily in this are Signs for everyone who patiently perseveres and is grateful.
Or He can cause them to perish because of the (evil) which (the men) have earned; but much doth He forgive.
Qur’an 42:32-34
Your Lord is He That maketh the Ship go smoothly for you through the sea, in order that ye may seek of his Bounty. For he is unto you most Merciful.
Qur’an 17:66
Space Flight is Impossible
The first space ships and travel beyond the atmosphere of earth occurred over 60 years ago. With current technology, humankind has already explored the end of the solar system. The Qur’an however, implies that going beyond the earth is forbidden.

O ye assembly of Jinns and men! If it be ye can pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, pass ye! not without authority shall ye be able to pass!
Qur’an 55:33 [5]

———————————————————————–

The Quraysh Bargain: The Satanic Verses

The following episode, for which Salman Rushdie received the death fatwa for writing about it, clearly confirms that ***the Prophet Muhammad was fully aware of the ideology of his Quraysh tribe of his ancestors, that Allah had three revered daughters, ‘Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.’ His concept of Islam evolved from the Quraysh ideologies.

The following is a precis

Ishaq:132-3 “Utba, who was a chief, said while sitting in a Quraysh assembly, ‘Why don’t I go to Muhammad and make some proposals to him? If he accepts, we will give him whatever he wants, and he will leave us in peace.’

The prophet, Muhammad,  was evidently intrigued, tantalised perhaps. They held the keys to the Ka’aba  and were offering him a founder’s share. This could be good… “‘What is it.’ he asked. *****They said, ‘If you will worship our gods, Al-Lat and Al-Uzza, for a year, we shall worship your god for a year.”  After all, Allah was their god. In fact, Allah was supposed to be the proud (father) of Al-Lat (the female form of Allah) and Al-Uzza.

And when he came to the words: ‘Have you thought about Al-Lat, Al-Uzza and Manat.’ Satan, when he was meditating upon it and desiring to bring reconciliation, cast on his tongue, because of his inner longings and what he desired, the words:

******”” ‘These are exalted high-flying cranes (goddesses). Verily their intercession is accepted with approval.” Simply stated, Muhammad said, “I accept the Quraysh Bargain.”But at what cost? The Qur’anic recitals had been filled with assertions that there were no intercessors. And four gods were at least three too many for a monotheistic religion. Muhammad had therefore abandoned the central plank of his mission: “There is no ilah but Allah.” Islam was no longer monotheistic. What’s more, the prophet’s grandiose and Messianic claim of being Allah’s intercessor was pummelled, stoned by a trio of rock idols. And that wasn’t the worst of it. Islam’s lone spokesperson had just aligned himself with Satan.””

It ends with this admission: “The Messenger said, ‘I have fabricated things against Allah and have imputed to Him words which He has not spoken.’”

The Quraysh Bargain and Satanic Verses conclude my case against the religion of Islam. [6]

The Uthman Quran

Bukhari: vol. 6, hadith 510, pp. 478-479; book 61

‘Uthman then sent a message to Hafsa saying,

“Send us the manuscripts (Abu Bakr’s compilation of the Quran) of the Quran so that we may compile the Qur’anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts of you.” Hafsa sent it to ‘Uthman.

They did so, and when they had written many copies, ‘Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. ‘Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and “ordered that all the other Qur’anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt.”

Most Muslims believe that the text in the Qur’an is identical to that Muhammad received from Allah and are the literal Words of Allah. That all those words have been carefully and faithfully memorised by Muslims over the ages and handed down from generation to generation. Some of these words of Allah were eventually inscribed on to bits of stone, bark, or animal hide. But these were, in the eyes of the followers of Islam, the literal words of Allah. So unless these other scripts were corrupted and so distorted and proven fake variants, they were still the literal word of Allah. So why was it necessary for Uthman to order the destruction (burn) all these other documents that were not proven to have been in variance with Islamic doctrine?  Did Uthman set himself up as judge  of the Word of Allah while he was undertaking the recension of the Qur’an, or was there a selfish personal or political motive in destroying all other versions.

Discuss: So there were other Koranic scripts that were destroyed because it did not conform to Uthman’s concept of Islam. So it can be concluded that the present Quran does not contain ALL the Literal Words of Allah but were abrogated/censored. There were other versions of the Quranic script that were destroyed. So the Quran is not the WHOLE of Allah’s Literal immutable words. Besides:

The Oldest Koran predates Prophet Muhammad

Fragments of the oldest Koran were discovered last month in Birmingham
Carbon dating found the pages were produced between 568AD and 654AD  (Dates for Muhammad are b:570 AD and d:632 AD.) 
But several historians now say that the parchment may predate Muhammad
They believe that this discovery could rewrite the early history of Islam
By Jennifer Newton for MailOnline

Published: 04:02, 31 August 2015 [7]

Discuss: From the discourse above doubts are being introduced that Muhammad was the sole recipient of the Word of Allah through the Angel Gabriel hence there are doubts of the authenticity of Muhammad’s claims of being the last prophet of Allah.
(23,648 words)
Discussions

The cultural environment  in Arabia at the time of Muhammad that influenced him were the pagan religion and customs of the Quraysh tribe to which Muhammad belonged, and the Jewish and Christian traditions. These were the factors that had an impact on Muhammad. It seemed that the Jewish and Christian ideologies had a great impact on Muhammad because they were vibrant and successful and he sought to emulate them and to incorporate its more progressive ideas into his tribal ideologies. But as it has been claimed that Muhammad was illiterate, he could only gain knowledge of Judaism and Christianity through hearsay. But he did learn well even if most of it was contorted and imprecise. With the encouragement of his wife, Khatija, he began, at the age of 40 years, to portray himself as a Prophet of Allah (god), preaching Allah’s teachings, which he had the audacity to abrogate time and again when he found that different narrative was required to justify his own actions. This action betrays that the words Muhammad were actually his own concoctions rather than that of the immutable literal word of Allah. [Or that Allah was constantly abrogating his own words because of errors in His own thoughts and pronouncements.]

***Studying the words of the Quran as well as the ritualism of Islam, we can see that Islam adopted most of the pagan concepts and practices of pagan Quraish Tribe, including the recognition and submission of Muhammad to the Daughters of Allah, i.e. the Satanic verses as well as all the pagan rituals practiced today in Mecca by Muslim pilgrims. Muhammad was but a human person with limited knowledge and wisdom, and bound by life-long family traditions and upbringing that he could not escape from. A true Allah would have been unique and much more omniscient of circumstances not to have fallen for the trap set my the Quaraysh regarding the Satanic verses. A true Allah too would have found ways of distancing Himself from the pagan rituals of the Quraysh tribe.

***Quranic Biblical plagiarism too is so numerous and obvious to show that Muhammad devoid of original ideas himself, but to compound the sin, most of his plagiarism was distorted and erroneous. Surely, a true Allah would never have expose his ignorance in such a blatant manner. Only a human, like Muhammad, could make such blunders of errors in science, and historical facts.

The Uthman Quran and the disposal of other unused Holy script show that a human tampered withs the written word of Allah and thus questions the authenticity of the originality of Allah’s words. Also the discovery of Koranic verses that pre-date Muhammad challenges the claim that it was Muhammad who received the Immutable Literal Word of Allah through the Angel Gabriel.

Taking all the facts mentioned above, ***it is impossible to accept that the story of Muhammad and of Allah has historicity or authentic. At best, we can accept that it is purely Islamic mythology, prepared for the consumption of the gullible.

(24,121 words 12.01.16)

References

[1] Pre-Islamic Arabia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad
[2] Arabia before Islam: https://mbplee.wordpress.com/2016/01/09/arabia-before-islam/
[3] Pagan Origins of Islam: https://mbplee.wordpress.com/2016/01/11/pagan-origins-of-islam/
[4] Plagiarism of the Bible: https://wikiislam.net/wiki/Muhammads_Plagiarism
[5] Scientific Errors in the Quran: https://wordpress.com/post/mbplee.wordpress.com/2728

[6] the Satanic Verses: https://mbplee.wordpress.com/2012/01/03/§4-the-quraysh-bargain-the-satanic-verses/

[7] Oldest Quran predates Mhammad:https://wordpress.com/post/mbplee.wordpress.com/2726

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